Megastructures Angkor Wat

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Megastructures is a documentary television series appearing on the National Geographic Channel in the United States and the United Kingdom, Channel 5 in the United Kingdom, France 5 in France, and 7mate in Australia.

Each episode is an educational look of varying depth into the construction, operation, and staffing of various structures or construction projects, but not ordinary construction products.

Generally containing interviews with designers and project managers, it presents the problems of construction and the methodology or techniques used to overcome obstacles. In some cases (such as the Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge and Petronas Towers) this involved the development of new materials or products that are now in general use within the construction industry.

Megastructures focuses on constructions that are extreme in the sense that they are the biggest, tallest, longest, or deepest in the world. Alternatively, a project may appear if it had an element of novelty or are a world first (such as Dubai's Palm Islands). This type of project is known as a Megaproject.

The series follows similar subjects as the History Channel's Modern Marvels and Discovery Channel's Extreme Engineering covering areas of architecture, transport, construction and manufacturing.

Megastructures Angkor Wat - History

Ancient Temples have always fascinated me… how did they build them? How was it possible for the Great Wall of China to be so large it can be seen from Space? How did Machu Picchu perch itself in the sky? Chichen Itza, Stonehenge, the Great Pyramid of Giza… all built with such precision, planning and detail, in a Time void of Technology and yet they have least in discernable form, for Millennia. …. immensely powerful places all, built as much with Stone, as with historical importance, providing millions with a Place to glimpse something Bigger, over Generations.

It was no surprise from this growing sense of wonder throughout my Life, that one day I found myself at another mysterious and magical place, Angkor Wat, in Cambodia. ..Rich in Architectural splendour and fascinating Khmer history, it is actually the Largest Religious structure in the World and the 8th Wonder of the World…

Ta Prohm Temple, Angkpr Wat

Starting out from Kuala Lumpur, I booked a flight to Siem Reap International Airport, and once on the Ground, less than 20-minutes later, I was in the centre of Siem Reap itself, a gateway city for tourists, free to explore the historical UNESCO World Heritage Site of the former Khmer Empire or just enjoy the natural beauty of Southeast Asia’s largest freshwater lake, ‘Tonlé Sap’ also known as Cambodia’s “Great Lake”.

Up until half a decade ago, Siem Reap was just a provincial town in Cambodia, then tourist inflows started to pour into the city, mainly in search of those magnificent Angkorian temples.

The Pub Street, Siem Reap
The accompanying Economic Boom for the Country and City in particular from that Boom transformed the Landscape and Society within it… Nowadays it is a place boasting expensive boutique and chain hotels, that have sprung up everywhere, along with budget hotels, to house such a vast and lucrative tourist industry.

Where there are Tourists, you usually have Nightlife…and The Pub Street area is for them, and famous for its vibrant atmosphere. Here you can find an abundance of Backpacker Party Pads or hip hotels in every side street and square… Siem Reap can claim a World-class dining experience too, with a large range of cuisines, sumptuous Spas, local shopping markets, all open 24/7, along with Eco-Tours to suit all types of Adventurers.

So, after the actual Menu…what’s on the Menu, in terms of Activities?Well, you could check out Cambodia’s leading Circus, or pay a visit to the Angkor Wat National Museum, for an even deeper insight into Angkor’s history, before starting your Temple explorations.

Since you’re in the area, try not to miss ‘Wat Preah Prohm Roth’, a traditional Buddhist temple in the heart of Siem Reap, right outside Pub Street area.

So to Angkor Wat itself…not too far off the city centre, where within a 7km radius you will discover one of the most iconic ancient Temple complexes in Cambodia: the ultimate expression of Khmer architectural genius – an awe-inspiring, Grand-scale complex, but still with stunning, intricate details everywhere.

The Angkor Archaeological Park is also a marvel: spreading over and area of more than 400 km²…It was popularised in the West by the French naturalist Henri Mouhot’s 1860 evocative writing ‘Travels in Siam, Cambodia and Laos‘ complete with detailed sketches, comparing Angkor to the Pyramids, he said:

At Ongcor, there are …ruins of such grandeur… that, at the first view, one is filled with profound admiration, and cannot but ask what has become of this powerful race, so civilized, so enlightened, the authors of these gigantic works?

But the True history of Angkor Wat was pieced together much earlier than by Mouhot, or the French exploration… Recent discoveries have concluded that the Temples date back to between the early 9th to early 15th centuries, and represent the largest collective complex of Religious monuments on Earth. Originally built as a sacred dwelling dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu, Angkor Wat represented the King’s State Temple, the City capital of the Khmer Empire, eventually becoming a mausoleum for the King himself. Only towards the end of the 12th century, gradually, did it transform into a Buddhist shrine.

The birthplace of the Khmer Empire, that lasted for more than 600 years, would now cover modern-day Cambodia and Laos, as well as extensive parts of Vietnam and Thailand, and it was cared for by Buddhist monks, between the 15th and the 19th century. It is solely thanks to them that the complex it has been preserved so well, to this day.

Top 3 Must-see Temples at Angkor Wat

Built by the Khmer King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century, Angkor Wat temple was designed to represent Mt. Meru, home of ‘Devas’ (Deities) in Hindu mythology, with a similar importance to Khmers, as Mt. Olympus was to Greeks…. Again, for it’s Time, it’s Architecturally ambitious, and resonates with spiritual Hindu devotion, helped by its unique Temple mountain shape.

There have been no other dwellings, houses or other settlements… including cooking utensils, weapons, or clothing found at the site….which sits with the evidence of the monuments themselves, possibly used by the High Priests and the King, alone. The remarkable bas-reliefs surrounding the Brahmanic funeral rituals, indicating that the temple was, indeed, intended to serve as some part of the King’s funeral arrangements, from the start…much like the Pyramids…

The Temple has drawn praise for its classic symmetrical proportions and intricately carved elements, with its’ Towers shaped like Lotus buds, leading to axial galleries and broad-chambered passageways, engraved with bas-reliefs of narrative scenes – dancing figures, prancing animals and devatas (deities), depicting episodes from the Hindu mythology – Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Virtually all surfaces, columns and roofs were carved in kilometres of reliefs illustrating scenes from the Indian literature.

The entire Complex has an outer wall, boxing off an area of around 800 sqm, along with the Western-facing Centre Structure. The second level of the enclosure is thought to have been originally flooded with water to represent the ocean around Mt Meru. Three sets of steps, one on each side, lead up to the Gopuras (Temple towers) of the inner gallery, while the very steep stairways and their height represent the difficulty of ascending to the Kingdom of the Gods.

The four small courtyards may have originally been filled with water. The Khmer Architects used sandstone as their main building material, with a binding agent that is still unknown. but they point towards natural resins or slaked lime. Some of the blocks were held together by mortise and tenon joints, and just Gravity in some cases, and must have been put in place by a combination of elephants, ropes, pulleys and bamboo scaffolding…as that was pretty much all they had to work with back then..… According to local legend, though… it was believed that the Temple was constructed in a single night, from the hand of a Divine architect.

Calculations have revealed that the Monument was probably made out of around 5 to 10 million sandstone blocks, with a maximum weight of 1.5 tonnes each….an Incredible amount of Material, in the middle of the Jungle… In fact, the entire city of Angkor uses up far greater amounts of stone than all the Egyptian pyramids combined, while occupying an area significantly greater than modern-day Paris!… Moreover, unlike the Pyramids, which used limestone blocks quarried from relatively close by, the city of Angkor was built with sandstone blocks..meaning they must have been brought from 40-90km away! That would mean a labour force required to quarry, transport, carve and set in place all the blocks and decorative elements, that must have numbered in the thousands…

Today, it has become a major UNESCO World Heritage Site, and attracts more than 2.5million people every year and approx. 60% of the foreign tourists entering Cambodia.

Covering hundreds of square kilometres, this site will surely keep many visitors busy for days.

Bayon Temple

As successive Khmer kings strived to overshadow their ancestors through more and more colossal constructions, with grander creative depictions of mythological events or Khmer history, during King Jayavarman VIIs’ rule, in the late 12th century, The Bayon Temple was constructed.

Apsaras, divine nymphs or celestial dancing girls, are characters from Indian mythology.

Surrounded by over 200 gigantic smiling faces of ‘Avalokiteshvara’, also known as the “Lord who looks down” – the Lord who created the Sun & Moon, Shiva, Brahma, the Earth and the Sky, signifying that Bayon was the first Angkor shrine dedicated to Buddha, incorporating a synergy of Hindu and Buddhist elements of cosmology.

Some have said that maybe King Jayavarman VII regarded himself as Devaraja or ‘god-king’ and identified with Buddha and the Bodhisattva, by portraying the faces as representations of his own self.

‘Ta Prohm’ is a Majestic Buddhist Temple in the heart of Angkor Thom. Built in 1186, it was originally known as ‘Rajavihara’ or the ‘Monastery of the King’ and the personification of wisdom, modelled after the King’s mother.

The sanctuary sheltered more than 12,000 people, supported by a population of 80,000 people who worked in nearby villages to provide food and supplies, all of which are depicted in the Temples’ inscriptions.

But what is truly fascinating about Ta Prohm, is its fascinating mixture between Chaos and Structure, what’s Organic and Man-made, what’s Wood and Stone. …This Temple, surrounded by hundreds of year old, setting for endless, tree trunks sprouting through the Ruins…. is setting for Indiana Jones or Alan Quartermain.… Silk-cotton and Strangler Fig trees snake their roots deep into the stones of the Temple itself, which was incredibly built entirely, without mortar.

In fact, the entire Sanctuary was recovered and rehabilitated from the Jungle itself, as Nature’s order had to be claimed back and re-established, over the centuries. This Temple state is purposely and delicately maintained, and by doing so, reveals an astonishing merger of Nature and Architecture.

Nature not only re-shaped Ta Prohm, but it has also lent a depth of mysticism and haunting charm, entwined in its bas-reliefs, carped with moss, lichen and other plants, casting a greenish pall over the whole scene.

To me: the entire Archaeological Park of Angkor is the epitome of strength and creative beauty, with an element that stands out the most and you simply cannot miss – Ta Prohm’s charming setting: You can almost feel the Roots of Adventure itself, burrowing into the Ground here.Ta Prohm Temple, Angkpr Wat

How to get there

Aside from the enchanting widely spread Ancient Ruins, I was surprised by the ease and safety of getting around and exploring areas, which not long ago, were, literally, uncharted Jungle territory. There is actually a multitude of options you can use to travel, but the most convenient way of discovering the countryside is by motor, horse, bicycle or tuk-tuk. Each will cost you between $10 and $15 for a whole day, and they are perfect if you’re planning Photography and Nature tours.

Having that in mind: I can say that Siem Reap is very safe, friendly and welcoming for all types of travellers, with a seemingly endless choice of Entertainment, Dining and Accommodation, It’s an embodiment of contrasts, that reminds me of some of Thailand’s most popular areas (Krabi, Koh Samui, Chiang Mai). In other places, it resembles the quiet, serene Life of, say, the Philippines’s, with small Communities sustaining themselves through farming and fishing.

What is my most memorable thought I have from my trip to Siem Reap and Angkor Wat? ..the level of complexity in Architecture, of sophistication in Art and precision, from Houses to handicraft. Majestic work that has lived through different Eras, centuries of wars and battles, not just with Mankind, but with Nature itself…Who knows, ultimately how they were built ..but one thing is for certain: they were, are, and always will be Masterpieces that will stand as the Cornerstones of Culture, for Generations to follow and Respect.

Megastructures Angkor Wat - History

Architecture for the rich, mere shelter for the poor: is this a continuity since the neolithic and urban revolution began? "Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!" Shelley's Ozymandias predicted another historical continuity as to empire's demise with alluring architecture turned to dust. &ldquoThe Glory of Greece and the grandeur of Rome&rdquo is a haughty exclamation of empire and power exhibited by architecture extrapolated from Poe's poem glorifying the beauty of women. A poem designed to honor Helen (a friend of Poe and/or Helen of Troy) ratcheted into a mantra buttressing Western exceptionalism sees an idea soaring off into another vector which includes glorification of western architecture. All cultures have used art and architecture to honor their accomplishments and dreams of empire. If architecture throughout world history is intelligent creation of forms and spaces that in themselves express an idea/ideas, then, what are those ideas? This article housing digital resources for architecture in world history addresses and gives examples of ideas expressed in architecture. One can see a summary of those diverse ideas in the column or list below:

  • Architecture as history.
  • Architecture as shelter.
  • Architecture for the Rich, mere shelter for the poor.
  • Architecture without architects.
  • Architecture as Art.
  • Architecture as Design, Not Art.
  • Architecture & Literature-narration of space.
  • Architecture as Trash.
  • Architecture for public use and space.
  • Architecture as remembrance, ceremonial.
  • Architecture as "healing space."
  • Architecture as spiritual and sacred space.
  • Architecture as power/authority.
  • Architecture as Politics.
  • Architecture and neuroarthistory.
  • Architecture as research agenda for sociology.
  • Architecture of apartheid/separation.
  • Architecture as a weapon.
  • Architecture as gendered space.
  • Architecture as dissent.
  • Architecture as racist.
  • Architecture as fortification.
  • Architecture Futurism.

Digital resources for architecture in world history has been organized into sections beginning with world or global resources, then videos and documentaries, followed by digital resources divided into geographic regions, lesson modules, teaching syllabi, mostly university, and finally websites and blogs. There has been an attempt in each section to list resources in chronological order.


  Figure 1: Diorama of a bone hut at Mezhirich
Photo: Wally Gobetz, from a diorama display at the American Museum of Natural History, online at
Diorama picture seen at:
Open this link to click on diorama picture to enlarge.

