Information

Sea Gull II - History


Sea Gull II

(Sch: t. 110; cpl. 15; a. 2 guns)

Sea Gull was originally the New York pilot boat New Jersey employed on the Sandy Hook run. She was purchased by the Navy in July 1838 to be used by the Wilkes Exploring Expedition for survey work.

She was outfitted with a new mast and sails in three days and, under the command of Passed Midshipman James W. E. Reid, sailed for Hampton Roads to join the expedition as a tender. The squadron departed from Hampton Roads on 18 August 1838 and sailed for Madeira, arriving on 16 September. The ships left Madeira on 25 September, arriving at Porto Praya in the Cape Verde Islands on 7 October 1838. After surveying shoals reported in these areas, the expedition headed south and west for Rio de Janeiro, dropping anchor on 23 November 1838. The next few weeks were spent in preparing for the trip around Cape Horn. Leaving Rio de Janeiro on 6 January 1839, they rounded the Cape with no difficulty and arrived in Orange Harbor.

On 25 Sea Gull, February 1839, Wilkes, in company with began an exploration of Antarctica. Heavy weather was encountered almost at once, and Wilkes ordered Sea Gull to return to Orange Harbor to await the return of the remainder of the squadron.

Early in May, after several long delays, Sea Gull and Flying Fish set sail for Valparaiso, Chile. They encountered strong gales and heavy seas and lost contact with each other on 8 May. Flying Fish arrived at Valparaiso alone on 19 May 1839. It is assumed that Sea Gull foundered, taking her entire ship's company of 15 officers and men with her.


Salisbury University

Salisbury University is a public university in Salisbury on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, US. Founded in 1925, Salisbury is a member of the University System of Maryland, with a Fall 2016 enrollment of 8,748.

Salisbury University offers 42 distinct undergraduate and 14 graduate degree programs across six academic units: the Fulton School of Liberal Arts, Perdue School of Business, Henson School of Science and Technology, Seidel School of Education and Professional Studies, College of Health and Human Services, and SU Honors College. The Salisbury Sea Gulls compete in Division III athletics in the Capital Athletic Conference, while the football team competes in the New Jersey Athletic Conference.


Give Me Liberty! An American History (Seagull 5th Edition) Vol. 2 – eBook

Dr. Eric Foner is the preeminent historian of his generation, highly respected by historians of every stripe ― whether they specialize in social history or political history. Foner's books have won the top awards in the profession, and he has been president of both major history organizations: the Organization of American Historians and the American Historical Association. He has worked on every detail of Give Me Liberty!, which displays all of his trademark strengths as a teacher, scholar, and writer. A specialist on the Civil War / Reconstruction period, he regularly teaches the 19th-century survey at Columbia University, where he is DeWitt Clinton Professor of History. In 2011, Eric Foner's The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery won the Pulitzer Prize in History, the Bancroft Prize, and the Lincoln Prize.

Give Me Liberty! An American History (Seagull Fifth Edition) by Dr. Eric Foner is the #1 book in the U.S. history survey course because it works in the classroom. A single-author text by a leader in the field, Give Me Liberty! delivers a concise, authoritative, accessible, and integrated American history. Updated with powerful new scholarship on borderlands and the West, the Seagull Fifth edition brings new interactive History Skills Tutorials and Norton InQuizitive for History, the award-winning adaptive quizzing tool. The best-selling Seagull Edition is also available in full color for the first time.

This (PDF) eBook Is Volume 2 – The previous volume (Volume 1) is also available on our site for a discounted price. A newer edition is also available, see related ebooks below

NOTE: This sale only includes Give Me Liberty! An American History Volume 2, Seagull 5th edition in PDF. No access codes included.


Mockingbird

In 1976, Mr. Neal Moser named the Mockingbird, which was designed by a gentleman named Johnny GoGo who worked at Whittier Plaza Music in Whittier California . The first Mockingbird was short scale bass guitar. The price was same as Eagle in Japan. Also the There were Supreme. As the variation, there are some short horn models around from '76 to early '80's.

In 1977, Bich was designed by Mr. Neal Moser. Bich was the pioneer of 10 strings guitar. The prototype #1 has a maple neck painted dark maroon and the sides are Black Walnut. The serial # is 9-77 (September 1977). They were introduced at the 1978 Winter NAMM.. There was a Bich in 78 catalog first. So, I say Bich was born in 1978 at this web site. The price was about US$6000 in Japan. Below photo was All Koa wood (No stripe)This is very rare model. 5 years ago, the same type of Bich was sold as US$8000!! ( Not this guitar.)


Historic Harbor Tour and Dolphin Watch

See Galveston Harbor up close aboard Seagull II on the Historic Harbor Tour and Dolphin Watch, Galveston Historic Seaport’s 50-foot twin-engine motor vessel. Fast, stable, and sheltered, she was built specifically for harbor sight-seeing excursions and education and is a perfect platform for waterborne experiential learning. The boat is U.S. Coast Guard certified and her operators are fully licensed and knowledgeable about the history and lore of her home waters. Seagull II offers soft drinks and bottled water for sale and has a comfortable main deck, sheltered from sun and rain. An open upper deck affords a full panorama of water and sky.

WEATHER POLICY | Seagull II and the Historic Harbor Tour and Dolphin Watch will not operate during lightning, thunderstorms or sustained winds of 25 knots or higher or if The National Weather Service has issued a Small craft advisory. All other situations, such as rain, waves, vessel condition, and extraordinary circumstances, are at the captain’s discretion. Seagull 2 will operate in a limited capacity in reduced visibility scenarios. At <1nm of visibility tours will be restricted by the Captain’s discretion, at <1/2 Nautical mile of visibility tours will be postponed or canceled. If the Galveston or Houston channel is closed or restricted by the USCG or Port of Galveston Seagull 2 will follow all directions as broadcasted which could include postponing or canceling tours.

PLEASE NOTE | Seagull II will not be operating on November 2,-4, Christmas Eve, Christmas Day and New Year’s Day. We will also close at 3 p.m. on New Year’s Eve.

PRIVATE CHARTERS | Seagull II makes an excellent and unusual venue for birthday parties, office get-togethers, receptions, convention features, and more. The ever-changing scenery of the busy harbor, the excitement of a dolphin sighting, a restful sunset over an island occupied only by birds, combine to make your event one to remember. For reservation information, call us at 409-765-3432.

FIELD TRIPS & SCHOOL GROUPS | See the imprint of events and eras in Galveston’s nearly two centuries of history on a shifting shoreline. From the restored 1877 sailing vessel Elissa to the grounded ferroconcrete vessel Selma to the sites of the Civil War Battle of Galveston, history is visible on Galveston Bay. Social Studies take on new life as students explore the first and oldest seaport in Texas, still busy and evolving. Contact us at 409-763-1877 for booking.


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How the B-25 Became the Ultimate Strafer of World War II

Running a gantlet of flak and enemy fighters on September 2, 1943, North American B-25Ds of the 405th Bomb Squadron employ tactics devised by Major Paul “Pappy” Gunn in an attack on Japanese transports in New Guinea’s Wewak Harbor.

Armed to the teeth with machine guns and a 75mm cannon, B-25s played a key role in World War II as low-level bombers and strafers.

The North American B-25 Mitchell was present for the overture of the Pacific War and was still onstage as the curtain fell on the final act. On April 18, 1942, 16 B-25Bs flew one of the first American offensive missions of the war—the famous “Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo” Doolittle Raid. On August 19, 1945, four B-25J gunships escorted a surrender-negotiation delegation aboard two Mitsubishi Betty bombers from Japan partway to Manila and back.

Among American aircraft, only the Boeing B-17 had a longer combat career. The Fortress began flying raids for the Royal Air Force in July 1941, and a dozen unarmed B-17s were in the air during the Pearl Harbor attack five months later.

The B-25 finished World War II virtually unchanged from the form in which it had been born. From the A model to the J, the airframe remained unstretched, the flying and control surfaces were constant and the engines were unchanged other than detail mods—different exhaust systems, carburetors and the like. The single biggest difference as the Mitchell aged and improved was its ordnance—guns that grew and proliferated in a manner that totally changed the airplane’s mission. By the end of the war, the B-25 was the most heavily armed aircraft in the U.S. Army Air Forces’ inventory. A single 12-airplane squadron of B-25s carried more .50-caliber machine guns than four infantry regiments.


North American Aviation’s original prototype, the NA-40 featured a dihedral wing design that was discarded early in the B-25’s development. (National Archives)

The B-25 was intended to be a medium bomber, delivering substantial bombloads more economically, more rapidly and more accurately, from moderate altitudes, than the high-altitude heavyweight B-17s and B-24s. But it found its true calling as a low-level attack bomber and strafer.

Economy had a lot to do with the B-25’s success. It was substantially cheaper to manufacture than either of its rivals—the more innovative Martin B-26 Marauder and the Douglas A-20 Havoc. It took 25 percent fewer man-hours to build a B-25 than to produce a B-26. Thanks largely to the stewardship of company president James “Dutch” Kindelberger, North American Aviation was the best-organized, most efficient airframer in the industry, able to simultaneously produce in huge numbers three of the most important aircraft of WWII: the AT-6 Texan, P-51 Mustang and B-25.

Kindelberger was a production guy. He emphasized the use of major subassemblies and of subcomponents that could easily be combined into larger components, rather than hand-fabricating an entire aircraft. His engineers, including Edgar Schmued of P-51 fame, concentrated on designing with the manufacturing process in mind.

Throughout the process of prototyping and producing what became the B-25, North Ameri­can’s proposals were also carefully conservative. While many other manufacturers were drawn to the hot new Pratt & Whitney R-2800 engine, the Army Air Corps required that North Ameri­can stay with the well-developed though less powerful Wright R-2600 Twin Cyclone. The War Depart­ment wanted a medium bomber that could be put into production quickly, not a couple of prototypes that would spend a year dealing with unproven-engine problems.


Workers build B-25s at North American Aviation’s Kansas City plant in October 1942. (Library of Congress)

NAA had planned to use Pratt R-1830s—DC-3 engines, basically—and one of the key elements in the B-25’s success was the move to the more powerful and modern R-2600. This was a result of the war that had already begun in Europe, where reports from the front caused the Air Corps to upgrade the requirements for its new “attack bomber” by 100 mph (to a top speed of 350) and its operating altitude from 5,000 feet to 20,000. In fact, the first major production model, the B-25A, added armor plating for the crew and self-sealing fuel tanks, both because of lessons learned in early combat over Britain and the Continent.

For the same reason, the B-25B got heavier defensive armament, replacing some of the airplane’s .30-caliber guns with .50s and adding a powered dorsal turret as well as a useless, remotely aimed and fired retractable ventral gun package. (It was soon removed.)

The B-25’s gestation began with the 1936 XB-21 Dragon, a sow-bellied taildragger with single vertical tail. North American had a thing for the Dragon name, which they would much later apply to the stillborn B-25 replacement, the B-28. NAA built only one XB-21 and decided it was a dumb idea—an archaic airframe paired with obsolete Pratt & Whitney R-2180-A transport engines.

In 1938 North American got an order from the RAF for 400 AT-6 trainers (the British renamed them Harvards), giving NAA the money and breathing room to get serious about its medium bomber proposal. The result was the NA-40 and then the NA-62, the granddaddy and daddy, respectively, of the B-25. Both were tri-gear and twin-tailed. It’s not clear why North American decided to use an archaic twin tail on the B-25, but one supposition is that it gave the top-turret gunner a clear field of fire directly aft.

One of the major aerodynamic advances North American made with the B-25 was to mount the engine nacelles entirely under the wings rather than clamping them onto the leading edge, DC-3-fashion. This allowed the entire unobstructed upper surface of the wing to do useful work.

But that wing also did something less welcome: The first test flights revealed that in combination with the minimal sail area of the two vertical stabilizers, the wing’s dihedral created a drunken, unstable wallow called Dutch roll, particularly when the Norden bombsight was trying to control the autopilot. Not a useful quality for a bomber that needed straight-and-level flight to put its bombs anywhere near a target.

North American quickly came up with an economical solution that ultimately gave the Mitchell its unusual broken-wing look. Without having to do any reengineering of the wing center section, main landing gear or engine nacelles, NAA simply relocated the wings outboard of the nacelles to a very slightly anhedral position—just over a third of a degree down—while retaining the original four-degree dihedral of the inboard wing panels. Call it a gull wing or a broken-dihedral wing, it remained constant throughout the airplane’s long career.

Unlike Martin’s B-26, which got a reputation for being hard to handle due to its high wing loading, the B-25 went to war with thousands of newly minted pilots flying it with no problem. Latter-day B-25 pilot Jim Harley knows why. With more than 600 hours in the Collings Foundation’s Tondelayo, he found the airplane “rock-stable…painfully easy on takeoff…and one of the most stable platforms in the landing configuration of any airplane I’ve ever flown, other than maybe the Mustang.

“Single-engine control speed was probably the biggest thing to be concerned about. It was around 145 mph, and you lifted off at 90 to 100. Get it off the ground, get the gear coming up, level the airplane over the runway and let it accelerate to 145. Then you can go right into the climb. Takes 20, 30 seconds. It accelerates really fast.” Single-engine control speed (Vmc) is the airspeed needed for the rudders and ailerons to be effective enough to overcome the asymmetric thrust created by a dead engine. Below Vmc and with full power on the remaining engine, a twin-engine airplane will uncontrollably roll inverted and crash.

“The hardest part of teaching somebody to fly a B-25 is teaching them how to taxi, since the nosewheel doesn’t steer but casters free,” Harley says. “If you don’t have a feather touch on the brakes, the airplane jerks all over the place. The brakes will heat up pretty fast and they’ll fade, and then you don’t have any brakes at all. If you cock the nosewheel on the runup pad and let the airplane creep, it’ll turn sideways. Then you have to shut down and get out the towbar.”

Harley says the Mitchell’s prime strength is “its maneuverability for its size. I always likened it to a twin-engine Mustang. The one airplane I’d have liked to take into combat was the B-25. It’s not at all cumbersome—it’s a wonderful, rock-stable platform for combat.”

Much is made of the Doolittle Raiders’ gamble in taking off from a carrier deck, but the B-25’s short-field performance was actually so good that with the carrier Hornet’s steaming speed plus the wind over the deck, liftoff wasn’t a problem. One Doolittle crew forgot to set takeoff flaps, so their departure was a bit shaky, and of course Vmc was but a distant goal for the departing bombers, so an engine failure would have meant ditching straight ahead at best.


On April 18, 1942, Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle pilots the first of 16 B-25Bs off the deck of the aircraft carrier Hornet to strike at the Japanese heartland. The carrier’s skipper, Captain Marc A. Mitscher, is observing from the bridge. (National Archives)

Harley admits that the B-25’s Wright engines might not have been as desirable as their Pratt & Whitney counterparts. “We were concerned about the engines when the Collings Foundation took the B-25 on the road. They do have a reputation for being fragile….But remember, these were 50-hour engines. That’s as long as they needed to last. If it went bad, just give me another one.”

In the Mediterranean and European theaters, B-25s largely operated as strategic level bombers, missions memorialized in Joseph Heller’s novel Catch-22, a result of the novelist’s own service as a bombardier with the Corsica-based 340th Bomb Group. In the Pacific, however, B-25s found their forte and had an immense impact on aerial tactics and attack methodology.