World Architecture Digital Resources:
Richard Gray, "Neanderthals Built Homes With Mammoth Bones," The Telegraph (UK), December 18, 2011. Research is indicating Neanderthals were more complex than earlier thought with evidence of architecture utilizing mammoth bones.
"Neanderthals May Have Practiced the Ancient Art of Interior Design," Smithsonian Magazine blog, December 3, 2013, posted by Colin Schultz. Julien Riel-Salvatore believes Neanderthal decorated their cave architecture.
Jayson Braza Portem, "Prehistoric Architecture," The Freeman Architect. Concise history with photographs and drawings of prehistoric architecture.
V. Gordon Childe, The Urban Revolution, The Town Planning Review, Vol. 21, No. 1, April 1950, pp. 3-17, Liverpool University Press. Accessed 19/9/2011. Archaeologist Dr. Childe's essay encompasses earliest human urbandevelopment and architecture globally.
"Architecture," 1902 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th-10th editions. See links to "articles" on world architecture.
A.D.F. Hamlin, "History of Architecture," (Columbia College, NY) 7th ed., 1909. History of Architecture textbook seen in
Andrew Howley, "Why Did Ancient Civilizations Build Such Huge Monuments?" National Geographic, May 1, 2013. Pt. 2 of a 3 pt. series on "The Ancient Past as a Window to the Future.
Stephanie Valera, "11 Spectacular Ruins of the Ancient World-Photos," Annotated photos of 11 of world history's greatest pieces of architecture still with us as "ruins."
Vincze Miklos, "Architectural Breakthroughs That Changed the World,", posted December 11, 2013. Annotated photographs of what Vincze Miklos believes are the greatest architectural breakthroughs in world history and these examples could be viewed as change over time in architecture technology and design. See replies to Miklos's choices. One person claimed his choices are Euro-centric.
Columbia University architecture and history website developed in 2000, Real?Virtual website to aid students in the study of Ancient, Early Christian/Byzantine, Islamic, Modern, Baroque, Renaissance, etc. architecture. See Medieval Architecture section:
"History of Architecture," Academic Room. General summary of world history of architecture from earliest times through modern times. See links on left side of page for more resources if one wishes to subscribe to Academic Room site.
"Chronology of Architectural Styles," Essential-Architecture. Note many pictures and explanations of world architectural styles from ancient Egyptian to 21st century.
Penn State University site describing with some images and videos world architecture styles. Heavily Euro-centric.
Vikas Shah, "Role of Architecture in Humanity's Story," Thought Economics blog, June 18, 2012. Interview with some of world's greatest thinkers as to nature of architecture and it's role in society over time.
"Architecture of Authority," National Building Museum, Washington DC Exhibit, May 18, 2011. See tabs at top of page (Castles, Parliament, etc.) for images and discussions of architectureand authority. Mitchell Kapor claims, "Architecture is politics."
Google Book-Paul Jones, "The Sociology of Architecture," Liverpool University Press, 2011, 195 pages. Paul Jones' thesis revolves around the concept of positioning architecture as a research agenda for sociologists and others interested in the relationship between power, culture and collective identities.
"Walking, Poems, Buildings: A Poetry and Architecture Collaboration,", 2005. Poetry in shape of a building, called "concrete poetry" but what about a building in the form of a sonnet? Poet Annie Finch and Architect Ben Jacks, both faculty at Miami University, Ohio have created an exhibit of student works incorporating poetry and architecture. See an example of concrete poetry:

Cliff Ellis, "History of Cities and City Planning," History of city planning over time.
"Building the World," UMass, Boston blog published in 2012 to share resources electronically from Frank P. Davidson andKathleen Lusk Brooke, 2 Vols., "Building the World: An Encyclopedia of the Great Engineering Projects in History," Greenwood Press, 2006. Instead of architecture the site refers to these projects as "Macro-Engineering."
"World Architectural History Survey Examples," Bryn Mawr University website. Large numbers of links to images of world architectural sites.
K. Kris Hirst, "Monumental Architecture," Earliest architecture, mounds, monuments, etc..
"7 Spectacular Temples," World Archaeology, May 31, 2013. Click on small photograph to see enlarged image of each temple.
Norbert Soloria Bermosa, "Famous Commemorative and Triumphal Arches in the World,", July 19, 2008. Website shows four pages of famous arches from the Renaissance to the 20th century.
"Early Architecture," alientravelguide. Use arrows at top right of page to navigate this site.
"Stilt Houses," allpics4u website @ 2008-2013, seen September 20, 2013. A brief overview of the history of stilt houses architecture from neolithic and bronze age with photographs of houses which were built in many regions of the world.
Architecture History and Styles, Wiley, 29 pages of Architecture history and style's titles, google books, andresources.
Carol Strickland, "The Annotated Arch: A Crash Course in the History of Architecture," Kansas City: Andrew McMeel Publishing, 2001. Paperback booklet 178 pp. review of architecture-eurocentric. See selections of the book:
R. O. Pierce, "A Brief History of Theatre Architecture and Stage Technology," San Dieguito Union High School District, February 4, 2010. Power Point with drawings andphotographs explaining Greek, Roman, Medieval, Renaissance, Elizabethan, 1650-1900, Japanese Kabuki, and 20thcentury theatre and stage architecture.
Melvin Haft, "Religion's Influence on Architecture and Culture," World & I, 2005. Short essay on world religion's impact on buildings and culture. See Tibetan Buddhist stupa from this "The World and I" article:
Murshid Samuel L. Lewis and Hazrat Inayat Khan, "Spiritual Architecture," Sufi Ruhaniat International (Eugene, Oregon), 1978. Sufi Ruhaniat project discussing spiritual architecture using examples of Egyptian, Asiatic, Classical Europe, Contemporary, shrine and temple architecture. This resource cited with permission of the Sufi Ruhaniat Secretariat and Treasurer Basira Beardsworth, Hawaii. See their home site:
"The Stupa Information Page," Click on stupa image or title to move you into sections to see Stupa architecture globally. The Tibetan word for stupa is "Chorten" which means the basis of offering.
Rudolf Stegers, "A Design Manual-Sacred Buildings," Basel, Boston, Berlin: Birkhauser, 2008. Stegers as author and editor of this book includes chapters on the Synagogue, Mosque, Acoustic Analysis-Sound in Sacred places-synagogue and mosque, and sound and light in sacred places. Seen in preview.
Benjamin Leiker, "Sacred Bahai Architecture," Bahai Library, September 1999, posted by Jonah Winters October 19, 2003. Author, then, was student at International Baccalaureate Program, Poudre High School, Fort Collins, Colorado. See more at Bridgette Schnider, "Ba'hai Architecture of Israel," Arch 499 Non Western architecture, University of Idaho:
Krista Tippett, "The Science of Healing Places With Esther Sternberg," On Being, October 24, 2013. See podcast interview with Immunologist Esther Sternberg on physical space (architecture) as "healing spaces" not places which produce stress and sickness. See other segments on "Sacred Spaces."
Numinist, "Architecture Debate: Christopher Alexander and Peter Eisenman," numinist website, posted May 10, 2013. Numinist includes photographs of three samples of architecture referenced in the debate. See transcript of this legendary debate held November 17,1982: Peter Eisenman is a prominent Deconstructivist Architect while Christopher Alexander is a builder focused on methodologies outside the mainstream of architecture, including holism, human feeling, objective beauty and living structure.
Islamic Architecture. See links to Islamic architecture world wide.
"Architecture," search in Saudi Aramco World free online journal. See many articles dealing with architecture mainly in Muslim regions.
Takeo Kamiya, Islamic Architecture website. Takeo Kamiya, a Japanese architect, has been targeted by the Japanese construction Mafia which he explains in a letter beneath the Islamic architecture tabs on his website. The tabs will take you to regional Islamic architecture sites such as India, Bulgaria, Africa, etc.
"Religious Architecture, Pilgrimage Sites," Wonder Mondo website. See articles and photographs of famous religious sites in world history.
"Water and Architecture," ArchNet website. One can download many articles having to do with water and architecture in world history.
"Technology," See examples of water technology and designs.
"Aqueducts in World History," Water World blog, January 2012. Summary of aqueduct architecture in world history.
"Water and Cultures in the Ancient World," Water World blog, November 2011. Summary of water and water architecture in ancient world history.
"Free Online Courses," See Free Architecture online courses available on this site. Will need Itunes to open.
"Great Building Collection," Architecture Week. 1000 selected classics of world architecture and hundreds of their great designers in this general architecture reference site. See also Building Types and Architecture Styles from neolithic through neo-Vernacular styles at:
"Great Buildings Greatest Hits," Great Buildings site (UK) @ 1997-2006. Site offers most visited architectural sites.

Mary Ann Sullivan, "Digital Imaging Project, Chronology Index," Bluffton College. More than 20,000 sculptures and architecture photos/images from pre-history to post-modern.
"Houses Around the World," Hagafoto, Haga Library, Tokoyo, Japan. Photographs of dwelling architecture around the world withshort annotated descriptions of each house style.
"History of Architecture," History World. Fourteen pages of architecture history from prehistoric caves through the 19th century in 14 pages. 20th-21st centuries to be completed.
Charles Moffat, "Reaching For the Sky," Ancient Architecture-The Art History Archive, December 2007. Links for ancient Africa, Babylon and Persia, Egypt, Greece, Inca, Mayan, and Roman architecture.
"Architecture: History & Styles,", and Encyclopedia of Art. See at top of page "The Art of Building Design: Famous Architects-A through Z," and "History of Architecture (3000 BCE-Present, 2000 CE).
Jean Bernard, "Lessons From Research on Learning Environments," Architecture, design, geography and effects on student learning, UNESCO research paper, 2012. Kenyan, Spanish, and Dutch students and their learning environments are presented as case studies in this study.
Google Book. Peter Galison and Emily Ann Thompson, "The Architecture of Science,"MIT Press, 1999. Galison and Thompson examine how the "spaces" in which science is done speaks to how people view science. Book is divided into six sections.
Short description with link to Neuroarthistory and Professor John Onians, University of Missouri education, 2010. Dr. Onians, who specializes in architecture, researches neuroarthistory which combines neuroscience and art history to work out what happens in artists/architect's brains.
Kim Gurri, Leon Straker, and Phillip Moore, "A History of Seating in the Western World," Curtin University of Technology, Perth Western Australia. The three authors show chair furniture "seating" and posture from Egyptian to 1980's.

Cliff Ellis, "History of City Planning, Introduction," Art Net. Short article on the world history of city planning and urban architecture.
Maria Popova, "Architecture Without Architects: What Ancient Structures Reveal About Collaborative Design," brain pickings, January 23, 2012. Ms. Popova discusses Bernard Rudofsky (Moravian born American, 1905-1988) and his work during the 1960's concerning architecture without architects and primitive and communal designs.
Google Book, Bernard Rudofsky, "Architecture Without Architects: A Short Introduction to Non-pedigreed Architecture," NY: Museum of Modern Art, 1964.
"Lessons From Bernard Rudofsky," J. Paul Getty Museum Exhibition March 11-June 8, 2008. Rudofsky was a fashion designer, vernacular architect and critic who's most famous works were "Are Clothes Modern?" 1944, "Architecture Without Architects," 1964, "Streets For People, 1969 and "Now I lay me down to eat," 1980. His Bernardo sandals (1944) shaped to the architecture of the human foot are coming back intostyle today.,29307,1950812_2018370,00.html
"A Brief History of the World's Tallest Buildings," Time Photos 11 slide share, 2013.
Jackie Craven, "Buildings That Changed the World-A Millennium of Masterpieces," Architecture Ms. Craven's choices taken from a polling of readers are euro-centric and rationale for selection to list is slim.
Marian Moffett, Michael W. Fazio, Lawrence Wodehouse, "A World History ofArchitecture," Lawrence King Publishing, 2003, 592 pp. Google E-Book.
Andrew Howley, "Is Every Civilization Destined to Collapse," National Geographic, May 1, 2013. Series of "posts" or articles on ancient civilizations such as What is civilization, Egypt, Mesopotamia, India/Pakistan, Maya, and article on Why did Ancient Civilizations Build such large monuments seen here:
Hila Berliner, "Architecture as a Product of Culture, History, Science, Technology, Economics, Society, Religion, and State-5000 Years of Architecture and City Planning in the Western World," History of Architecture blog, December 3, 2010. General comments on architectural history with some photographs.
Saskia Sassen, "Why the Middle Class is Revolting," The Hindu, January 14, 2013. Dr. Sassen, a Sociology professor at Columbia University, discusses the architecture of globalization, the Global Street, cities and finances, and sustainable human settlements in this interview with India's "The Hindu." She references global corporations as committing "grand larceny" and explains that this robbery is one reason for middle class protest from Chile to Egypt to India.
"Feminism and Architecture," World Cat, bibliography of books on gender/feminism in architecture and world history.
"Bibliography-Gender," Short list of books from 1980's and 1990's with gender and architecture as topics.
Google Book-Iain Borden, Barbara Penner, Jane Rendell (Editors), "Gender, Space, Architecture," Routledge, April 12, 2002. Seminal book filled with essays on gender and architecture focusing on European and US examples.
"Bibliography of Fear and Architecture," Short list of books with theme of architecture and fear.,-Architecture-and-Society&id=3557213
Paul Goss, "Surveillance, Architecture and Society," ezine articles, submitted January 11, 2010. Surveillance architecture has long been a method of control and a symbol of power. Paul Goss also compares Bentham's Panopticon and modern video surveillance and close circuit TV in this short essay. See more on Jeremy Bentham's Panopticon:
"Theory of Surveillance: The Panopticon." Website detailing Bentham's Panopticon ("all seeing") model prison and link to Bentham's specific architectural specifications for his surveillance machine from his 1787 book,Panopticon Letters.
Google Book-Nan Elin, ed., "Architecture of Fear," Princeton Architectural Press, 1997. Series of essays describing and discussing how urban design, home architecture, laws and security build separation due to fear.
H.V. Savitch review of Stephen Graham, ed., "Cities, War and Terrorism," Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004 seen in metropoles.revues (France), December 18, 2008. Series of essays on urbanity and violent conflict, urbicide with point of view slanted against "Neo-Imperial" nations (led by US) who are out to destroy and subjugate under-developed regions. Examples of Bosnia War (1992-1995 Sarajevo) and Israeli use of architecture and urban planning to dominate the landscape.
Martina Milla Bernad, "Colonialism and Architecture," Post Colonial Studies, Emory University, spring 1998, updated May 2012.
"Teaching Architecture: Resources," Environmental Design University of California, Berkeley Library, 2012. Resources compiled by Elizabeth Douthitt Byrne, October 2004.
Simon Keane-Colwell, "Bodies of Evidence: Architecture, photography and real lives,", 2013. Simon Keane-Colwell uses photographs by Dutch photographer Iwan Baan to argue that the built environment must include real people. He claims that there has been a long tradition of architectural photography picturing depopulated spaces--devoid of the very users for which the architecture were designed.
"Vernacular Architecture," Great Buildings, Architecture Week. Examples of vernacular architecture. What is Vernacular Architecture?
"The 10 Best Works of Architecture in 2010," The, 2010. Best Buildings of 2010 around the world.
Biography of top European and American architects, website. Scroll down the page of each biography to see the rest of the bio for each architect.
Sarena Fuller, "Secret Underground Cities,", last updated July 8, 2013. Cities from America to Australia. See 2:51 video clip on Cappadocia, Turkey underground home and drawings and photographson Giza Plateau underground cities.
"Underground Homes and Buildings," Peachy Green, posted by Stephanie July 16, 2009. See short article and photographs of underground homes and building globally.
"12 Cool Examples of Modern Cave Architecture," Furniture Fashion Modern Design website, September 22, 2011.
"World's Longest Tunnel Page," Large number of links as to tunnels in world history many European and American.
Tim Murphy, "Illegal Vodka Pipelines," Mother Jones, September 15, 2013. Hawaii Molasses pipeline leaked causing much damage. See other "illegal" pipelines in current world history including vodka, orange juice, Kentucky fried chicken tunnel, beer, whiskey, etc..
"World's Tallest Buildings," World of Architecture, January 2013. See world's tallest buildings, defined as "skyscrapers" or office, commercial buildings and not including churches, cathedrals, pyramids, since 1870. Note change over time from Europe to American and recently Asia and Dubai.
10 Picture slide show from "Floating Architecture: Finding Ways to Live With Rising Water," by Saskia De Melker, PBS, May 2012. Saskia De Melker's article can be seen here with examples from Russia, the Netherlands, Louisiana fishermen, Thailand, England's Thames River and a floating mosque:
Costas Voyatzis, "Global Warming Effect on Art and Design Because the World is Melting," Yatzer, August 8, 2013. Photographs of art and architecture using global warming as a metaphor.
Barie Fez-Barrington, "Architecture: The Making of Metaphors," Cambridge Scholars, 2012, ed. by Edward Hart. This link provides a sample of architect and designer Barie Fez-Barrington's book which includes Chapter 1 and part of Chapter 2. See another source for Barie Fez-Barrington's,"Architecture: The Making of Metaphors," for his architect and design course set as a slide show or power point seen in Barrington's thesis is that architecture has meaning in space much like a metaphor in literature.
Vanessa Quirk, "Community Oriented Architecture in Schools and How Extroverted Design Can Impact Learning and Change the World," Arch daily, March 5, 2012. See 3 minute video and Ms. Quirk's views on architecture and learning.
"Architecture," Global Country of World Peace, Mahrishi Mahesh Yogi-Founder, @ 2011. This site is promoting architecture and engineering in accord with natural law, even Vedic laws of nature and harmony. A point of view of balance and harmony not unlike Chinese Feng-shui.
Luc Reychler, "Peace Building Architecture," essay with sources seen in George Mason University website, nd. Beginning in the 1960's peace, anti-nuclear and green movements grew but soon turned into political parties in Europe. Building sustainable environments is a key to moving the world toward peace today.
"War and Cinema," The Architecture of Fear blog, March 25, 2007. Blog talks about Paul Virilio,professor of philosophy, b. 1932, Paris, and with modern technology in war "the image" becomes the target on a screen and that target isarchitecture. More on Paul Virilio:
Google Book-Daphne Spain, "Gendered Spaces," University of North Carolina Press, 1992. Ms. Spain discusses architecture which separates men and women. Chapters include Space and Status, nonindustrial societies, Mongolian Ger and Tuareg Tent, Ceremonial Men's Huts, United States gendered spaces, 19th century and contemporary workplaces.
Joop de Boer, "A New Generation of Separation Walls," Pop up City, November 11, 2009. Berlin wall fell over two decades ago, but separation walls designed to isolate the rich from the masses continue. See "previous" and "next" icons to view other articles dealing with architecture, city planning and design.
David Tamm, AP World History website with annotated pictures, photographs, drawings of architecture and art over time fromancient history through the Renaissance. Hudson Florida High School. See David's AP World home website:
"Blobitecture-The Rise of Organic Architecture,", January 2011. See large annotated photos exhibiting this new style of architecture.
"Are These the Ugliest Buildings in the World?" Telegraph (UK), seen December 17, 2013. Slide share of what the Telegraph views as ugly architecture, or are they missing cultural metaphors for the design?
"The History of Fabric Structures," Designing Buildings Wiki, last edited July 31, 2013.
Professor G. G. Schierie, "Design of Fabric Structures," University of Southern California School of Architecture Lecture (power point), April 30, 2009. Architectural design style of Portable Fabric Structures.