This happened thanks to the man who ran the Southwest Pacific Fifth Air Force, Lt. Gen. George C. Kenney. He was “born 300 years too late, a natural-born pirate,” said his boss, Douglas MacArthur. Kenney, a talented pilot himself, scored two air-to-air victories during World War I and never saw a gun he didn’t love. What particularly fascinated him were the possibilities offered by combining them with aircraft. The more the merrier seemed to be his operating principle.

The B-25 originally had a cumbersome and ineffective suite of defensive armament, including a peashooter .30-caliber nose gun. The Mitchell also carried a waist gunner who alternated between two .30s, plus a power dorsal turret and a ventral gun tray that took almost a minute to extend. Once it was finally in place, the gunner often found himself nauseated by trying to look through the periscopic sight. The waist guns posed as much of a danger to the B-25’s vertical tails and engine nacelles as they did to enemy fighters. The tail gunner manned the most useful position of all—the B-25 was one of the first bombers to have a tail gun.

The Fifth Air Force had already begun up-arming A-20 Havocs with fixed nose guns in the fall of 1942 when longer-range, more capable B-25s began arriving in the Southwest Pacific. Kenney’s aptly named pal Paul Gunn, who would forever be known as Pappy, did the engineering and fabricating to turn his airplanes into what they called “commerce destroyers”—anti-shipping strafers. Ini­tially, Gunn used .50-caliber Brownings stripped from wrecked fighters to crank up the volume on Kenney’s A-20s.


The freewheeling Paul “Pappy” Gunn—shown here in a B-25 called Out of Stock because Gunn used it to scour Australian bases for aircraft parts that were often “out of stock”—was a master at getting what he needed, and making it work. (Courtesy of Nathaniel Gunn)

Gunn deserved his nickname, unlike the 29-year-olds who only seemed like old men to teenage crewmen. Pappy, in his mid-40s, had already finished a 21-year career as an NCO naval aviator when the Air Corps persuaded him to re-up with a captain’s commission. He was a junkyard genius who could fix, rig, fabricate or negotiate the solution to any mechanical problem, and he ultimately equipped Kenney’s B-25s with as many as eight fixed .50s in a hard nose, plus four more in external “cheek” pods affixed to the fuselage slightly behind and below the cockpit on each side. Add in the top turret rotated to fire straight ahead and you had a battery of 14 .50-caliber machine guns with a total throw weight of about 215 pounds per second. One version of the late-model B-25J had 18 forward-firing machine guns.

One of the earliest uses of the Gunn strafers was in the March 1943 Battle of the Bismarck Sea. It was a serious defeat for the Japanese, who were trying to resupply their garrisons on New Guinea. The B-25s not only strafed but used to good effect two tactics developed with the help of the RAF and Royal Australian Air Force: skip bombing and mast-height bombing. Twelve of Gunn’s B-25 strafers from the 3rd Bomb Group skip-bombed and sank four cargo vessels and two destroyers in the first 15 minutes of their first combat mission. Low-level specialists, 3rd Group pilots claimed that if they came across a cow during a mission, they simply flew around it.

Skip bombing sometimes wasn’t true to its name, which implied a bomb rocketing toward a ship like a flat stone flung across a pond. Often skip bombing meant literally throwing a bomb against a hull, and the B-25’s speed made it particularly effective at this. Skip bombing had first been tried with B-17s, but they weren’t fast enough to get the job done.


The 75mm cannon installed in the nose of B-25Gs and Hs proved to be more trouble than it was worth. The added forward firing .50-caliber machine guns, however, were another matter. (Library of Congress)

Strafing Japanese airfields was a primary B-25 mission. Blowing up enemy fighters and bombers in their revetments would never make anybody an ace, but destroying airplanes on the ground was just as useful as shooting them down. B-25 strafers in the European theater even used special “jet ammunition,” developed to ignite the fuel in Messerschmitt Me-262s and other jets. They destroyed a large number of the parked German jets during April 1945 alone.

Though many ground targets were hard for B-25 strafers to find under their camouflage, bridges were an exception. One Mitchell unit operating in Burma, the 409th Bomb Squadron, became so good at destroying bridges that it named itself the Dental Clinic…for its bridgework.

Unfortunately, Gunn’s most famous gun installation—the 75mm short-barrel tank cannon he mounted in the belly of a number of B-25Gs—was his least successful. Intended to sink destroyer-size ships and troop-transport barges with one or two rounds, it was briefly productive as a maritime marauder and became standard on the B-25H. But by early 1944, floating targets were increasingly scarce, and soon the big cannon was being stripped out of Mitchells by units that found it hard to operate, punishing to airframes and unpleasant to use. It popped rivets, filled cockpits with smoke and cordite and assaulted crewmen’s ears.

Some B-25s went to the U.S. Navy, which had done little to create its own attack bomber. The Navy had planned to use heavily armed Boeing PBB Sea Ranger flying boats as its anti-sub and long-range patrol aircraft, but the Sea Ranger was canceled when it became obvious that the Army and Marines would be taking Pacific islands that could serve as bases for more-efficient landplanes.

The USAAF was loath to provide the 900 B-25s that the Navy brashly demanded, but eventually 706 slightly navalized versions, designated PBJs, wound up being flown mostly by the Marine Corps. Crews had to be rapidly trained, since the Marines had no experience with anything but single-seat aircraft. PBJs came in as wide a variety of configurations as did the AAF’s B-25s, including some with the 75mm cannon. Even the Coast Guard operated a few PBJs, making the B-25 one of the few fixed-wing aircraft ever to be flown by all four services.

In February 1942 North American began test-flying its intended B-25 successor, the B-28 Dragon, a single-tail, pressurized medium bomber with R-2800 engines, capable of 372 mph at 35,000 feet. It had three remotely controlled Sperry twin-.50 turrets—dorsal, ventral and tail—and with its cigar-shaped fuselage and long nose looked much like a B-26 Marauder. Only two prototypes were built, and one lost its vertical tail while running high-speed stability tests. In a vote of confidence for the Mitchell, the AAF decided to end the program, since the B-25 was doing so well they didn’t see the need for any major improvement.

Instead, in 1944 the AAF asked North Ameri­can to add R-2800s and other upgrades to the B-25 to create a super-strafer rivaling the more expensive 14-gun Douglas A-26 Invader. It was given the company designation NA-98X and was not a success. Overweight and with little performance improvement to show for the more powerful engines, the lone prototype crashed in April 1944 when a hotshot test pilot pulled the wings off during a showoff low pass and hard pullup. The AAF terminated development of what might have been the ultimate B-25.

Though it started life as a mid-altitude level bomber, the B-25 became the most formidable low-level attack aircraft of World War II. And it retained its bombing capability: Beat to death the ground gunners by strafing, then drop the bombs on the way out, whether attacking ships, bridges or airfields. The Mitchell was the most heavily armed strafer of the war, and it was built in far greater numbers than any of its competitors.

Easy to fly, hard to knock down, the B-25 never gained the B-17’s iconic status, but it was in some ways the A-10 of its day: never fully appreciated yet always ready to do what no other bomber could.

Contributing editor Stephan Wilkinson suggests for further reading: North American B-25 Mitchell: The Ultimate Look, by William Wolf The Saga of Pappy Gunn, by George C. Kenney Air Apaches, by Jay A. Stout and North American B-25 Mitchell, by Frederick A. Johnsen.

This feature appeared in the May 2020 issue of Aviation History. To subscribe click here!


Sea Gull II - History

Sea Shepherd was founded in 1977 by Captain Paul Watson in Vancouver, Canada, with the mission to protect and conserve all marine wildlife. Incorporated in Oregon in 1981 as the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, today the movement has independent entities in over 20 countries working together on direct-action campaigns around the world. In 2013 Sea Shepherd Global was established in Amsterdam to coordinate communications and logistics for the Sea Shepherd fleet on campaigns outside the United States.