John Koch, "Pole Frame Structure Architecture,"
Emily Badger, "Are Global Cities Really Doomed to become Citadels for the Rich?" The Atlantic Cities, June 17, 2013. Ms. Badger is reacting to Simon Kuper's Financial Times essay which claims that large global cities are "vast gated communities where the one percent reproduces itself." Continuation of idea of architecture as divider of classes.
Peter Cresswell, "What is Architecture," rebirth of reason, review of "What Art Is," by Louis Torres and Michelle Marder Kamhi, originally published in The Free Radical. Website dedicated to Ayn Rand includes Auckland architect, Peter Cresswell debate as to Torres and Kamhi's thesis that Ayn Rand thought architecture was not art. See more on " Online," Chapter 10-Architecture: 'Art' or 'Design?' What Art Is:

Videos and Documentaries:
"Zominthos, Crete," Interactive Dig, 10:33 video tour of rare Minoan highland site including architecture second-millennium BCE. Archaeology Magazine, 2013.

Daniel Abbott, Prehistoric Architecture, Delta Valley College, San Francisco, California. See videos on prehistoric architecture and tabs for "Egypt" and"Greece" architecture videos. See Home Site for Architecture-Early Civilizations to Middle Ages, Links, Readings and Videos:
Hanging Gardens of Babylon, 48:52 youtube video showing the architecture (Archimedes Screw) and 8,200 gallons of water used daily to irrigate the gardens which are considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Some doubt the gardens existed.
Ian Reynolds, "The History and Architecture of Petra," History of the Ancient World, April 28, 2013. See slim article on Petra's history and architecture and 25 minute video.
"Jesus was a Stone Mason," National Geographic TV, Mysteries of the Bible: Living in the Time of Jesus: Making a Living,, posted December 13, 2010, video 4:10. Video clip on Nazareth and Jesus as a stone mason, not a carpenter. This is part of the historiography of the Historical Jesus Movement interested in his humanity not as much in his divinity.
"Byzantine Art: San Vitale, Ravenna," 10:18 Video Smart History Khan Academy. Speakers Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker with text by Alan Farber. Focus on the Byzantine Justinian mosiac architecture at San Vitale begun in 526 or 527 CE.
"Indian Hindu Temples," Three videos on Hindu temples with other resources. See Home Page Site developed by K. Kannikeswaran @ 1996:
"Kailash Temple," Youtube. Short 1 minute 5 second video of Kailash temple which was dedicated to Lord Shiva in Ellora, India in mid 8th-9th century.
"The Baha'i House of Worship, Virtual Walking Tour," Short video showing New Delhi, India Baha'i temple, 2012.
"Cathedral," 57 minute 11 second youtube documentary based on David Macaulay's book, PBS, published April 1, 2012.

Daniel Abbott, "World Architecture-Middle Ages to 18th century," Diablo Valley College, Archi 157. See 12 videos on Gothic and Renaissance architecture from this college course website.
"Building Gothic Cathedrals," Nova PBS series on Sacred Architecture, Aired October 5, 2011. 58 minute video on middle age Gothic architecture. See other sacred architecture videos, documentaries and podcasts on this Nova website.
Lasse Vestergard, "History of the World,", November 3, 2013. Eurocentric website with flickr photos of microscale architecture built with collectible minifigs. Not a documentary or video, but a slideshow timeline. See Lego Architecture (brick legos) website:

See more images of Lego monumental architecture:
Paul Andrews, "Around the World With 35 Famous Lego Monuments and Buildings,", October 11, 2009.
"Emily Whiting: Architectural Engineer," Secret Life of Scientists, Nova PBS. Emily Whiting is an architectural engineer who specializes in Gothic cathedrals and learning how they have stood so long and transferring that knowledge into modern building. She is also an avid rock climber. See the four short video clips on her research, rock climbing, and architectural research.
"Taj Mahal," PBS Treasures of the World series, 1999. 58 minute youtube documentary video on building of the Taj Mahal.
"Paradise Found Islamic Architecture and Art," 1:33:25 documentary video narrated by Waldemar Janoszczak added to youtube December 24, 2012. Janoszczak states, "True test of civilization is it's architecture. Architecture never lies as evidenced by the Greek and Islamic civilizations."
"Documentary (51:20): Aperture, Yazd, Iran, Press TV Doc, 2013, Daily Motion documentary video showing architecture and history of Iranian oasis city, Yazd, and it's famous wind tunnels which draw hot air out of buildings.
"Sinan the Islamic Architect," Ottoman Architecture Video, 4:56. Suleiman's architect Sinan is featured. Examples of his domed mosques and monumental architecture, published May 5, 2008. Biography of Sinan born 1489 of Greek Christian parents drafted into the Ottoman army becoming a construction officer and architect, d. 1588:
"Sinan-The Greatest Architect," Ottoman Architecture Video, 5:47.
"Seven Ancient Wonders of the World," See eight short video clips of ancient architectural wonders such as Egypt's pyramids, etc.
"Khmer Architecture," youtube, (9:15) uploaded December 8, 2009. Turning volume down helped me get through this video. Perhaps having students viewing the images for 3 minutes and asking them what they see as to these Angkor Wat pieces of architecture. The Khmer emperors ruled with powerful divine right as evidenced in the religious and political architecture.
Dave Ethio, "Ethiopian Ancient Architecture and The Ethiopian History-Documentary," (56:55), July 7, 2012.
"Architecture Videos and documentaries," Architecturalvdos.blogspot, September 2011.
"Architecture," See a number of modern videos on architecture, most western.
"History of the Empire State Building," Deconstructing History from, video 2 minutes. Also see 16 other video shorts on architectural wonders such as the Taj Mahal, Buckingham Palace, etc. as you scroll down the page.
"Less is a Bore: A Lesson in Postmodern Architecture," Slog The Stranger, March 7, 2013. Seven minute video posted by Charles Mudede on Postmodern architecture.
Kenney Mencher, "Architecture in the Early 20th Century: Modernism, Bahaus, DeStijl and the International Style," May 17, 2012. Video slide show (27:32).
"Profile of the La Sagrada Familia,", Architecture. 2 minute 35 second video of Antonio Gaudi's 1883 design of the La Sagrada Familia which exhibits Gothic Naturalism and Gaudi's genius of combining naturalist/landscape design into the cathedral.
Elizabeth Lev, "The Development of Sacred Space in Rome, the Cradle of Christian Architecture," Biola University (California private Christian university) 43 minute Video lecture.
"Sacred Space," Catholic TV of Boston 27 minute video interview by Bishop Coyne of artist and architect Rita Smith who has designed Catholic churches in the Boston area.
"Aboriginal Architecture-Living Architecture," Bullfrog films. "Seven North American Native Communities that reinterpret traditional forms for contemporary purposes." See 3 minute video clip.
"Watch Fire Ants Use Their Bodies to Form Living Architecture," Smithsonian Magazine blog, November 27, 2013. See short video clip (1:27) "moving" photographs of Brazilian fire ants building bridges, etc. These fire ants live underground but when it floods they use their bodies to build architecture to move from danger.
"Art Talk: Architecture of War," Imperial War Museum, London, 49:43 youtube video, posted November 20, 2013. A panel of experts talks about theme of construction during WW I through WW II by examining images of work places, fortifications and mechanisms built for war.
David Sheen, "Anarchist Architecture-Healthy Architecture," posted November 20, 2010 as an introduction/trailer to Sheen's documentary, "First Earth," a look at using healthy building materials from the earth as architectural elements and an attack on our consumer culture.4:18 VIDEO.
"Architecture For the Poor,", posted May 11, 2007. Video 8:55, Architecture Education Exhibition 2001 King Mongkut's Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Thailand. See school website:
David Sheen, "First Earth: Uncompromising Ecological Architecture Video," 9:23 video documentary-What's Wrong With Architecture-Prologue to full length documentary, "First Earth."
David Sheen, "The Future of Architecture," PM Press, TED Talks, Johannesburg, South Africa, November 2010. Sheen synthesizes his 90 minute documentary, "First Earth," into a 17 minute 24 second Ted Talk Video.
Leopold Lambert, "Law and Architecture," Lund School of Architecture video,, 2012. Leopold Lambert is editor of Funambulist architecture website. (48 minutes) Seen in:
"Books on American Cities," Book TV CSpan 2. See two Video discussions on American Cities, first being Andrew Moore's "Detroit Disassembled," a photographic documentary of a crumbling industrial city with poet Philip Levin who worked on an assembly line. Moore's photographs show the crumbling architecture of Detroit, Michigan. See more of Andrew Moore's work from Akron Art Museum exhibit and Western Reserve Public Media Special film documentary (24 minutes) which aired July 3, 2010:
Katrina Cizek, "History of the Highrise," NY Times Docu Op, October 2013. Four interactive videos/films dealing with architecture and social equality in an increasedly urbanized world, ie., "who lives on the top floor?" Pt. I, "Mud," Pt. 2 "Concrete," Pt. 3, "Glass."
"Dubai-Engineering a Desert," Discovery Channel, 2013. 43 minute video on the building of Dubai, engineering and architecture in a desert. See Dubai video in first row of Discovery documentaries.
"Frank Gehry: Deconstructivist Architecture," youtube, (4:56), uploaded November 25, 2009.
"Frank Gehry: My days as a young rebel," Ted Talks video, filmed March 1990 posted March 13. 2008. Frank Gehry discusses his architecture with a slide show presentation in this 44 minute Ted Talk video
"Frank Gehry: A Master Architect asks, Now What?" Ted Talks 22 minute video with Richard Saul, filmed February 2002 posted January 2008. See other architecture videos on right side of this page. Richard Saul begins video with claiming Frank Gehry was not a "sell out" in his career. See North American section for a criticism of Gehry's "deconstructivist" architecture from Niklos Salingaroos who argues for Unified Architecture style.
Dr. Ronald Rael, "Borderwall as Architecture," series of videos posted by Berkeley professor Ronald Rael on the US-Mexico borderwall and how to make the wall a helper and not a divider. Series of videos.
"Who Builds Your Architecture," What is the Architect's responsibility to workers who build the buildings and the environment surrounding the architecture 2:06:56 Video from The New School, New York City published May 7, 2012. This panel discussion examines architecture, or, for that matter, all art and social justice and living ethically.
Kenneth Frampton, "Architecture in the Age of Globalization," 1:41:30 Video of lecture given at Harvard University Graduate School of Design, published July 25, 2013. Dr. Frampton is Ware Professor of Architecture at Columbia University, New York.
Steve Erickson, "Doug Aitken is Redefining How We Experience Art," Smithsonian Magazine, December 2013. Background article to video 2:53 "A Multimedia Spectacle at the Hirshhorn," showing artist Doug Aitken transforming the outside of the Hirshhorn Art Museum into a panoramic movie screen. An example of syncretism, architecture and video as urban earth work of art. See 2:53 video here:


  Figure 3: Traditional Hawaiian grass house.