Sea Shepherd partners with Namibia to Combat Fisheries Crime

Operation Vanguard launches in Namibia with Namibian Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources (MFMR) compliance officials onboard the Ocean Warrior to stop illegal factory trawlers on the Skeleton Coast.

Patrolling the Mediterranean for Operation Siso

Sea Shepherd returns to the Mediterranean Sea with the M/Y Sam Simon to protect Italian waters from illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing. Working in partnership with Italian authorities, this campaign known as Operation Siso focuses on the use of illegal drift nets and other deadly fishing gear around the Aeolian Islands in the South Tyrrhenian Sea, part of the Mediterranean Sea off the west coast of Italy.

Sea Shepherd returns to patrol Africa’s largest Marine Protected Area

Operation Albacore launches its fourth campaign to defend Gabon’s newly established marine protected areas, to detect and deter IUU fishing activity while also monitoring legal compliance by licensed fishing operators, and to expand existing monitoring, control and surveillance measures.

News Sea Shepherd launches Operation Guegou with Eco-Benin and the Government of Benin

Sea Shepherd launches its partnership with the Benin government to tackle illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in the Gulf of Guinea, with Sea Shepherd crew and local nongovernmental organization (NGO) Eco-Benin working together with law enforcement agents representing the State Action on the Sea, the Navy of Benin and the Ministry of Fisheries on board the Sea Shepherd vessel Bob Barker.

Sixth Campaign for Operation Siracusa on the Italian Coast

Sea Shepherd voluteers return for the sixth year to protect the Plemmirio Marine Protected Area in Syracuse, Italy in partnership with the Italian Coast Guard.

Sea Shepherd helps clear four tons of marine debris on remote turtle nesting site

With the M/Y Bob Barker and the Jairo Mora Sandoval, Sea Shepherd and Cabo Verdean organization Biosfera partnered to clear four tons of plastic waste from a remote island in the West African island country of Cabo Verde that is also one of the world’s largest nesting areas for the vulnerable loggerhead sea turtle.

Sea Shepherd's M/Y Sam Simon arrives in France for Operation Dolphin ByCatch

Sea Shepherd’s campaign off the Atlantic Coast of France exposes the ongoing slaughter of dolphins by industrial fishing vessels in the Bay of Biscay. The ship joins Sea Shepherd's small boats, which had been patrolling the coast since February 11th under the direction of Sea Shepherd France.

Japan announces the end of whaling in the Southern Ocean

On December 26th, 2018, the Japanese government announced that it will leave the IWC and that they will cease all whalign activities in Antarctica, a massive victory for the conservation movement that has been overshadowed in the media by the news that Japan will also “return” to commercial whaling in the waters surrounding Japan.

Sea Shepherd retires its flagship the Steve Irwin

After a decade of campaigns defending marine wildlife, from the Southern Ocean to the Faroe Islands, Sea Shepherd's flagship M/Y Steve Irwin was retired in Melbourne, Australia.

Sea Shepherd renews partnership with Liberia for Operation Sola Stella 3

In a joint operation with the Liberian Ministry of National Defense to tackle illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in the Republic of Liberia, West Africa, Sea Shepherd assisted the Liberian Coast Guard in the arrest of a foreign-flagged industrial trawler caught plundering artisanal fishing waters.

27 Members of Parliament Back Legal Action Against Denmark

With the formal support of 27 Members of the European Parliament, Sea Shepherd Netherlands submits a request to the European Commission to launch infringement proceedings against Denmark for facilitating the slaughter of pilot whales and other cetaceans in the Faroe Islands.

Shark Finning Investigation Revealed

Sea Shepherd Global releases findings of a three-month investigation verifying that large shipments of shark fin are still arriving in Hong Kong on airlines and shipping lines that have made ‘No Shark Fin’ carriage ban commitments.

Tackling IUU Fishing in Liberia

Sea Shepherd launches Operation Sola Stella in cooperation with the Liberian Ministry of National Defense to patrol Liberia’s waters to tackle illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing.

40 Years of Direct Action

Sea Shepherd celebrates its 40 th anniversary with events at locations around the world including Los Angeles, Sydney, London, Paris, and Berlin.

11th Antarctic Anti-Whaling Campaign Begins

Operation Nemesis, Sea Shepherd’s 11 th Whale Defense Campaign in the Southern Ocean is launched.

Great Australian Bight Saved From Oil Rig

Sea Shepherd Australia’s campaign Operation Jeedara is instrumental to stopping BP from drilling in the Great Australian Bight as part of the Great Australian Bight Alliance, a coalition of local environmental groups.

Custom-Built Ocean Warrior Revealed

Sea Shepherd Global launches the custom-built high-speed patrol vessel Ocean Warrior, a Dream Funds Project awarded by the Dutch Postcode Lottery.

Third Mediterranean Illegal Fishing Campaign Begins

Sea Shepherd Global announces the launch of Operation Siracusa 2016 the third consecutive campaign to tackle poaching and illegal fishing in the Plemmirio Marine Reserve on the east coast of Syracuse, Italy.

Operation Bloody Fjords Launched

Operation Bloody Fjords is launched, focusing on judicial, economic and media pressure to bring an end to the pilot whale hunts of the Faroe Islands.

Operation Jeedara Launched

As part of The Great Australian Bight Alliance, Sea Shepherd Australia launches Operation Jeedara, in order to highlight the importance of the Great Australian Bight and rally community pressure to oppose BP’s deep water drilling plans.

Operation Albacore Commences in Gabon

Launch of Operation Albacore, in partnership with the governments of Gabon and Sao Tomé & Principe to patrol both countries' Exclusive Economic Zones for IUU fishing.

Operation Driftnet Shuts Down Fleet of Driftnet Poachers

Operation Driftnet launched succeeds in shutting down entire fleet of illegal driftnet poachers.

Sea Shepherd Dive Launched

Sea Shepherd Global launches a new initiative, Sea Shepherd Dive, to provide a “support and report” network to enable the dive community to report environmental crimes that they witness while diving, anywhere around the world.

Operation Icefish II Commences

Operation Icefish II commences, with the Steve Irwin departing Williamstown, Australia to shut down the remainder of the ‘Bandit 6” poaching fleet. It succeeds, culminating with the Indonesian government scuttling the Viking.

Australian Federal Court Fines Japanese Whalers $1m

Using evidence provided by Captain Peter Hammarstedt in a contempt case against Japanese whaling company, Kyodo Senpaku Kaisha Ltd (Kyodo), the Australian Federal Court issues a $1 million fine to the whalers (to this date it remains unpaid).

Sea Shepherd USA announces Operation Milagro II

Sea Shepherd USA announces Operation Milagro II to defend the critically-endangered vaquita porpoise in the Sea of Cortez (Mexico)

Operation Mare Nostrum Launched

Sea Shepherd France launches Operation Mare Nostrum to clean up ocean plastics and remove dangerous ghost nets from the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of France, Italy and Spain.

Documenting Endangered Fin Whale Meat in Norway

The Sam Simon stops in the northern port of Tromsø, Norway to document a shipment of endangered Fin whale meat being shipped to Japan. The Norwegian navy board to inspect the Sam Simon then allow it to leave.

IWC Rejects Whaling Program

The Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) rejected Japan’s proposed NEWREP-A whaling program, demanding more information to clarify uncertainties about the program’s scientific objectives.

Sea Shepherd USA Acquires Two New Ships

Sea Shepherd USA acquires two decommissioned US Coast Guard Patrol Ships, naming them the Farley Mowat and the Jules Verne.

Second Operation Siracusa Campaign Launched in Italy

Following on from the incredibly successful 2014 campaign, Sea Shepherd Global launches Operation Siracusa 2015. Led by Sea Shepherd Italia, the campaign aims to defend the fragile ecosystem of the Plemmirio Marine Reserve, off the eastern coast of Siracusa in Sicily, against illegal fishing.

Operation Sleppid Grindini Kicks Off in the Faroes

Operation Sleppid Grindini sees Martin Sheen, Ross McCall, Pamela Anderson and German actress Anne Menden support Sea Shepherd’s campaign and calls for Faroe Islands to end the whale hunt.

Belgium Bans Gill Nets

Operation Mailles Fatales, or Warrelniet (Fatal Nets), supported by Sea Shepherd Belgium as well as with Natuurpunt, Sea First Belgium and BlueShark, succeeds in convincing the Belgian government to enact laws (in line with all EU countries) banning “recreational fishing” with gill nets on Flemish beaches.

Operation Milagro Launched to Protect the Vaquita

Sea Shepherd USA launches Operation Milagro to defend the critically-endangered vaquita porpoise in the Sea of Cortez (Mexico)

Operation Saimaa Seal Launched in Finland

Operation Saimaa Seal is launched to protect the world's most endangered seal and one of the most endangered mammals in the world, the Saimaa ringed seal of Lake Saimaa, Finland. They succeed in removing 10 illegal nets and almost 200 illegal fishing traps. No seals were killed during the 6-month campaign.

UK Supreme Court Win

UK Supreme Court rules in favor of Sea Shepherd UK in a lawsuit brought by Fish & Fish Limited against Sea Shepherd for cutting nets to free endangered bluefin tuna in Liberia in Operation Blue Rage in 2010.

Dutch Postcode Lottery Awards €8.3m for Custom Ship

Sea Shepherd Global is awarded €8.3 million Euros from the Dutch Postcode Lottery to build a Southern Ocean Patrol Ship to protect the Antarctic whale sanctuary.

Record-Breaking Operation Icefish Commences

Operation Icefish is launched with the Sam Simon and Bob Barker, to shut down IUU fishing by the “Bandit 6” in the Southern Ocean, and embark on the longest chase in maritime history of 110 days following the Thunder.

Headquarters Open in Amsterdam

Opening of Sea Shepherd Global Headquarters and Shop in Amsterdam on October 17 th .

Operation Pacuare Launched in Costa Rica

Sea Shepherd Costa Rica and Latin American Sea Turtles (LAST) Association launched Operation Pacuare, an anti-poaching campaign to protect sea turtles on Pacuare Beach in Costa Rica’s Limón province.

Pamela Anderson and Ross McCall Join Sea Shepherd in the Faroes

In the Faroe Islands, Operation Grindstop commences with Pamela Anderson and Ross McCall coming to the Faroes to lend support to the campaign. Volunteers are arrested when attempting to interfere with the Grind, and several small boats are seized.

Operation Siracusa launched in Italy

Sea Shepherd Italia launches the first Operation Siracusa to protect sea urchins and the endangered dusky grouper from poachers in the Protected Marine Area of the Parco del Plemmirio, off the Eastern coast of Syracuse, Sicily.

Operation Sturmmöwe Begins in Germany

Sea Shepherd Germany’s Operation Sturmmöwe (Operation Common Gull) is launched, aiming to protect common gull colonies from looting, particularly during nesting season.

Court Win for the Whales at the ICJ

The International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague announce their binding decision in the landmark case of Australia v. Japan, ruling that Japan’s JARPA II whaling program in the Antarctic is not for scientific purposes and ordering that all permits given under JARPA II be revoked.

Operation Relentless Concludes

Operation Relentless concludes, with Sea Shepherd locating the Nisshin Maru on a record four separate occasions. The whaling fleet’s operations were hampered by Sea Shepherd’s continual pursuit, which included twice exposing the whalers in the process of butchering protected Minke Whales, poached from the waters of the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary.

Jairo Mora Sandoval Unveiled for Operation Sunu Gaal

Sea Shepherd Global unveils the new vessel Jairo Mora Sandoval and launches Operation Sunu Gaal to patrol Senegal’s Exclusive Economic Zone for illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing.

Ships Depart for Tenth Antarctic Defence Campaign

The Steve Irwin, Sam Simon and Bob Barker depart Australia for Sea Shepherd’s tenth Antarctic Defence Campaign, Operation Relentless.

Operation Grindstop Launched

In response to the slaughter of over 1,600 pilot whales in just 63 day in the Faroe Islands, Sea Shepherd announces Operation Grindstop 2014.

Sea Shepherd Global Established in The Netherlands

Based in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sea Shepherd Global is established naming Captain Alex Cornelissen as CEO.

Researching Gulf Spill

Ocean Alliance and Sea Shepherd join forces for Operation Toxic Gulf aboard the research vessel Odyssey, to collect scientific data regarding BP’s catastrophic oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

Double Court Win for Sea Shepherd France

Two court wins are awarded in France: Four Spanish poachers are ordered to pay Sea Shepherd France €5,000 each after being found guilty of poaching Gooseneck barnacles in French territorial waters. In partnership with l’Aspas and Longitude 181, Sea Shepherd also wins a court case against the mayor of La Reunion Island to revoke a bylaw which used taxpayer money to encourage the killing of sharks in a National Marine Reserve.

Reef Defense in Hawaii

Sea Shepherd launches Operation Reef Defense campaign in Hawaii.

Tenth Antarctic Whale Defense Campaign Announced

Sea Shepherd Australia announces Operation Relentless, the tenth Antarctic anti-whaling campaign, to take place in the Austral 2013-2014 summer.

James Price Point Saved From Drilling

After enormous public pressure and the work of Environs Kimberley, Save the Kimberley, the Wilderness Society, and Sea Shepherd Australia’s Operation Kimberley Miinimbi, Woodside Petroleum scraps plans for its controversial $45 billion Browse joint-venture at James Price Point, Australia.

Biggest Antarctic Whale Defense Success Ever

Operation Zero Tolerance comes to a close as the most successful campaign to date, with the Japanese whalers returning home with the lowest kill ever.

Supreme Court Application Against ICR

Sea Shepherd USA files application to the Supreme Court against the Institute of Cetacean Research (ICR). The application is in response to the 9 th District injunction which preliminarily enjoins Sea Shepherd U.S. from navigating “dangerously” and “physically attacking” or coming within 500 yards of ICR’s whaling vessels.

Bob Barker Rammed by Nisshin Maru

During a confrontation in the Southern ocean where Sea Shepherd was blocking a refueling operation by the Japanese factory vessel, Nisshin Maru, two Sea Shepherd ships are rammed, causing significant damage to the Bob Barker. The ramming of the Bob Barker between the 8,000 ton Nisshin Maru and the fuel tanker Sun Laurel resulted in a complete loss of power and mayday call from Bob Barker’s Captain Peter Hammarstedt.

Denmark Challenged in EC

Sea Shepherd challenges Denmark in the European Commission regarding pilot whale slaughter in the Danish Faroe Islands, citing the Bern Convention, Bonn Convention and Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic and North Seas.

Biggest Antarctic Anti-Whaling Campaign Yet

Sea Shepherd commences Operation Zero Tolerance, the ninth Southern Ocean anti-whaling campaign featuring its biggest fleet yet: including four ships, a helicopter, eight small RHIB’s, three drones and more than one hundred international volunteers.

Sea Shepherd Opens Australian Base

Sea Shepherd announces the opening of the Southern Operations Base in Williamstown, Australia.

Captain Watson Receives Jules Verne Award

Captain Paul Watson becomes only the second person, after Captain Jacques Cousteau, to be honored with the Jules Verne Award, dedicated to environmentalists and adventurers.

ICR Confirms Sea Shepherd Caused $20.5m in Losses

In a New York Times article, the Institute of Cetacean Research confirms that the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society cost the illegal Japanese whalers $20.5 million in losses for the 2010-2011 whaling season in the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary.