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Source of photograph: "Hawaiian Architecture," Hawaii History. Note Hawaiian culture included an architecture skilled group in the Kahuna class responsible for leading the community in building projects of all types. This traditional Polynesian home was called a "hale."
"Ancient Oceania Architecture," site, revised April 3, 2009. Photographs and short summaries of ancient Oceania architecture.
"Micronesia-Aspects of the Mariana Islands," Our Pacific Ocean, revised December 2, 2008. See precolonial megaliths architecture constructed by Chamorros called "latte."
Frederick Ratzel, "Oceania Architecture," Inquire Within. Frederick Ratzel's work, on native groups throughout the world.The History of Mankind,was published in 1896.
"Oceania," Ancient World Review, September 28, 2013. See annotated videos for Oceania archaeological sites. Note Kon-Tiki 1947 video does not open.
Tim Thomas (U. of Otago), Peter Sheppard (Auckland U.), Richard Walter (U. of Otago), "Landscape Violence and Social Bodies: Ritualized Architecture In a Solomon Islands Society," Royal Anthropological Institute, 2001, pp. 545-572 seen in
Paul Wallin and Helene Martinsson-Wallin, "Monumental Structures and the Spirit of Chiefly Actions," Time and Mind: The Journal of Archaeology, Consciousness and Culture, Volume 4 Issue 1, March 2011, pp. 43-58 seen in Gotland University, Sweden professors, Paul and Helene Martinsson-Wallin, explain monumental architecture change due to competition among Polynesian chiefs.
Geoffrey Clark and Helene Martinsson-Wallin, "Monumental Architecture in West Polynesia: Origins, Chiefs and Archaeological Approaches," Archael, Oceania 42 Supplement, 2007, pp. 28-40 seen in
"Nan Modal," Ancient.wisdom. Nan Modal is a ruined city on the island of Pohnpei in Micronesia formerly the capital of the Sandeleur dynasty until 1500 CE. Nan Modal was called the Venice of the Pacific as numerous canals connected ceremonial sites on this island that claimed 25, 000 inhabitants with occupation evident from the 1st and 2nd centuries CE and complex architecture noted in 8th and 9th centuries CE.
"Oceania," National Museum of Natural Science, @ 2007. See tabs and links to Oceania settlements, dwellings and culture, Building forms, building techniques.
"Oceanic Art and Architecture," Encyclopedia Britannica on-line. A number of pages of Oceania's art and architecture.
Peter Shaw, "Architecture in New Zealand-Traditional Maori Architecture," Daejeon, Korea Architectural website, AWA.
"The Pa Maori or Fortified Village," Military Architecture, @ 2011-2012. Click on "READ MORE" to see long article on this New Zealand ancient Maori village fortification architecture. Also see other resources for military architecture on this website. Home page for Military Architecture website:
Philip Drew review of Paul Memmott, "Gunyah-Goondie-Wurley: The Aboriginal Architecture of Australia," University of Queensland Press, 2007 seen in Sydney Morning Herald, December 14, 2007. Memmott's work is the first anthropological work to detail Australian Aboriginal architecture and turns on its head the belief that Indigenous People were devoid of houses or towns when Europeans first reached Australia. See excerpts of Paul Memmott's book:
David Gardiner and Kathryn Wells, "Australian Indigenous Architecture," Australia Government, last updated January 7, 2008.
Shaneen Fantin, Aboriginal Identities in Architecture, September 1, 2003 seen in Architecture Australia September 2003 (Vol. 92, No. 5).
Clare Melhuish, "Gendered Space in Traditional Architecture," Gender and the Built Environment Database. Ms. Melhuish focuses on the Waripiri, aboriginal people of Australia, and gender separation of the "jilimi" or separate house for widows, healing place for women during and after childbirth with short mention of the traditional Indian/Hindu family house or "haveli." See other articles and case studies on right side of this page.
Greg Cowan, "Nomadic Resistance: Tent Embassies and Collapsible Architecture, Illegal Architecture and Protest." Greg Cowan discusses the Aboriginal Tent Embassy protest movement which has been camped outside the Canberra Provisional Parliament House since 1972 protesting "illegal" British camping/colonization of Australia.
Michael John Kolb, "Social Power, Chiefly Authority, and Ceremonial Architecture in an Island Polity, Maui, Hawaii," Paper written for PhD dissertation for the University of California, Los Angeles Anthropology department, 1991. Seen in Note discussions of Heiau architecture sites built for ceremonial rituals.
Jennifer Kahn, "Power and Precedence in Ancient House Societies: A Case Study From the Society Island Chiefdoms," 2007, seen in Jennifer Kahn cites Claude Levi Strauss in her introduction for establishing "societes a maisons" as a method for establishing and defining primary social grouping. Social organization and social relationships relate to architectural space in societies. Strauss cited Indonesia, Melanesia and Polynesia as examples of this sociological rubric.
Michael John Kolb, Diachronic Design Changes in Heiau Temple Architecture on the Island of Maui, Hawai'i, Asian Perspectives, Vol. 31, no. 1, Spring 1992, University of Hawaii Press. Michael Kolb was archaeologist with the State Historic Preservation Division, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Honolulu, Hawaii in 1992.
Mark D. McCoy, "Life Outside the Temple: Reconstructing Traditional Hawaiian Ritual and Religion Through Ritualized Practices," Paper presented at conference in 2008. Paper seen in In Mark McCoy's abstract for this paper he claims, "the construction of increasedly larger, more elaborate and standardized temples is a common trajectory identified with the rise of complex societies. However, this focus on temple studies can (narrow) how we view ancient ritual and religion. we should employ a practice theory. by which certain places, people and objects are made to stand out from the everyday." McCoy uses a case study from the Hawaiian Islands to understand the "place of ideology in the evolution of complex societies." See more on Dr. McCoy's papers:
Mark McCoy, University of Otago, Architecture and archaeology research downloads,
Jennifer G. Kahn & Patrick V. Kirch, Residential Landscapes and House Societies of the Late Prehistoric Society, Islands, Journal of Pacific Archaeology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2013 seen in See more of Jennifer Kahn's research:
Jennifer Kahn, College of William and Mary Anthropology professor specializing in Landscape Architecture. See her research on See information on Patrick V. Kirch:

"Architecture-The Races of Oceania-Labour, Dwellings and Food in Oceania," -3 Volumes, London: Macmillan Publishing, 1896 by Professor Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904). Late 19th century research on Oceania/Polynesia seen in The History of Mankind. Architecture with pictures/drawings by German zoologist/biologist turned geographer and ethnographer seen in this late 19th century work.
Tasha Eichenseher, "A Culture Written in Stone and Soil," National Geographic News, February 18, 2011. Journalist Tasha Eichenseher wrote this article from Mo'orea where the Nuuroa Marae stone structure complex was found in Haapiti, Mo'orea (French Polynesia). See comparative "lesson" on this architecture in Lessons section at the end of this article where along with the Shona people's Great Zimbabwe stone structures early European explorers felt that the Polynesians and the Shona were not capable of building these magnificent buildings.
"Traditional Architecture of the Pacific Islands," espace.library, University of Queensland, Australia, pdf. Very general overview of traditional and European influenced architecture of Australia, New Zealand and select Pacific Islands.
"Art and Architecture of Oceanic Societies," Universalium, Academic Encyclopedia and Library, Russia.
"Architecture and Symbolism," First Chinese Church of Christ in Hawaii. See First Chinese Church of Christ Hawaii website and explanation and photographs of their architecture. The church was completed in 1929.
"1930's Pacific Island Architecture," Spontoon website. See links to photographs and descriptions of Pacific island architecture and buildings.
"Hawaiian Architecture," from wikipedia. See examples of Hawaiian architecture.
Naomi Wilcock, "A Prison in the Pacific," World Architecture News, March 14, 2013. Spanish architects win architecture competition with Ocean Prison Design.
MSAP Hawaii website which celebrates Muslim art and architecture in the Asia Pacific region. See articles on Muslim architecture globally.
Sustainable Projects for Pacific Rim Cities, Sustainable Pacific @ 2012. See urban design projects.
Liesi Clark and Peter Tyson, "Explore Ancient Egypt," PBS NOVA, @1996-2013. See many resources on Egypt's pyramid architecture and virtual tours of Old and New Kingdom pyramids.
Architecture, Digital Egypt, University College London, 2002. Click on each period's image for more resources and see link to Coptic Architecture.
Dr. Joyce Tyldesly, "Egypt's Pyramid Builders," BBC, February 17, 2011. The private lives of the work force that built the pyramids.
Andre Dollinger, "Aspects of Life in Ancient Egypt,", March 2001, last updated February 2011. Scroll down to "Buildings" section to see articles, drawings on ancient Egyptian architecture.
"History of Architecture South of the Sahara," See websites, links to African architecture and culture.
Ibrahim Omer, "Remarks on Kushite Temples Dated to the Napatan-Merotic Period," Ancient Sudan Art History, 2007, updated July 2009. Driven out of Egypt the Nubians built a Kingdom of Meroe 400 BCE-350 CE and prospered as Greek and Roman trade developed.
"Encyclopedia Britannica Black History-African Architecture," @ 2013.
Jackie Craven, "Ancient Architecture of Africa," Architecture, December 26, 2011. Short articles with photos of ancient African architecture.
"Ancient African Architecture," The NBS. Note two links, first one opening to other digital resources as to ancient African architecture and second link opens to website on Mali ancient architecture.
"Manding (Mande)," Arch Net. Description of West African Manding architecture with two images at bottom of this page.
"Architecture-Africa-Roots of Indigenous African Architecture,", copyright 2013. Short article citing varioussources for indigenous African architecture.
Mitchell Benham, "Literature Review: The Berber House by Pierre Bourdieu," Mitchell Benham wordpress, November 2011. Mitchell Benham discusses Pierre Bourdieu's description of a typical North African Berber house from Bourdieu's essay in ed. Setha M. Low and Denise Lawrence,The Anthropology of Space and Place: Locating Culture, Zuniga, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2003. Bourdieu's essay is in a section of the book called "Gendered Spaces." This section details how architecture can be an anthropological window into the gender relations of a culture, in this case the Berbers. See World Cat preview of Space and Place:
Tore Kjeilen, "Kharga-Oasis of Temples and Castles," Look Lex Egypt. The largest oasis in the world and former slave tradehub between Egypt, Nubia and East Africa. See photo of keyhole well from Tore Kjeilen website:

Oasis of temples and castles


  Figure 4: Traditionally keyhole shaped well, but with a modern pump helping as the pressure of the underground reservoirs has dropped in modern times.
Coptic Church architecture, Coptic website dedicated to teaching Copts in diaspora how to build a true Coptic church as was done in Egypt.
Alexia Liakounakou, "Christianity and Architecture in Ethiopia: Monuments Carved Out of Rock," Cemmis (Greece), @2010-2012. Short article on rock carved Christian churches in Ethiopia. Scroll down to bottom of page to see linked article, "Rock-Hewn Churches of Tigray, Ethiopia-1973" with photographs.
William MacNamara, "High Church," Financial Times, last updated April 7, 2012. Description of rock hewn churches of northern Ethiopia's Tigray region with photos.
"Architecture-Africa-Triple Heritage Architectural Concept,", copyright 2013. Short article on Christian, Muslim, traditional religions and their effects on domestic architecture of African homes.
Jean-Paul Bourdier, Trinh T. Minh-ha,"Vernacular Architecture of West Africa-A World in Dwelling,"Routledge 2011. This Routledge ad for this book includes a brief description of the book, and tabs for "Contents," "Author Bio," and other books in this genre-"Subjects" tab. Power of the book is what "home" means to west African ethnic groups and peoples. See description of book:
The dwellings of hundreds of African ethnic groups offer a variety of conceptions and building practices that contradict the widespread image of the primitive hut commonly attributed to rural Africa. Each house or group of houses is designed not only to shelter the members of a family, but also to enable intimate communication with ancestors and divinities and to harmonize with the forces of nature. Such an architecture thrives in a community context where it is simply not acceptable to plunder resources from the earth, and resources are used only in accordance with their availability, in quantity, and at times of year that minimize environmental impact. This cultural dimension and its realization through different architectural practices are illustrated in this work with examples taken from dwellings across numerous ethnic groups in sub-Saharan West Africa. Drawings, plans, axonometric projections, and photographs show the beauty and complexity of this architecture that is a spiritual praxis--as much place of life as work of art.
David Conrad, "Empires of Medieval West Africa: Ghana, Mali and Songhay, Great Empires of the Past, NY: Facts on File, Inc. 2005, Ancient and Medieval History Online, Facts on file. Arab Scholar al-Bakri's description of western Sudan Soninke (Ghana) empire, culture and architecture. Al-Bakri lived in Cordova, Spain and gained knowledge of the culture and capitol city from traveling Muslim merchants, 1067-1068 CE.
Kmt Space website featuring African art and architecture.
"Wonders of Africa," PBS website featuring various African regions, cities and their architectural, artistic wonders or treasures. The Website is interactive with resources for educators.
K. Kris Hurst, "Swahili Towns-Medieval Communities of the Swahili Coast," Archaeology
Kevin Butler, "Yoruba Architecture," ANT3145Yoruba, See drawings and description of a typical Yoruba town.
Anselm E. O. Ench and Ojanigu Friday Ati, "The Influence of Rainfall on Hausa Traditional Architecture," Research Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology, 2(8): 695-702, 2010 @ Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2010. Both authors of this article are from Ahmadu Bello University in Zaria, Nigeria, Ench from the Department ofArchitecture, Faculty of Environmental Design and Ati from the Geography Department.
"Zulu Architecture," Afropedia. Short article of Zulu architecture with pictures. See kraal and Zulu huts built so strong only an elephant could destroy them.
"Zulu Kraal," Great Buildings. Click on "Google Images" tab to see articles with photographs of South African Zulu kraal architecture
"Architecture-Africa-Western European Colonial Influences on African Architecture,", copyright 2013. Short article on European colonial influences on African architecture.
Cordelia O. Osasona, "From Traditional Residential Architecture to the Vernacular: The Nigerian Experience,", 2007. Paper by Cordelia O. Osasona for Department of Architecture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Osasona traces the influences of British colonial architecture and the Afro-Brazil style, which the British facilitated on the traditional architecture of southern Nigeria.
"Apartheid Architecture," Africa term paper, wikispaces. Granite Vortrekker Monument, an example of remembrance architecture and political/social power, built in 1949 in Pretoria, South Africa to honor the white farmers and settlers who moved north into the south African veldt to "colonize." See 4 videos on that movement. Comparative to European settlers moving west in American history and the many pieces of architecture honoring that history such as the St. Louis, Missouri Gateway arch designed by Finnish architect Eero Saarinen.
Herman Casakin, review of J. A. Noble, "African Identity in Post-Apartheid Public Architecture: White Skin, Black Masks," Ashgate Publishing Limted, Farnahm, 2011, seen in Noble's book revolves around five public design works beginning in post apart heid Africa 1994.
S'bu Zikode, "Despite the State's Violence, Our fight to escape the mud and fire of South Africa's slums will continue," The Guardian (UK), November 11, 2013. The Shack Dweller's movement began in Durban in 2005 and today includes 12,000 people in 60 Shack Settlements. They campaign against evictions, for public housing architecture and stopping South African cities from becoming ATMs for the rich.
"Affordable Housing in South Africa," Property 24, October 11, 2012. The South African constitution "enshrines a citizen's right to adequate housing. But, as seen in article above, the South African government has been struggling to keep up with the demand.
Labelle Prussin, The Architecture of Islam in West Africa, African Arts, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Winter, 1968), pp. 32-74. Seen in jstor from David Rifkind website, School of Architecture, Florida International University.
Dr. Babangido Hamza, "The Role of 'urf' on the Architectural Character of the Urban Hausa Traditional House in Northern Nigeria," @ 2013. Dr. Hamza, Department of Architecture Technology at Hassan Usman KatsinaPolytechnic, explains the role of "urf," translated means "to know," customs and how these cultural architectural customs played a role in urban Hausa house building.
"Religion in the Pays Dogon," Paul's Travel Blog, December 16, 2008. Traditional faith and architecture in Mali. The Dogon continue to practice traditional spirituality while surrounded by Christian and Muslim neighbors. See Paul's blog photographs of buildings in this Dogon village.
Richard Olusegun Babalola, "Intersections: Western and Yoruba Theories of Space and the City in Relation to Yoruba History," African Hermeneutic Systems blog, April 19, 2009. Richard Babalola discusses the political and cultural elements involving two architectural proposals for his Nigerian Yoruba home town "afin" or temple palace. One architectural proposals comes from "modernists" who wish a modern style while another comes from Youruba traditionalists.
Daniela Kohler,"The Anatomy of Architecture: Ontology and Metaphor in Batammaliba Architectural Expression," 6/13/2003. One page Handout (pdf) for Dr. Till Forster's Ethnologisches Seminar, University of Basel outlining Suzanne PrestonBlier's book.