Sea Shepherd Returns to Taiji

Operation Infinite Patience 2012-2013 begins in Taiji, Japan as the first Cove Guardians arrive.

Phoenix Islands Shark Defense

Sea Shepherd partners with the nation of Kiribati to patrol the Phoenix Islands to protect the South Pacific shark population.

Namibian Cape Fur Seal Defense

Operation Desert Seal II, Sea Shepherd’s covert campaign to end the slaughter of Cape Fur Seals at the Cape Cross Seal Reserve in Namibia, begins.

INTERPOL Red Notice Issued

An Interpol red notice is issued for Captain Watson in response to Costa Rica’s politically motivated warrant for his arrest.

Captain Watson Skips Bail on Extradition Attempt

Captain Watson leaves Germany, skipping bail, after learning Japan is attempting to extradite him.

Sea Shepherd Australia vs. Fossil Fuels

Bob Brown and Sea Shepherd Australia launch Operation Kimberley Miinimbi to oppose the construction of a large gas hub amidst the largest humpback whale nursery in the world.

Shark Defense in the South Pacific

Operation Requiem, Sea Shepherd’s campaign to defend sharks in the South Pacific begins.

Sam Simon Purchases Japanese Vessel for Sea Shepherd

The Simpsons co-founder Sam Simon funds the purchase of the Seifu Maru, a former vessel of the Japanese government used to collect data for Japan’s North Pacific whaling fleet. Sea Shepherd renames the ship Sam Simon in his honor.

Court Win For Tuna

Sea Shepherd UK wins lawsuit filed by Fish & Fish regarding Sea Shepherd’s release of 800 illegally caught Bluefin tuna in the Mediterranean.

Captain Watson Arrested in Germany

Captain Watson is arrested in Frankfurt, Germany on a warrant issued by Costa Rica. Extradition process begins in Frankfurt.

Dolphin Imports Banned in Switzerland

Sea Shepherd Switzerland is instrumental in the banning of dolphin imports to the country.

768 Whales Saved in Antarctica

Operation Divine Wind comes to a successful conclusion, as Sea Shepherd saves the lives of 768 whales in the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary.

Hong Kong Airlines Ban Transport of Dolphins

Sea Shepherd visits the corporate headquarters of Hong Kong Airlines to confront the airline for transporting live dolphins to captive facilities. Shortly after airline officials ban the transport of wild animals.

District Court Denies Injunction

U.S. District Court judge denies the Institute of Cetacean Research’s request for a temporary injunction against Sea Shepherd’s activities in the Southern Ocean.

Ninth District Court Injunction

An injunction is issued by the Ninth Circuit court in the United States that prohibits Sea Shepherd USA, Paul Watson, and all its employees from coming within 500 yards of the Japanese whale poaching vessels. In order to continue Operation Zero Tolerance, Captain Paul Watson steps down from Sea Shepherd USA and Australia, as well as his position as captain of the Steve Irwin. Captain Siddharth Chakravarty takes over the Steve Irwin, and Sea Shepherd Australia Managing Director Jeff Hansen and Australian former Greens Party senator, Bob Brown take over as leaders of Operation Zero Tolerance.

Eighth Antarctic Anti-Whaling Campaign Begins

Operation Divine Wind, Sea Shepherd’s eighth Antarctic whale defense campaign is launched. The Brigitte Bardot is damaged by a rogue wave in the Southern Ocean and must be escorted back to Australia for repairs. Sea Shepherd receives approval from Australia to use drones to search for the whaling fleet in the Southern Ocean.

Saving Sharks in Australia

Sea Shepherd Australia is instrumental in raising awareness to prevent a proposed shark cull in Western Australia.

Second Year in Taiji

Operation Infinite Patience begins its second season as Cove Guardians arrive in Taiji.

Operation Desert Seal Begins

Operation Desert Seal begins in Namibia. Crews attempt to document and expose the largest slaughter of marine mammals in the world, Cape Fur Seals. Crewmembers are robbed, harassed, and chased.

Steve Irwin Detained

The Steve Irwin is detained in the Shetland Island after Maltese fishing company, Fish & Fish files a suit against Sea Shepherd in civil court for alleged damage to fishing gear caused during Operation Blue Rage. The Steve Irwin is released in August after Sea Shepherd supporters raise $735,000 to free the ship.

Faroe Islands Whale Defense

The Faroe Islands whale defense campaign Operation Ferocious Isles is launched, and runs until August with no pilot whales slaughtered in the Faroe Islands while Sea Shepherd was present.

Mediterranean Tuna Defense

Operation Blue Rage 2011 commences in the Mediterranean Sea.

Gojira Becomes Brigitte Bardot

The Gojira is renamed Brigitte Bardot, named after the dedicated animal rights activist.

Another Anti-Whaling Success in Antarctica

After being tailed by the Bob Barker for nine days, the Japanese whaling fleet flees the Southern Ocean Operation No Compromise is declared a victory.

Sea Shepherd in Times Square

Sea Shepherd’s first outdoor advertising campaign is launched in Times Square in NYC. A large graphic depicting a breaching whale and a harpoon exploding into a whale’s back are featured on the CBS screen.

WIkileaks Reveals Sea Shepherd a "Threat"

Through a classified U.S. State Department document quoting the Japanese Fisheries Agency, Wikileaks reveals that Sea Shepherd is a considered a serious threat by the illegal Japanese whaling fleet.

Seventh Antarctic Whale Defense Campaign

Sea Shepherd ships depart for Operation No Compromise, the seventh Antarctic whale defense campaign. The Bob Barker confiscates illegal poaching gear from the Southern Ocean’s Waters, including hundreds of feet of long lines, and Sea Shepherd intercepts the illegal Japanese whaling fleet before a single whale is killed.

New Ship Gojira Announced

Sea Shepherd welcomes fast interceptor vessel, Gojira to the fleet.

First Cove Guardians Stand in Taiji

Sea Shepherd crew arrive in Taiji, Japan to stand as the first Cove Guardians and begin the first season of Operation Infinite Patience.

Undercover in the Faroes

Sea Shepherd sends an undercover operative to the Faroe Islands to document the cruel pilot whale slaughter known as the Grindadráp.

Sea Shepherd Responds to Deepwater Horizon Disaster

Operation Gulf Rescue begins in the Gulf of Mexico in response to BP’s catastrophic oil spill.

Steve Irwin Hunts Tuna Poachers

The Steve Irwin patrols the waters of Malta looking for illegal bluefin tuna poachers and continues to patrol the surrounding areas for the next month. Operation Blue Rage, Sea Shepherd’s first campaign to defend endangered Bluefin tuna, takes place in the Mediterranean.

Taiji Documentary Wins Oscar

The Cove, a documentary highlighting the dolphin massacre in Taiji and featuring Sea Shepherd, wins the 2010 Academy Award for Best Documentary.

Antarctic Campaign Saves 528 Whales

The Steve Irwin, Bob Barker, and Ady Gil navigate to the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary for Operation Waltzing Matilda to intervene against illegal whaling activities. The Shonan Maru No. 2 deliberately rams and sinks the Ady Gil. Captain Peter Bethune boards the Shonan Maru No. 2 to deliver an invoice for the loss of his sunken boat, which results in his transport to a Japanese prison. Operation Waltzing Matilda is a success, resulting in saving the lives of 528 whales and costing the Japanese whaling fleet tens of millions of dollar in losses.

Sixth Antarctic Whale Defense Campaign Commences

The Steve Irwin and the Ady Gil depart for Antarctica on Operation Waltzing Matilda in search of the Japanese whaling fleet while the newly-acquired Bob Barker secretly departs from Mauritius to locate and surprise the whaling fleet.

Bob Barker Purchases Former Norwegian Whaling Ship

Thanks to a $5,000,000 contribution from American television personality and icon Bob Barker, Sea Shepherd was able to purchase and refit a former Norwegian whaling ship, to be named Bob Barker.