Frank Toker, "African Architecture," University of Pittsburgh Architecture website.
Dr. James Bartholomay Kiracofe, Architecture of North Africa slides and images (since 2011), InterAmerican Institute.
"Mosque and Mausoleum of Sidi Ahmad al-Tijani," Islamic Arts website, May 25, 2012. See photographs of the mosque and mausoleum dedicated to Mawlana Ahmad ibn Mohammad Tijani al-Hassani al-Maghribi in Fez, Morocco.
Takeo Kamiya, "Islamic Architecture in Mali," Takeo Kamiya is a Japanese architect and he describes Mali dwelling architecture as well as the mud dried brick great mosque at Djenne.
Holland Cotter, "A Tribute to Islam, Earthen but Transcendent," NY Times, Arts and Design, April 18, 2012. A description (see other articles linked in this story) of the great Djenne, Mali mosque amidst sectarian conflict.
Arub Saqib, "A Primitive Art," arubsaqib wordpress, November 23, 2013. Ms. Saqib, a London based sustainable architect born in Colombo, lived in Karachi before migrating to London, wrote this essay on Djenne's main mosque in Architectural Journal. See Arub Saqib'swebsite:
"Historic City of Meknes," MoroccOver blog, May 2012. Photographs of Meknes in Fez, Morocco with a discussion at the bottom of the page as to history and architecture of the city. Meknes was founded in 11th century (1061 CE) by the Almoravids as a military settlement. Meknes became a capital under Sultan Moulay Ismaili (1672-1727) founder of the Alawite dynasty. Note syncretism of Islamic and European architecture in 17th century Maghreb and civilian and military architecture such as the Casbah.
"Art and Architecture of the Igbo People," Nairaland Forum. Mostly art but some architecture noted in posts with many images and photos.
Myra Wysinger, "African History and Culture website," See links that lead to architecture resources for Nubia,Egypt, Africa
"Indigenous Architecture," Africa Term Paper Wiki @ 2013. See photographs and description of South African indigenous architecture especially Khoisan and Bantu and tabs to Apartheid and European architecture in South Africa.
Peter Gleick, "Water as a weapon: Qaddafi's last desperate gamble," Forbes, September 3, 2011. Peter Gleick, CEO of the Pacific Institute and MacArthur Fellow, highlights Libya's Qaddafi's last desperate act to save his regime by cutting off water to Tripoli and other cities. In the 199's Qaddafi had built "The Great Man-Made River Project which used enormous pipelines to gain water from Saharan acquafers and pipe water throughout Libya (see link and article below). Gleick also mentions first known water war 5000 years ago between Umma and Lagash over Tigris-Euphratesirrigation canals. See more on that irrigation battle:
"The Great Man-Made River Project-Libya," Water Technology website, 2012. See history of Qaddafi's water pipeline project completed in two phases.
Dr. Mark DeLancey, "Architecture," DePaul University. Bibliography of African architecture. See Dr. DeLancey's home page for more links to African topics:
"Mezhirich/Mezhyrich-Mammoth Camp,", last updated June 25, 2013 by webmaster Don Hitchcock. This link show diarama, drawings, description of ancient mammoth bone architecture unearthed in Mezhyrich, Russia (eastern Ukraine). See more on this architecture, Richard Gray, "Neanderthals Built Homes With Mammoth Bones," Telegraph, UK, December 18, 2011:
Willie Tegel, etc. al, "Early Neolithic Water Wells and World's Oldest Wood Architecture," PLoS ONE 7(12): e51374, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051374, published December 19, 2012, editor-Michael D. Petraglio, University of Oxford, UK. Earliest wood architecture during European neolithic era, 6000-4000 BCE described in this scientific research article. See photographs and more from "Popular Archaeology," December 19, 2012:
Shivansh Singh Gautam, "Prehistoric Architecture," See descriptions and drawings of architecture at Carnac, Brittanyand Stonehenge.
Nikola Tasic, Dragoslav Srejovic, Bratislav Stojanovic, "Vinca,", Internet Library of Serb Culture, Archaeology, 1990.Description of architecture of Vinca a major Danubian region neolithic settlement 4500-3500 BCE.
"Newgrange Megalithic Passage Tomb," 3200 BCE Irish "passage tombs" which archaeologists estimate to have taken 300 men working 20 years to complete the one acre site.
Paul K. Wason, "Messages From the Monuments-How Neolithic Monuments Communicate About Religion and Status," Paul Wason, John Templeton Foundation, Radno, PA., uses the Avebury Group of monuments from Wiltshire, England and Irish Passage Tombs as evidence for his analysis of monumental architecture and their meanings.
F. Molina, etc. al, Recent Fieldwork at the Bronze Age Fortified Site of Motilla del Azur (Daimiel, Spain), Antiquity, Vol. 079, Issue 306, December 2005. Prehistoric Iberian stone forts on the area of La Mancha in central Spain dating back to 2200-1500 BCE.
"Architecture," Malta National Museum of Archaeology. The Temple Period 4100-2500 BCE in Malta.
A. Bernard Knapp, "Monumental Architecture-Identity and Memory," from Proceedings of the Symposium, Bronze Age Architecture Traditions in the Eastern Mediterranean, Diffusion and Diversity, Gasteig, Munich, May 7-8, 2008, 47-59. Power and Bronze Age architecture in Crete Malta and Cyprus by Dr. Knapp, Department of Archaeology, University of Glasgow, Scotland.
Willy Tegel,, "Early Neolithic Water Wells Reveal the World's Oldest Wood Architecture," PLOS/one, nd.
"Neolithic Architecture," Neolithic to early medieval castle architecture.
Linda Alchim, "Iron and Bronze Architecture," Ancient Fortresses website, last updated July 20, 2012. This site is dedicated to the various types of castle architecture.
"Greek Temple (1)," Merriam Webster Visual Dictionary Online." Architecture chapter of online slide share showing Greek, Roman, European architecture with annotation as to names of architectural parts of buildings. Click on arrow key to move through the slides.
Callie Williams, Development of Gendered Space: The Archaic and Classical Greek Temple, Inquiry, Vol. 7, 2006. Paper for University of Arkansas Department of Architecture faculty mentor Dr. Kim Sexton.
Dr. Allen Farber, "Roman Power/Roman Architecture," Oneonta College Art History website. See many architectural images and note three "tabs" at top of page "arth 209" for example for more resources on Greek and Roman architecture and images.
"Digital Roman Archaeology," posted by, Jennifer Carey, December 6, 2013. Digital Hadrian's Villa architecture and design links.
(Google Book) "Vitruvius," 1st century CE 10 Volumes on architecture, materials, construction methods, water management, town planning, etc.
Roger D. Hansen, "Water and Waste Water Systems in Imperial Rome," Water History. Clicking on tabs at top of this page shows a photograph or drawing of other cultures waste water systems ("Historic Eras tab) and Technology tab displays types of water architecture such as qanat, etc..
"10 Innovations That Built Ancient Rome," Note four of the ten deal with architecture.
Rick Jones and Damian Robinson, Water, Wealth, and Social Status at Pompeii: The House of the Vestals in the First Century, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 109, No. 4 (October 2005) pp. 695-710. Short selection seen in Use of water in Roman private houses has been identified as a highly visible status symbol.
Allison Reed, "Pompeii: The Rediscovered City," March 22, 2013 seen in blog for Honors course "The Construction of Western Identity in the Ancient World." Allison Reed cites Jones and Robinson research noted in above article in this short essay.
Michael Streich, "The Ancient Roman Port City of Ostia,", last updated March 22, 2009. Ostia was Rome's chief naval and commercial port in Italy engaging in the Mediterranean trade network. Ostia was a microcosm of Roman urban life and as a powerful port city an example of diversity. See comments on architecture.
"Water Battles at the Colosseum," Tribunes and Triumphs, 2008. Article explaining the staged naval battles in the Roman Colosseum.
"Watering Ancient Rome," PBS Nova, posted February 22, 2000. This website on Roman water architecture was part of "Secrets of Lost Empires" Nova program. Resources for this Nova PBS program from Dr. Peter Aicher, University of Southern Maine.
Jacqueline Gargus, "History of Architecture," Knowlton School of Architecture, Ohio State University, published October 11, 2012. Series of lectures on I-tunes (podcasts) on architectural history---European.
"Roman Architecture," Tribunes and Triumphs, @ 2008. A website dedicated to Roman Architecture.
Viking Denmark website @ 2007-2010. Note links to more resources, especially Viking architecture, on upper right side of this Home page. One can read resources and information on Viking fortresses, Viking cities, Viking Longhouses, and Viking ship architecture.
Google Book-Jeanne Halgren Kilde, "Sacred Power, Sacred Space: An Introduction to Christian Architecture and Worship," Oxford University Press, 2008. Kilde (University of Minnesota) discusses how church buildings shape and influence religion in this 248 pp. book using early Christian, Byzantine examples. See other examples of religious architecture books on this page. See google book clean version of Jeanne Halgren Kilde's in pdf:
"Middle Ages Architecture," History link 101. Romanesque, Byzantine, Gothic architecture explained in brief summaries with images and pictures.

"Art of the Crusade Period in Europe," University of Michigan website, last updated December 8, 1997. See Romanesque, Gothic and Islamicarchitecture.
"Castle," Architect World blog, August 31, 2010. Blogspot designed to highlight architecture in world history. This thread on castles built in Middle Ages in Europe and the Middle East.
Helen Gittos, "Liturgy, Architecture and Sacred Places in Anglo-Saxon England,"Oxford University Press, 2013. (Google book) Note selections of Helen Gittos's book available on this link.
"Gothic Architecture as Weapon," Sassafras Tree blog, December 4, 2012. Interesting analysis/point of view of Gothic cathedrals sprouting like spears replacing Romanesque architecture as protector of Church wealth whichincreased during the crusades andenemy to dissenters.
Google Book-Paul Hirst, Polity, June 24, 2005. Paul Hirst,"Space and Power: Politics, War and Architecture," examines how space is configured by power and how space becomes a resource for power using land and sea as backdrops. See case studiesin Chapter 5, Christians in Spain, Ottomans in the Balkans, Spain in Mexico, and Europeans settling the North American frontier.
"Characteristics of Elizabethan Architecture," Archit-home blog, March 8, 2011. Short article on social class and architecture during Elizabethan England era. See other architecture resources with videos on left side of page. The Elizabethan architecutre youtube video at end of this slim article does not open.
Fernando Valdes, "Al-Andalus: The Orient of the West," Islamic Art & Architecture, April 5, 2012.
"Architecture," From Cities of Light-The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain documentary,
"Al Andalus-Spain," espliego wordpress, October 19, 2012. Photos and descriptions with links of great architecture of Al-AndalusianSpain.
"The Alhambra," Great Buildings website. Spanish Moorish style architecture-14th century. See walking tour of the Alhambra in Saudi Aramco World, September/October 2013:
James Butler, "Moorish Architecture," Pinterest, 2009. See pinterest photographs of Moorish architecture in Spain. Moorish architecture has come to be defined as Berber-Islamic architecture of North Africa, Al-Anadalus and Al-Garb Al-Andalus. Also may include Islamic architecture of southern Italy such as The Palazzo dei Normanni in Sicily, 9th century architecture begun by the Emir of Palermo. See 2: 11 youtube video (uploadedJune 17, 2010) ofthe Palazzo which became the seat of Kings: and 8:25 slide show (Youtube uploaded October 14, 2009): See brief history of Saracen and Norman architecture and history below:
"Palermo and the Normans," Paradox place website. Brief history with architectural photos explaining how the Normans took Palermo in 1072 from the Saracens/Arabs who had ruled Sicily from 831-1072. Note Saracens allowed to stay in administrative control, but the Normans savaging the mosques must have created some tension.
Sotiris Dimitriadis, "Salonica in the Age of Ports-Urban and Social Transformation in the Ottoman Mediterranean," Ottoman History podcast, Episode 94, February 23, 2013. Salonica/Salonika or modern day Greece change over time as to architecture of urban space and it's social effects.
Jean Manco, "Researching Historic Buildings in the British Isles," last updated November 17, 2013. See many links to all aspects of British Isle buildings, villages, and towns.
"Hobbit Style Architecture," Trend Hunter Art and Design, January 18, 2009. Family in Wales had the Hobbit style home built in 4 months for $4,425 and live in it.
George P. Landow, "Charles L. Eastlake on Evangelical Protestants and Roman Catholic Resistance to the Gothic Revival," The Victorian Web. See Gothic Revival tab at bottom of this short selection. Landow highlights Evangelica Protestant's resistance to any architecture that reminded them of Roman Catholicism.
Karen Cilento, "Ossuary Orthen/Buijsenpennock Architects," Arch Daily, December 28, 2009. In the Netherlands land was reclaimed from a cemetery and 12,000 bodies removed and "re-buried" in this ossuary.
"Skull Chapel Kaplica Czaszek, Poland," Smithsonian Magazine blog, October 31, 2013-Halloween. From 1776-1804 a Polish Catholic priest at the Kaplica Czaszek chapel in Poland gathers skulls and thigh bones from 3000 victims of the 30 Years War, Silesian Wars and cholera outbreaks as a shrine for the dead. He modeled the chapel of skulls after ossuaries and catacombs in Rome.
"Wooden Synagogues of Poland-An Exhibition: 'A Lost World Revisited,'" Hands House. 17th-18th century wooden synagogues from Polish Lithuania Commonwealth. See beautiful slide show link on upper left of page. Focus is on Zabludow and Gwazdziec Synagogues.