New Ship Ady Gil Unveiled

Sea Shepherd unveils their newest ocean defense vessel: the Ady Gil, a trimaran that holds the world record for global circumnavigation and who is named after its benefactor who helped acquire the vessel.

Crew Fined for "Crime" of Witnessing Seal Slaughter

Captain Alex Cornelissen and 1st Officer Peter Hammarstedt are each fined $11,607 and forbidden to enter Canada for their 2008 “crime” of witnessing a seal hunt within 926 meters.

4-Star Charity Award

Charity Navigator awards Sea Shepherd with the coveted 4-star charity rating for sound fiscal management.

6th Antarctic Anti Whaling Campaign Announced

Sea Shepherd’s 6th Antarctic whale defense campaign, Operation Waltzing Matilda, is announced.

Charges Dropped Against Captain Watson

All charges are dropped in a Canadian court against Captain Watson for allegedly operating a Canadian-registered ship without a commercial license. Defense attorney Terry La Liberte was able to prove that Captain Watson upholds the law and furthermore keeps an unblemished record of never having a single criminal felony conviction or a conviction for a maritime related offense.

Whale Sharks Safe From Resorts

The Resorts World at Sentosa, Singapore, opts out of plans to install a major aquarium exhibit designed to display captive whale sharks. This victory is thanks in part to Sea Shepherd and other conservation groups who actively opposed the development in Singapore.

Antarctic Whale Defense Success

Operation Musashi launches to protect whales in the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary, intervenes against the illegal Japanese whaling fleet and saves the lives of 305 whales.

Permanent Base Established in Galapagos

Sea Shepherd Galapagos helps to establish a permanent floating base at Darwin and Wolf Islands, to guard against poachers on a continuous basis.

At The Edge of the World Premieres

At the Edge of the World by Tim Gorski and Dan and Craig Stone premieres at the Toronto Film Festival. This film documents Sea Shepherd’s 2006/2007 Southern Ocean anti-whaling campaign, Operation Leviathan.

Operation Musashi Announced at IWC Meeting

Captain Watson attends the International Whaling Commission meeting in Santiago, Chile, along with former Australian Minister for the Environment and Whaling Commissioner, Sea Shepherd Advisory Board member Ian Campbell. Sea Shepherd announces Operation Musashi, the return to the Southern Ocean to once again intervene against illegal Japanese whaling in December 2008.

Court Win in Brazil

Sea Shepherd Brazil wins legal battle against illegal fishing operations in Brazil. The court fines the companies based on evidence gathered by Sea Shepherd crew.

Crew Arrested in Canada for Observing Seal Slaughter

Farley Mowat departs from Bermuda for the ice floes of the Gulf of St. Lawrence to document illegal sealing operations. Although the ship never enters Canadian territorial waters, the Canadian government sends a SWAT team to board and seize the ship, and to confiscate all video and photos taken of the seal slaughter. Dutch Captain Alex Cornelissen and Swedish First Officer Peter Hammarstedt are arrested and charged for approaching too close to a seal hunt. They are released on $10,000 bail that Captain Watson posts in Canadian $2 coins. The ship is held and placed under 24 hour armed guard until the trial, which is scheduled for April 2009. The timely voyage focuses international attention on the Canadian seal slaughter and contributes to the European Parliament adopting a proposal to ban all seal products.

Captain Watson: Wildlife Warrior of the Year

Captain Paul Watson receives the Steve Irwin Wildlife Warrior of the Year Award from Terri Irwin.

Sea Shepherd's K-9 Unit Established

Sea Shepherd organizes a K-9 unit in partnership with the Ecuadorian National Police to detect smuggled shark fins and sea cucumbers at ports and airports.

Steve Irwin Discovers Toothfish Poachers in Antarctica

The Steve Irwin and crew discover, document and report the activities of illegal Patagonian toothfish poachers off the coast of Antarctica, inside the Australian Antarctic territorial limits.

Crew Arrested, yet Operation Migaloo a Success

The Steve Irwin voyages twice to the coast of Antarctica to disrupt illegal Japanese whaling activities in the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary. Two Sea Shepherd crew board a Japanese harpoon boat, are detained for three days and then released. The Japanese Coast Guard throws concussion grenades and fires upon Sea Shepherd crew. Operation Migaloo concludes with over 500 whales saved, and a large loss of profits for the Japanese fleet.

Robert Hunter Renamed Steve Irwin, Departs for Antarctica

The Robert Hunter is renamed the Steve Irwin, and departs Melbourne, Australia, on Operation Migaloo, to intercept and obstruct illegal Japanese whaling in the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary.

45,000 Shark Fins Seized by Sea Shepherd

Sea Shepherd's Galapagos Director Sean O'Hearn leads raids on the mainland of Ecuador that seizes 45,000 shark fins and 92,000 sea cucumbers, arresting more than a dozen poachers and exposing the operations of the Ecuadorian Shark Fin Mafia.

Third Antarctic Whale Defense Campaign

The Robert Hunter joins the Farley Mowat in the Ross Sea for the third Whale Defense Campaign, locating the Japanese whaling fleet in February. Sea Shepherd chases and disrupts the activities of the Nisshin Maru, shutting down their operations. Two Sea Shepherd crew are temporarily lost when heavy fog moves in but are located and rescued 8 hours later. The Japanese vessel Kaiko Maru rams the Robert Hunter twice causing damage to the hull.

Purchase of the Robert Hunter

Sea Shepherd purchases a Scottish Fisheries Patrol vessel and renames it Robert Hunter in honor of the man who was a journalist, co-founder of Greenpeace, friend of Captain Watson, and Sea Shepherd Advisory Board member.

Ramming the Oriental Bluebird

The Farley Mowat intercepts and rams the whaling fleet supply vessel Oriental Bluebird. The supply ship is ordered out of the Antarctic Whale Sanctuary and complies. Afterwards, the Farley Mowat is detained by South African authorities due to pressure by the Japanese government.

First Antarctic Anti-Whaling Success

The Farley Mowat leaves Melbourne, Australia en route to the Southern Ocean to search for the Japanese fleet for the second Whale Defense Campaign. On December 25th, the Farley Mowat intercepts and chases the Japanese factory ship Nisshin Maru for three thousand miles along the Antarctic coast. The Nisshin Maru stops whaling activities and flees.

Galapagos Office Opens

Sea Shepherd opens a permanent office in the Galapagos and extends the agreement with the Galapagos National Park (GNP) to assist in the patrols of the Galapagos National Park Marine Reserve.

Violence Against Sea Shepherd in the Gulf of St Lawrence

Farley Mowat enters the Gulf of St. Lawrence to intervene against the slaughter of seal pups. A Sea Shepherd crew member is attacked and violently assaulted on the ice. Eleven crewmembers are arrested and charged with documenting the killing of seals. The police refuse to lay charges against the sealers for assault.

Farley Mowat Patrols the Galapagos

The Farley Mowat patrols the Galapagos National Park, intercepting and assisting in the arrest of a Costa Rican longliner, an Ecuadorian gillnetter, and an Ecuadorian- and American-owned tuna seiner.

Sea Shepherd Exposes Taiji Dolphin Hunt

Sea Shepherd crew document illegal capture and slaughter of dolphins in the Solomon Islands and Taiji, Japan, bringing international media attention to the slaughter. Allison Lance and Alex Cornelissen are arrested after diving into the bay at Taiji, in order to cut the nets to release 15 dolphins awaiting slaughter. Both spend three weeks in jail before being released.

First Antarctic Anti-Whaling Campiagn

The Farley Mowat travels to Antarctica in an unsuccessful attempt to locate the Japanese whaling fleet on Sea Shepherd’s first Southern Ocean Whale Defense Campaign.