Mike Rose website, "Synagogues of Poland," Brief page of photographs sampling the synagogues of Poland. Prewar Poland housed 6000 Jewish synagogues. See link at bottom of this page to Jewish synagogue photos in Eastern Europe.
Linda Hart, "Exploiting the Classical Past: Student Restoration Drawings From the French and American Academies in Rome," Architronic, 1993. A comparative of French and American architecture education during late 17th through 19th century.
Professor Jeffrey Howe, "Baroque Architecture-Versailles," A Digital Archive of Architecture, Boston College, 1997. This page includes Dr. Howe's color slides of Versailles built 1660-1685 with Louis XVI moving his court to Versailles in 1677. See other European and American architecture links and tabs at top and bottom of this page.
Paul Milburn (UK), "Romanticism in Architecture-an Essay,", posted January 25, 2011. This essay responds to the following prompt: Account for the expression of the Romantic in Architecture. In what ways did it depart from the Classic in terms of style and philosophy?
"Neoclassical and Romantic Architecture,", @ 2008-2013. Romantic architecture was also called Neogothic.
"Empire Style Architecture," Essential-Architecture website. Empire style has been labeled as second phase of neoclassicism in early 19th century based on Roman Empire architecture.
Review of Duncan G. Stroik, "The Church Building as a Sacred Place: Beauty, Transcendence and the Eternal," @ 2013. See review of Notre Dame Professor of Architecture Duncan Stroik's book and scroll down to read anotheressay by Dr. Stroik, "10 Myths of Contemporary Church Architecture."
"Women and Architecture in European History," Thirty five sources for Women and gender in European architecture.
Melvyn Bragg, "Architecture and Power," BBC Radio 4 audio podcast (41:45). Melvyn Bragg interviews Adrian Tinniswood (architectural historian-see link 2 posts below), Gavin Stamp (MacKintosh School of Architecture, Glasgow School ofArt), and Gillian Darley (Architectural historian and biographer of John Soane-see link below), first broadcast October 31, 2002.Wealth, status and power exhibited in European architectural history.
Joanna F. Penn, "John Soane, Architect, Sculptor of Light, Creator of the 'Freemason's Ark," blogsite, nd. John Soane, born 1753, became one of England's great architects. Ms. Penn describes his architecture and includes 4:02 video of John Soane Museum in London.
Adrian Tinniswood, "A History of British Architecture," BBC (UK), last updated March 29, 2011. Summary of British architecture with photographs from 1066 to the present. Adrian Tinniswood has written books on Christopher Wren and Architecture of Ancient Rome to modern Paris.
Tristan Bridges, "Gender Segregation by Victorian Design," Inequality by (Interior) Design blog, March 5, 2012. Short article on Victorian home architecture and gender.
"Early Modern Architecture," 38 slideshare posted by bassmanb. Europe.
Dr. Kathleen Cohen, "19th Century Paris Project," San Jose State University, 2000. This website designed and built by students in this Art History course. See tabs, especially, "Architecture."
"Seating Plan for a French Opera House," Note price of 4th "floor" seats reserved for the poor. Theatre Architecture separated the classes. Is it the same for sports arenas, etc. where the cheap seats are higher up which keeps the "poor" customers away from the wealthy in the boxes or front row seats? Comparative to city design and architecture--keep em separated. See short article with photos on India and Brazil:


  Figure 5: Andre Victor Edward Devambez (1867-1943) Paris Concert Colonne oil on canvas, Paris, Musee d'Orsay, art02091
Jackie Craven, "Charles Garnier-Designer of the Paris Opera,"
"Crystal Palace 1851," Victorian Web, last updated April 30, 2011. Links to England's Crystal Palace architecture. The "Palace" was moved to south London in 1854 and burned down in 1936. See links to Chinese architecture firms plans to rebuild the Crystal Palace on it's south London site by 2018 at the end of this Europe section.
"The Ecology of a Slum," Affordable Housing Institute, February 24, 2009,Pt. 1. Most of this 3 part story of 19th century Victorian England's battle to fight disease and clean up the filth in their slums. Engineering or architecture? I would argue both.
"Architecture History-Industrial Revolution," 26 part slide share by omarnene. See other slide shares on right of page and scroll down to see transcript of the slide share.
"History-Barricades in Paris 1830-1968: The Defensive Architecture of Insurgencies," The Funambulistarchitectural narratives website, ed. by Leopold Lambert, January 8, 2012. See article with photographs exhibiting 138 years of change over time as insurgents build barricades in the narrow Parisian streets.
Mark Traugott, "History: The Insurgent Barricade," The Funambulist, January 31, 2012. French barricades.
"Weaponized Architecture-Cruel Designs," The Funambulist, 2012-2013 narratives/essays on cruel architecture such as Kafka's Penal Colony death machine, The Killing Steps of the Mayans, The E. Street Penitentiary Panopticon in Philadelphia designed in the Jeremy Benthan late 19th century style, The Contemporaneous Castles of the post-2001 era, The Carceral Treadmill in 19th century London prison, Palestinian architecture, etc.
"Gaudi, the genius of Catalan Architecture," blogonlyapartments, February 19, 2009. Spanish and Catalan architect (1852-1926) Antonio Gaudi was a figure of the Modernist/Art Noveau movement designing architecture in Barcelona. See video clip of Gaudi's "La Sagrada Familia" design:
"Spanish Architects," Don Quijote Spanish school. See links to three great Spanish architect's biographies, Antonio Gaudi, Ricardo Bofill and Santiago Calatrava.
Charlotte Jirousek, "De Stijl, Bauhaus and International Modernist architecture," Cornell University @ 1995. Holland's 1920 De Stijl architecture styleevolved into the International Style, Walter Gropius and the Bauhaus School of Design 1919, and Post-Modernistarchitecture.
Joy Neumeyer, "Shacking up in Soviet Utopia: Moscow's Avant Garde Worker's Housing," The Moscow News, April 2, 2013. In 1920's avante garde architectures dreamed of building "rabochiye posyolki" or worker's settlements with a clean modern style. Stalin crushed the avante garde movement and 26 remain in Moscow today.
"Stalinist Architecture of Minsk," Eastern bloc Travel, News, History and Media,, 2012. See photos and short history of Stalinist architecture in Minsk, Russia.
"Ludwig Mies van der Rohe," Architecture German who replaced Walter Gropius at the Bauhaus and taught architecture was best when it was less. See more van der Rohe resources from Great Buildings site: See Postmodern reaction to "Less is More" as "Less is a Bore" in The Stranger Slog posted by Charles Mudede, March 7, 2013:
"Le Corbusier-Architect," Great Buildings website. Swiss architect champion of the International Style. See his works in this website. See more Le Corbusier resources from Architecture site:
Alexandra Lange, "Le Corbusier Exhibition at MOMA," New Yorker culture blog, June 18, 2013. Swiss architect Le Corbusier exhibit at Museum of Modern Art discussed by Alexandra Lange. One can go to the New Yorker's "Find" search box, type in "architecture" and see many articles. I saw 154.
David Galbraith, "Nine Utopian Architectural Projects for a Brave New World,", February 24, 2012 originally seen in
Ebenezer Howard Garden City 1902, Frank Lloyd Wright, Walt Disney,Le Corbusier, Charles Fourier's Phalanstere are some of the examples one can see annotated in a slide share by clicking on the "drawing."
Google Book. Rudolf Steiner, "Architecture: An Introductory Reader,"Rudolf Steiner Press, 2003. An Austrianarchitect and occult philosopher (1861-1925) who was influenced by Goethe attempted to tie architecture and the spiritual.
"Finnish Pavilion, Paris," Great Buildings, Finnish architect Alvar Aalto's 1937 architectural design drew notice at the Parisworld fair.
Owen Hatherley, "Review: Louis Kahn: The Power of Architecture," Icon Eye-Icon Magazine online, 2013. Hatherley reviews the 2013 Louis Kahn exhibit and says that the Estonian-American modernist exhibition's aim is to lift Kahn "to 20th century architect's Mount Olympus, alongside Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe." Mr. Hatherley's says the exhibit fails to accomplish that aim.
"Architecture of War," Imperial War Museum, London @ 2013. Exhibit dedicated to researching and analyzingwar's effects on the urban landscape and environment.
Allison Meier, "The Ruins, Rubble and Architecture of War in Art,", August 9, 2013. The architecture of war is more accurately the ruins it leaves behinds. This London exhibit at the partially re-opened Imperial War Museum uses art to depict rubble and the building of war.
Jean-Louis Cohen and Mirko Zardini, "Architecture in Uniform," The Design Observer Group, posted May 9, 2011. See summary of articles by Cohen and Zardini and slideshow of their WW II essays. Cohen discusses WW II Industrial camoflage architecture while Canadian Mirko Zardini discusses WW II building for the military.
Roberta Pergher, "Art: Tool of the Nazi State," History 208, Fall 2007, University of Michigan. Roberta Pergher's website on Nazi Art as a tool of the state. This link displays "Order From Stone: Nazi Architecture."
Michael Sorkin, "Hitler's Classical Architect," The Nation, June 10-17, 2013. Michael Sorkin, The Nation's Architecture critic, questions why Leon Krier wants to revisit Albert Speer's Nazi architecture.
Peter Eisenman with Introduction by Eric Wills, "Revisiting the Reich," Ethics, -The Magazine ofArchitecture,American Institute of Architects, March 2013, posted April 8, 2013. Peter Eisenman debates Leon Krier as tohis newly republished book on Nazi Architect Albert Speer in which Krier claims a war criminal can be a great artist.
See Leon Krier website: and extracts of Leon Krier on "The Suppression of Classical Architecture in Postwar Germany," 1981, 1983, 1998.
Michael Z. Wise, "Hitler's Words Into Stone-Can Architecture Itself be Fascist?" Wall Street Journal book review of Leon Krier's book on Albert Speer, April 12, 2013. Mr. Wise is author of Capital Dilemma: German Search For A New Architecture of Democracy.
"Jewish Memorial at Dachau," @ 1998. Frankfurt architect Hermann Zwi Guttmann designed this Jewish Holocaust Memorial with Catholic convent in background as remembrance art.
Richard Anderson, "USA/USSR: Architecture and War," Grey Room 34, Winter 2009, pp. 80-103 @ 2009 Grey Room Inc. and Massachusett's Institute of Technology seen in Columbia University Art History website. Anderson discusses 1945 Russia and their interest in US architecture technology and wonders why there could not have been an attempt to collaborate and bring the two nations together after WW II.
Anthony Vilder, "Troubles in Theory Part III: The Great Divide: Technology vs. Tradition," The Architectural Review, July 24, 2012. One can access Pt. 1 and 2 by subscribing free to "The Architectural Review" at bottom of this article. Anthony Vilders discusses, using past articles from "The Architectural Review" theoretical divides in Western architecture.
Lebbeus Woods, "War and Architecture: Three Principles," Lebbeus Woods blog, December 15, 2011. In 1993Lebbeus Woods, architect, traveled to Sarajevo, Bosnia and witnessed the three year attack on that city. He revisited his earlier reconstruction article with thoughts on how globalization is causing the destruction through warfare of many urban areas. He cites three principles of reconstruction for these war ravaged areas. See Lebbeus Woods obituary in Architect Record by Mark Lamster, October 13, 2012:
Lebbeus Woods, "War and Architecture (Pamphlet Architecture)," January 1, 1996, 40 pp. paperback. Pamphlet Architecture begun in 1977 by William Stout and Steven Holl as an independent vehicle for dialogue among architects.
Alex Vasudevan, "Schwarzwohnen-Spatial Politics of Squatting in East Berlin," Open Security/Open Democracy, October 21, 2013. Alex Vasudevan explains the East Berlin squatting movement in 1960's-1980's East Berlin due to dilapidated Socialist architecture seen in housing and apartments.
"The Construction of the Berlin Wall," See links for more resources on left side of page in this short description of Berlin wall architecture begun in 1961.
Dr. Wendy Pullan, "Berlin," Conflict in Cities and the Contested State, University of Cambridge (UK), 2007. Architecture of cities inconflict. See Dr. Pullan's Home Page from University of Cambridge of other conflicted cities and contested states such as Brussels,Northern Ireland, Baghdad, Nicosia, Jerusalem, etc.:
Benjamin Maack "A Vision in Concrete: Photographer Captures Beauty in Communist Architecture," Spiegel, July 29, 2011. See 17slide Photo gallery of Socialist/communist architecture by Roman Bezjak, born in Slovenia but raised in WestGermany who spent five years photographing these buildings. Note many other links to architecture on this page.
Marina Gogeanu, "The Ashes of Communism," communistism.wordpress, January/February 2013. A series of short articles on communist architecture in Romania, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria with photographs and a short two minute video. Supported by the University of Coventry.
Social Realist Architecture, essential--architecture. Social Realist Architectural style refuted 20th century modernist architecture.
Francesco Vitale (University of Salerno), "Jacques Derrida and the Politics of Architecture," September 2010, pp. 215-226. Jacques Derrida (1930-2004) was born in French Algeria and was the father of deconstruction of text, literature, architecture, politics which angered conservatives.
Cameron Sinclair, "Architectural Intolerance in Switzerland," Huffington Post-World, December 3, 2009. Cameron Sinclair, co-founder of Architecture for Humanity and Open Architecture Network, claims the Swiss are "racist" for their vote to ban minarets in Switzerland.
"Large Hadron Collider," Cern website. Large super collider built by CERN (European Organization for NuclearResearch) from 1998-2008 as architecture in Geneva, Switzerland to observe the heavens to test theories of particle and high-energy physics.and wherethe Higgs Boson particle was observed.
Loraine Lawson, "CERN Revamps Architecture to Better Support Hadron's Big Data," it business edge blog, September 19,2013. CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research)administrator says Google does it better but CERN is trying to update it's architecture at the Hadron super colliderto better collect big data from the heavens.
"Neighbourhood Sport Hall, Belgium: Schaarbeek Architecture," e-architect (UK), April 15, 2013. This e-architect short piece claims Belgium sport hall, even though located in an upper class neighborhood, is a "unifier" for young people in that area.

Viviana Narotzky, "Design and Collective Identities From Nation States to the Global Market,", Design and Culture in the Twentieth Century Project, Australia. This lecture is part of an Australian design school project examining Canadian, Germanand English design schools and how they reflect nationalist and collective identities.
Bart Lootsma, "From Pluralism to Populism-Architectural Criticism in Times of the Internet," Serbian Architectural Review, March 2011. Lootsma, University of Innsbruck Institution of Architectural Theory, History, and Land-mark Preservation, discusses change over time as to architecture's purpose and Architecture criticism. He says in his abstract:
"Architecture has changed from a discipline in service of the larger part of the population through public housing,public building, public spaces, urban planning and design to a particular and already in itself disparate niche market of the real estate business that has more to do with the media industry than with public tasks. Architectural criticism has become part of this media industry as well."
Vikas Shah interview, "The Role of Architecture in Humanity's Story," Thought Economics, June 18, 2012. "ThoughtEconomics" interviews the world's leading thinkers on various topics. Vikas Shah interviews American and European architects and professors of architecture as to the nature of architecture, how it relates to culture and architecture's future.
Google Book-David Spurr, "Architecture and Modern Literature," University of Michigan Press, 2012, 285 pages. Dr. David Spurr's euro-centric research on architectural space in early 19th-present literature.
Witold Rybczynski, "How Architecture Works: A Humanist's Toolkit," Farrar, Straus and Giroux, October 2013. See book excerpts, a brief review, author website. Rybczynski is an award winning architectural writer who uses mostly European and American examples in this primer.
Zoe Ryan, etc. al, "Building With Water," Birkhauser, 2010. book reviewed with photographs of European modern architecturein Design Boom on-line website.
"Heart of Africa Biodome to Bring Tropical Rainforest to the UK," Inhabitat, @ 2013. Seven picture slide share unveiling England Zoo biodome to open in 2014 which will mimic the rainforest habitat of the African Congo.
Owen Hatherley, "Plans to Recreate the Crystal Palace are as Jingoistic as a Gove History Lesson," The Guardian, July 29, 2013. The Crystal Palace was built in 1851 London then moved to the suburbs of south London in 1854. It was then burned down in 1936. Mr. Hatherley is not pleased with Chinese architectural teams plan to rebuild Crystal Palace on the 1854 site saying "rebuilding monumentsof the past fails to meet the challenge of building for today's (England)." See more as to Chinese architecture plans:
"The Impressive Results of When You Ask Architects to Build With Gingerbread," Smithsonian Magazine blog, December 19, 2013, posted by Jimmy Stamp. Gingerbread introduced into Europe by 10th century with "gingerbread shaping" being common by 15th century. See examples of modern gingerbread architecture designs within the Christmasseason context.
"Norte Chico Culture of Peru," Alternative Archaeology. This ancient Peruvian civilization discovered in 1905 but ignored due to lack of gold or silver was re-discovered in 1990's. Note architecture of this culture dating back to 9210 BCE.
"El Paraiso-the Paradise," Lima Easy-Lima, Peru history and cultures. Brief description of Lima region architecture and culture 2200 BCE. Ceremonial and monumental architecture example.
Rebecca Guilfoyle, "Olmec Architecture," Prezi slide share, November 14, 2010.
Richard Thornton, "The Olmecs of Tabasco, Mexico and the Smoky Mountains," Examiner, November 14, 2010. Cultural theory is that the earthen architecture of the Olmecs became the architecture of the southeastern Indians of the Smokey mountains of North Carolina.
Alex Milazzo, Zapotec Architecture slides/photographs seen on photostream,, posted November 4, 2007. Zapotec culture centered in Oaxaca Valley Mexico beginning in sixth century BCE saw first major cities such asMonte Alban and were contemporary to Aztecs. Defeated by the Spainards in 1522-1527.
"Zapotec architecture," California State Los Angeles website for Mesoamerican Art and Architecture history. This page is mainly photographs of Monte Alban one of two important Zapotec examples of architecture.
Google Book-Julia Guernsey,"Ritual and Power in Stone: The Performance of Rulership in Mesoamerican Izapan Style Art," University of Texas Press, 2006 and January 1, 2010. Centered around Chiapis, Mexico Dr. Guernsey analyzes Izapan stylecarvings and "Kingly representations." Izapan culture fills the gap between Olmec and Mayan cultures seeing peaks of power from 600 BCE-100 CE although evidence shows Izapan settlements as early as 1500 BCE. See, below, a review of Ritual and Power in Stone:
Jeff Kowalski (Northern Illinois University), "Visualizing Culture, Society, and Ideology in Mesoamerica," Latin America Research Review, May 5,2009. Dr. Kowalski reviews Julia Guernsey's, Ritual and Power in Stone along with three other books on Mesoamerican history and culture.
Nicholas Smith, "Early Ceremonial Architecture of Peru: La Galgada," Wayne State University. See tabs for Aspero, Bibliography and Links.
James Q. Jacobs, "Early Monumental Architecture on the Peruvian Coast-Evidence of Socio-Political Organization and the Variation in It's Interpretation,", 2000. Scroll down page to see links to Chavin architecture and culture and Andean Web ring an Andean Photo Gallery.
Arlind Palluqi, "The Architecture of Power-Timgad vs. Pikillacta," blog, January 30, 2013. Arlind Palluqi comparesTimgad, a Roman city in northern Algeria built for Roman soldiers (fathers and son) who gained citizenship fighting for Rome and Pikillacta, Wari empire (Peru), religious and administrative center.
William M. Denevan,"The Aboriginal Cultural Geography of the Llanos De Mojos of Bolivia,"University of California Press, 1966. Denevan's classic study of the Arawak Beni region of Bolivia showing that natives in theAmericas existed in much larger populations and designed landscape architecturemuch more complex and advancedthan previously thought. Causeways, fish weirs, bridges are just some of the architecture cited in the study. This theory can also be read in Charles Mann's first chapter "1491."
Margarida Caetano, "Sugestao de Leitura: 1491-New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus," Conexao Lisboa-Manaus blog, October 3, 2011. More information as to advanced landscape architecture by the Arawak culture in the Beni region of Bolivia and elsewhere.
Jeanne Brubaker, "Procreative Icons: Abundance and Scarcity in Pre-Columbian Art From Peru to Argentina,"Curriculum Project for "Southern Cone Exposure" Fullbright-Hays Seminar Abroad 2004, University of Texas. See especially section two of this paper entitled, "Abstraction in monumental Architecture that facilitates state theocracy and super empire building." Ms. Brubaker also discusses change over time as gender as seen in the arts.
"Pre-Columbian Art," Encyclopedia of Art History. Scroll down to see "Ceremonial Architecture" in Latin American pre-Columbian cultures.
"Native American," Prehistoric Through Gothic Art Arh 101, South Mountain Community College, MaricopaCommunity Colleges, Large slides on ancient Latin American architecture, sculpture, art withsouthwest North American architecture and art at the end of this slide show.
"Similarities in Ancient Hindu and Latin American Architecture," Swarupa's World blog, March 2, 2013. Brief comparative drawn between ancient Hinda and Mayan architecture.
Lennox Honychurch, "Architecture of the Kalinga," Kalinga Territory Home of the Indigenous People of the Dominica. See links for information on these Caribbean people.

Christina Moore, "Anthropology 008: Mayan, Aztec, and Inca Home Page," The Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Moore's website highlighting three architectural projects: Project 1-Mayan Architecture, Project 2-Aztec City-Layout and Architecture, Project 3-Inca Building.
Mayan History, Note Videos and comments on great Mayan architecture during it's golden age.
"Maya-Collapse-Why do Civilizations Fall?" Interactive Annenberg Learner Foundation @ 2013. Note tabs at top of page forother civilizations and Collapse and more resources on left of page for Latin American/South American architecture. Failed architecture is surely one symptom of collapse.
Manuel Aguilar-Moreno, "Aztec Architecture," Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc. (FAMSI), California State University in Los Angeles, January 18, 2007. See much of Dr. Aguuilar-Moreno's research linked in this website. See another version of Pt. 1:
"Aztec Architecture," Library Think Quest. See short articles with photographs depicting Cathedrals and Chinese architecture much like this Aztec architecture entry at bottom of page.
"Teotihuacan-The City of the Gods," website on Teotihuacan's temples and pyramids by Archaeological Research Institute at Arizona State University.