Ocean Warrior becomes Farley Mowat

Sea Shepherd changes the name of the Ocean Warrior to Farley Mowat in honor of the Canadian writer and Sea Shepherd international chairman, and re-registers the ship to Canada.

Costa Rica Orders Captain Watson Arrested

The Ocean Warrior catches the Costa Rican longliner Varadero I poaching off the coast of Guatemala. Guatemalan authorities give Captain Watson permission to escort the poacher into San Jose, Guatemala. When the Varadero I attempts to flee, the Ocean Warrior deploys fire hoses and the Varadero I accidentally strikes the hull of the Ocean Warrior, causing some damage to the poacher. The next morning, the Port Captain of San Jose informs Captain Watson that he would be arresting the Ocean Warrior for using force against the Varadero I. Captain Watson releases the Varadero I and proceeds on to Costa Rica, where he is charged with attempted murder and destruction of property based on accusations from the crew of the Varadero I. Captain Watson presents video evidence disputing the claims, the charges are dropped and Captain Watson is released. Ten days later another prosecutor and another judge have reopened the case after pressure from the Costa Rican fishing industry. There are no charges because of insufficient evidence, but the court orders that Captain Watson be arrested and held indefinitely without bail until a determination on charges could be made. Captain Watson replies that he will not comply with any arrest order unless there were official charges, eludes police to return to his ship, and departs Costa Rican waters.

Sea Shepherd Given Authority to Patrol Costa Rica

Sea Shepherd signs an agreement with the government of Costa Rica and the Cocos Island Foundation, giving Sea Shepherd the authority to intervene in all illegal fishing operations around the Cocos Island.

Seal Wars published

Paul Watson publishes Seal Wars, Twenty-Five Years on the Front Lines with the Harp Seals


CANT Z.501 Gabbiano (Gull)

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 05/31/2017 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

The CANT Z.501 Gabbiano (meaning "Gull") was a flying boat aircraft developed in Italy and shared a resemblance to the successful American Consolidated PBY Catalina series. By the time of the World War 2, the design should have been on its way out but was pressed into further service in the reconnaissance role. In the end, the system forged on through the global conflict eventually seeing the end of its operational life by 1950.

First flown in 1934 as a prototype, the Z.501 was a design of famous Italian aviation engineer Filippo Zappata in an attempt to replace the aged Savoia-Marchetti S.78 series. Design was of a traditional type, with a large wing assembly mounted on struts up high and away from the fuselage, which featured a boat-like hull. The engine was mounted in the wing structure and was of a single type - an Isotta Fraschini Asso XI R2C.15 12-cylinder liquid-cooled inline engine of 900 horsepower. A crew of four or five personnel were called upon to operate the various positions and systems of the aircraft which included a bow gun position, an engine nacelle gun position and a dorsal fuselage gun position. The machine guns were supplemented by the 1,411lb bombload.

In combat, the Z.501 were pressed into service mainly for their reconnaissance capabilities but also served in search and rescue sorties. In either case, the aircraft performed superbly thanks to the type's long range capabilities and loitering times. Losses of the system were high as is expected with these slow flying boat types but the aircraft saw action against French and British forces nonetheless and also took part in the Spanish Civil War before that. Aircraft production in wartime necessitated the need for speed and as such many were sent off the production lines in less than stellar operating condition. If the Z.501 had a blotch on its otherwise adequate operating record it was in the wooden fuselage construction which had a tendency to break up in rough waters. As an aircraft, the Z.501 fared better than as an ocean-going craft. In terms of combat performance, the Z.501 was nothing to speak of - finishing the war without a single air-to-air kill.

The Z.501 did go on to break several distance endurance records during its production run.


Supermarine Walrus

The Supermarine Walrus was one of the unsung workhorses of the Fleet Air Arm and RAF during the Second World War, operating as a fleet spotter and air sea rescue aircraft and fighting in just about every theatre of the war.

The Walrus was developed from the Seagull, a three-seat amphibian fleet spotter first developed in the early 1920s. A decade later the RAAF issued a specification for a similar aircraft, and Supermarine responded with the Seagull V, a much improved version of the earlier aircraft. The new Seagull V was powered by a Pegasus engine in a pusher configuration. The wings were of the same size as on the Seagull II, but with the number of struts reduced from twelve to eight, and the engine carried on the inner four struts. The open cockpit of the Seagull II was replaced with a enclosed cockpit. In August 1934 the Australians place an order for twenty four Seagull Vs, some of which were still in service as late as 1943.

The Air Ministry was also interested in the new amphibian, and in May 1935 placed an order for twelve Seagull Vs. The first of these aircraft made its maiden flight on 18 March 1936. At about the same time the aircraft was renamed as the Supermarine Walrus.

Early Walruses were very similar to the Seagull V. A more powerful engine &ndash the Pegasus VI &ndash was installed on most production aircraft, raising the aircraft&rsquos top speed by 10mph. The number of aircraft ordered rose steadily from the initial twelve, and in July 1936 an order was replaced for 168 aircraft. Supermarine lacked the capacity to build these aircraft alongside the 310 Spitfires ordered in June, and so production was sub-contracted to Saunders-Roe.

The Walrus entered service with the Fleet Air Arm. Existing County Class cruisers were modified to carry the aircraft, while the Town Class was designed with them in mind. By the start of the Second World War the Walrus was also in use on the monitor Terror and the formerly Australian seaplane carrier Albatross.

The Walrus very rarely carried out the role it had been designed for &ndash spotting the fall of shells during naval engagements. The aircraft from HMS Renown and HMS Manchester were used during the battle of Cape Spartivento of 27 November 1940, and that of HMS Gloucester during the battle of Cape Matapan on 29 March 1941, but a combination of the presence of carrier borne aircraft and the development of radar spotting meant that the Walrus wasn&rsquot needed in this role.

Equally important tasks were soon found for the Walrus. In the campaigns in Norway and East Africa it was used as a combat aircraft, even performing some ground attack and bombing sorties. It was also used on anti-submarine patrols and for convoy protection, both on Atlantic and Russian convoys. They were also used as reconnaissance aircraft during the invasion of Madagascar in the spring 1942, and during Operation Torch. By the end of 1943 the ship-born Walrus had been phased out, and in the last years of the war the RAF was the main operator of the type.

The RAF used the Walrus as an air-sea rescue aircraft. No.276 Squadron at Harrowbeer was the first to get the type, using it alongside longer range land planes. The downed airmen would be spotted by fast fighter aircraft, supplies dropped from Avro Ansons, and finally be picked up by the Walrus. At least 1,000 British and Allied airmen were rescued by the Walrus, with most coming from RAF Bomber Command and the USAAF 8th Air Force.

A total of 555 Walrus Mk.Is were produced, 285 by Supermarine and 270 by Saunders-Roe. This was the standard metal hulled version of the aircraft, and was the version most often used on active service.

270 of the 461 produced under license by Saro- the standard metal hulled version
Plus 285 built by Supermarine

A further 191 wooden hulled Walrus Mk.IIs were produced by Saunders-Roe, bringing the total produced to 746. The wooden-hulled Mk.II was heavier than the Mk.I, but was easier to repair and didn&rsquot use any of the limited supplies of light alloys needed so urgently for other aircraft. Most of the Walrus Mk.IIs were used by training units, where their lower performance didn&rsquot matter but the ease with which they could be repaired did.

Statistics &ndash Walrus I
Engine: Bristol Pegasus VI radial engine
Power: 750hp
Crew: Four
Wing span: 45ft 10in
Length: 37ft 3in
Height: 15ft 3in
Maximum speed: 135mph
Service ceiling: 17,100ft or 18,500ft
Maximum range: 600 miles
Armament: One 0.303in Vickers K gun in nose, one or two K guns in beam positions
Bomb load: 600lb of bombs or two Mk VIII depth charges


Watch the video: Sully the Seagull. A Story About Keeping Promises (December 2021).