John Baldwin, "Andean Architecture-The Power of the Trapezoid," University of Illinois, Chicago, May 28, 2008. Photographs of Andean architecture in trapezoid lintel Incan style inAquas Callientes, Peru site.
"Latin American Architecture, Pt. 1, Scroll to bottom of page to see link to Pt. 2. Summary of the history of Latin American architecture in two parts arranged chronologically.
"Architecture," LANIC, Latin American Network Information Center, University of Texas, Austin. See regional and country resources on architecture in Latin America.
"La Gran Chiquitania," @ 2013. Jesuit website detailing the only wooden and adobe mission churches left in the world built by Jesuit missionaries and natives 1745-1775 in the large Chiquitania region of Bolivia. These seven Jesuit mission churches were restored by Hans Roth from 1972-1999. See photographs and decription of the architecture with links to the individual churches and other tabs.
"Architecture of Mexico," Hacienda Homestyle, by that Painter Lady. See examples of 16th century churches.
Susana Torre, Teaching Architectural History in Latin America: The Elusive Unifying Architectural Discourse, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 61, No. 4 (Dec. 2002), pp. 549-558. Seen in jstor from David Rifkind website, School of Architecture, Florida International University.
Susana Torre and Geoffrey Fox, "Architecture and the Construction of Cultural Identity or Learning from Latin America,", paper for AAT conference 2007. Torre and Fox 17 page paper with photographs outlining Latin America as a case study for architecture and cultural identity.
Patricio del Real, "Building a Continent: The Idea of Latin American Architecture in the Early Postwar," Paper submitted in partial requirement for Doctor of Philosophy degree to Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University, 2012, 56 pp. Seen in
Florencia Bazzano Nelson, "Latin American Art and Architecture," From the New Book of Knowledge, seen in Scholastic For Teachers @ 2013. General overview in short article.
Jenna M. McKnight and Tamar Wilner, "Havana: Bracing For a Boom," Architecture Record, January 19, 2012. Havana has 2.1 million people and within that urban setting one can sight Renaissance, Moorish, Baroque to Neoclassical and Mid-Century Modern architecture. In 1982 UNESCO named Old Havana a World Heritage Site.
Carl Yost, "Film Celebrates an Unsung Icon of Modern Cuban Architecture," Architecture Record, January 19, 2012. See 5 photo slide share of National Arts School of Havana, the "unsung icon" Carl Yost describes.
Enrique Vivoni-Farage, "The Architecture of Power," Carnegie Mellon School of Architecture website. Vivoni-Farage lecture/discussion ofSpanish Revivals in Puerto Rico 1900-1950 and Puerto Ricans negotiating between two worlds.
Kelly Chan, "Learning From Lagos-Contemporary Architects Harvest the Slums for Design Inspiration," Blouin Art Information blog, June 7, 2012. Trend in contemporary architecture is the design poor housing to help the poor avoid slum poverty. See 'Favela Cloud' design motivated by slum outside Rio de Janiero, Brazil.
John Schacht, "Pedro Lobo's Favelas: Architecture of Survival," Charlotte Viewpoint, April 30, 2013. Exhibit of Pedro Lobo's Rio slums (favelas) with absent humans and flowing color which he claims brings attention to the poverty and drug lords which Brazil ignores.
Fergs Heinzelmann, "Favela Cloud Imagines the Slums of Rio as Futuristic Architecture," The Creators Project, July 11, 2012. Heinzelmann interviews one of the architects, Kemo Usto, of 'Favela Cloud.'
Alex Pearlstein, "Lifestyles of the Rich and Poor in Mexico City," Planetizen, November 28, 2006. Walled Cities built to separate upper and lower classes growing as Mexico Cities' wealthy class grows while 47% of Mexico Cities population lives on four dollars a day. Alex Pearlstein claims "the rich live in surreal but safe mini-cities of gleaming geometic towers." Economic statistics to support Pearlstein's article from the LA Times Marla Dickerson, "Mexico's Rich Getting Richer, Study Finds, November 29, 2006:
Caitlin Dewey, "A Video Tour of the 'Tower of David,' Venezuela's Infamous Skyscraper Turned Slum," Washington Post, August 2, 2013. World's tallest slum designed in the 1990's as skyscraper, bankrupt and closed and then occupied by drug dealer turned religious leader for the poor.
Jordi Sanchez-Cuenca, "Landscape Morphology in Mexico City," polis, posted December 22, 2012. Annotated photographs shows Mexico City's city planning and architecture with comment on separation of rich and poor.
Josephine Minutilio, "Architect Ricardo Legorreta's Legacy," Architectural Digest, February 2012. Mexican architect Ricardo Legorreta is eulogized in this article. See slide show of his work and portfolio of Legorreta's houses profiled in Architectural Digest magazine.
Moe Beitiks, "Towering Fog Garden Harvests Water From Thin Air," inhabitat, October 24, 2011. In Chile and Peru's Atacama Desert which may be the most arid on earth, architecture has been designed to draw moisture from fog and supply water to nearby villages. See Fog Garden exhibit at Nevada Museum of Art:
Timothy A. Kohler, "Public Architecture and Power in Pre-Columbian North America," Santa Fe Institute, March 22, 1998. Dr. Kohler,Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, prepared this paper for the International Symposium"Power, Monuments, and Civilization," Nara, Japan, December 1997. Note in Dr. Kohler's introduction he alludes to late 19th century North American native architecture misconceptions. (This paper posted with permission of Dr. Timothy A. Kohler, October 25, 2013)
"Digging Deeper Into the Anasazi Architecture," Cliff Dwellings Museum. Change over time noted in this Colorado Anasazi Museum article explaining earliest Anasazi hunter and gather pithouses evolving into pueblo architecture.
"Digging Deeper Into the Anasazi-Architecture," Cliff Dwellings Museum website, Colorado. See Pit House architecture and note other resources concerning the Anasazi on left side of this page.
"Architectural History-Early First Nations," The Canadian Encyclopedia. See more Canadian archaeology and architecture resources at the end of this regional summary of early Canadian first nation building.
Susan K. Nelson, "The 'What's in a House' Education Program." Ms. Nelson's website and K-12 lessons on Native American architecture including Tlingit, Iroquois, Lakota, SW Pueblo, Eskimo, etc. See Susan K. Nelson's Home Page and note Sun Watch interactive game:
The Mackenzie Inuit Winter House, University of Calgary publication seen in Arctic, Vol. 45, No. 2, June 1992, 199-200. Short article on Mackenzie delta Chiglit (Inuit) native's winter home or iglu. An iglus can be made of any material, not just snow and ice. The Mackenzie Chiglit use the abundant driftwood gathered from the riverbanks and delta plain for an air tight winter home housing one to two families.
Molly Lee and Gregory A. Reinhardt with foreword by Andrew Tooyak, Jr., " Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press and"Eskimo Architecture-Dwelling and Structurein the Early Historic Period,University of Alaska Museum, 2003. Complete E-Book seen in as a document or download. Book isdivided into regional discussions of Eskimo architecture, ie., Greenland, Central Arctic, Northwest Arctic and BeringStrait, Southwest Alaska, Bering Sea, Siberia and Gulf of Alaska dwelling structure.
Momo Shez, "Igloo Building, Unique Eskimo House Inspiration," Interior Fans, November 4, 2012. How to build an Inuit snow house with photographs.
"Inuit Snow Houses," Architectural and Engineering Feats and Facts blog, July 4, 2007. Description of Inuit igloo and the different types. Look to right of page for many other world civilization's architectural feats and factsarticles.
"History: Ancestral Pueblo Architecture," New Mexico Art Museum. Click on photos to see more information and discussion questions of Anasazi architecture and culture.
"Hohokam," Arizona Stories The Arizona Collection, Arizona State University and PBS. See transcript of 7 minute 53 second video on Hohokam culture, architecture in the American southwest prior to Columbus.
"Native American Architecture," Native History Magazine, January 2013. Click on each photograph to see more examples of native American architecture in slide show fashion and note Native American Lesson plans tab at top of page.
Dee Finney, "Native American Housing," Great Dreams. Note many examples of North American native architecture with photos.
Professor Laura Arnold, "American Indian Literature and Cultures course-Plains Architecture: Tipis and Sweat Lodges," Reed College, Portland, Oregon, Summer 1997. See types, symbolism and construction of Plains Indian's tipis and sweat lodges.
Richard Thornton, "Amazing Archaeological Discoveries in Georgia and South Carolina," Examiner, October 2, 2013. Pre-Columbian stone architecture found in 7 state region of the American south supports earlier claims, 1873, by pioneer anthropologist Charles C. Jones,Antiquities of the Southern Indians, ie.,that these natives had stone architecture. Jones' research and evidence had been ignored. teepees and wigwams were the story.
"Florida Everglades Archaeological Heritage," National Park Service. Description of "shell works" to form built villages in the Calusa Everglade native communities housed on the 10,000 islands of the Everglades. Discarded conch, clamand oyster shells and tools built up areas for buildings, canals, dividing areas from sacred spaces throughout this region.
Long House website, University of Oregon. Click on "icons" on NW Native American image to see more information on NW Long House architecture.
Kanatiyosh, "Long House," Peace 4 Turtle Island website, 2001. The Long House was built by the Haudenosaunee people or Iroquois 5 Nations. Long House architecture was also seen in Viking and Asian cultures. See more: Long House Architecture, House Construction.
"Why They Came. Why They Stayed,"Finnish Heritage Museum, Fairport Harbor, Ohio, 2010. This article gives context to first Finnish immigrants to North America who gave Americathe log cabin architecture style in the mid-17th century.
Anthony DelRosario and Professor Ann Masson, "Early French Canadian Architectural Types of the French Colonial Period, December 3, 2008 seen in A discussion of French Canadian architecture from 1605 settlement to 1803 "expulsion."
Jeffrey Howe, "Styles in American Architecture," A Digital Archive of American Architecture, Boston College, 1996, 1997, 1998. Dr. Howe's website shows Architecture styles from Georgian to International.
"Architecture Digital Resources, Digital History, @ 2013. Three links for American architecture resources.
Dr. Wilson, "Architecture of Thomas Jefferson," University of Virginia, @1995, last updated February 26, 2008.
"Poplar Forest Architecture-Thomas Jefferson," Poplar Forest website. Thomas Jefferson's most mature piece ofarchitecture, Poplar Forest, website and resources.
Robert Gamble, "Plantation Architecture in Alabama," Encyclopedia of Alabama, September 2, 2008, last updated June 20, 2013. Photographs and drawings illustrate plantation architecture in Alabama with a short summary of slave quarters.
Thomas E. Davidson, "The Evolution of the Slave Quarter in Tidewater Virginia," Jamestown and Yorktown Settlement and Victory Center. Short article with photo as to change over time of slave quarters in tidewater Virginia. Dr.Davidson is curator and director of that site.
Lauren Elizabeth Knight, "Hidden Lives: The Interpretation of the Slave Quarter Sites at Mount Vernon," Paper for Master's of Historical Preservation, University of Maryland, 2010.
Dr. Alexander O. Boulton, "Beyond the Big House-The Architecture of Slavery,", August 28-December 23, 2006. Following the route of a journalist in 1857, Dr. Alexander Boulton photographs and describes slave quarters in the American South.
"Theatre Architecture," Essential Architecture. History of Theatre architecture Selection and photographs thanks to American Studies Programat University of Virginia.
"Inside a 1700's German Farmhouse," Monroega.blogspot, September 23, 2013 posted by Tanya Breese. Short article and pictures of a German-American farm house and it's architecture.
Skip Davis, "1800's Prairie Homes," e How, 2013. Skip Davis gives brief descriptions of three 1800's American Prairie style homes-Prairie Style, American Foursquare or "Prairie Box," and sod houses.
George Wharton James, "The Old Franciscan Missions of California," UnTraveled Road website, 2006. See description of Franciscan mission architecture and photographs.
Scott T. Swank, "" Decorative Arts/Architecture/History, Shaker Life, Art, Architecture-Hands to Work, Hearts to God, Abbeville Press, 1999. Scott T. Swank, historian and curator of the Shaker Canterbury Village, New Hampshire, describes Shaker art, architecture and history. The Shaker classic period was 1815-1860. See Abbeville Press page on this book:
Explore Thomas Cole website. An interactive tour of Thomas Cole's 1840 painting, "The Architect's Dream." Cole, Romantic American painter and part of Hudson River School of artists, thought of himself as an amateur architect. See painting below.


  Figure 6: Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia, Thomas Cole, 1840, "Template: The Dream of the Architect," current location Toledo, Ohio Museum of Art. Cole fashioned himself an amateur architect.
"History and Architecture," Capitol Museum, State of California, 2009. History of the architecture of Sacramento state capitol building with exemplars of Richmond, Virginia, Boston, Mass. and Washington DC.
Ross French, "Los Angeles Aqueduct History Project," University of California, Riverside, November 19, 2013. UCR digital photograph project honoring one of the most ambitious water public works architecture projects in the worldwith 100 year old photographs, materials, etc. available. See links on right side of this page for photographs:
Dan Eisinger, "Louis Sullivan's Natural Law Architecture," developing architecture blog, February 7, 2013. A discussion of Louis Sullivan's (1856-1924) architectural style, "ornamentation informed by nature," influenced by Frank Furness, Ruskin, Viollet-le-Duc, Gothic style, and a Paris visit, then return to Chicago and the US. See photographs of his design and comments as to his work by Dan Eisinger.
"The Architecture and Development of New York City," Columbia University. This website based on photographs of Andrew S. Dolkart and his images of tenement dwellings in New York City in the 19th century. See other articles with photographs on left side of this page further describing the immigrant worker experiences.
Philip Choy,"San Francisco Chinatown-A Guide to It's History and Architecture,&rdquo City Lights, 2012, 224 pp. Philp Choy was born and raised in San Francisco's Chinatown and is a professional architect and American Studies pioneer. This is City Lights Publishing house website with reviews, descriptions including the Introduction and one chapter in pdf. of Choy's book.
Bruce W. Davies, "Canada's Craigdarroch Castle: Where are the Building Plans," 2013. Mr. Davis is curator of Craigdarroch Castle and gives us details to it's 19th century architecture and architects.
E. Malcolm Parkinson, "The Artist at War-Painters, Muralists, Sculptors, Architects Work to Provide Camouflage for WW I," Prologue Magazine, National Archives, Spring 2012.
"10 Great Architectural Lessons From Frank Lloyd Wright," freshome Design and Architecture website, September 3-10, 2012. Quotes from Frank Lloyd Wright on architecture with photos of his designs.
Paul Zucker, The Role of Architecture in Future Civilization, The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism," Vol. 3, No. 9/10, 1944, pp. 30-38 seen in Paul Zucker discussed post WW II architecture and it's change over time since the 19th century.
"Sacred Space and Synagogue Architecture," Union for Reformed Judaism in North America website. See tabs for more resources.
Jackie Craven, "What is Googie Architecture?" Architecture American 1950's architecture style featured in fast food restaurants, gas stations evolved out of Modern architecture movement of 1930's.
Jennifer Eblin, "A Guide to Novelty Architecture,", April 10, 2009. Novelty or pop architecture has it's roots in googie architecture in 1930's as businesses sought to attract the new "car culture" hitting the American roads with attractive and unusual designs for gas stations, hotels, restaurants. Route 66 was famous for this style of roadside design.

"Roadside Architecture," Site maintained by Tiffiney Carney. Last updated May 11, 2001. See photographs and drawings of Route 66 roadside/novelty architecture.
"Pop Architecture," @ 2013. See description and images of pop architecture.
Alex Mindlin, "Written in Stone," NY Times, June 4, 2006. New York stone quarried in NY state replacedwood after mid 19th century fires.
"Harlem History," New York City Architecture. Series of articles with photographs of Harlem architecture over time.
"Harlem Architecture," Harlem World Magazine, November 14, 2013. Examples, photographs and short articles on the history of Harlem New York architecture.
"The Deconstructivism of Frank Gehry," posted by Ola on her blog, March 20, 2010. See Gehry's major works annotated with small photographs and a definition of deconstructivist architecture. See two video TED Talks with Frank Gehry in "Video/Documentary" section of this article above, in second section of this article. Note Niklos Salingaroos argumentagainst Gehry deconstructivist style below.
Niklos Salingaroos, "Unified Architectural Theory," arch Daily, October, 2013. Series of articles in which Niklos Salingaroos argues against Frank Gehry's "deconstructivist" architecture and explains why unifed architecture is better for human habitat. See Introduction to those articles in arch daily, August 30, 2013:
Google Book, Andrew M. Shanken, "194X: Architecture, Planning, and Consumer Culture on the American HomeFront," University of Minnesota Press, 2009. Dr. Shanken began research for this book in 1994 studying effects of WW II and post WW II consumer culture on Architecture and city planning.
"Architectural Perspectives in the History of Chicago's Public Housing," Roosevelt University, Chicago Studies on New Deal history. This article with a study unit discusses the change over time of Chicago public housing from the 1930's through the 1950's especially as to architectural style.
Google Book. Joseph F. DiMento and Cliff Ellis, "Changing Lanes: Visions and History of Urban Freeways," MIT Press, 2013. DiMento and Ellis explain the history of US freeways.
Caitlin Blanchfield, "Women Shaping Our World: Architecture, Gender and Space," The Architecture League-Urban Omnibus-TheCulture of City Making, April 3, 2012. The Brooklyn Museum in preparation for National Women's Month invitedwomen speakers to discuss "Women Shaping Our World." The four speakers reviewed in this article by CaitlinBlanchfield focused on architecture.
Clara Lambert (Asia Society) interview, "Persian Influences and Women in Architecture," Art Aware website, aidaforoutan.blogspot, June 18, 2013. Ms. Lambert interviewed two Iranian born sisters, Gisue Hariri and Mojgan Hariri, who migrated to the US in the 1970's, attended Cornell University and formed their own New York architectural firm in 1986.
"National Shrine of the Little Flower," Joe Rivera Photography, created October 15, 2009, modified December 6, 2009. Catholic shrine of the Little Flower with Father Charles Coughlin's radio tower, Royal Oak, Michigan built in two stages between 1931-1936. Explanation of architecture and four pages of Joe Rivera photographs included.
Roberta Green Ahmanson, "What is Sacred Space?" Biola Magazine, Fall 2011. Biola University has added a chair for a Visionary in Residence. Roberta Green Ahmanson, along with her husband, are twenty five of the most influentialEvangelicals in America and Roberta Green Ahmanson is also Board Chair of New York's Museum of Biblical Art. AsBiola's 2nd visionary in residence she has taken the theme for 2011-2012 of "Sacred Space." In Biola's magazine sheexplains that vision. See other articles on this theme on right side of page.
"Why Latter Day Saints Build Temples," The Church of the Latter Day Saints, last updated February 21, 2012.
"The Golden Arches of McModernism," Smithsonian Magazine blogsite, July 24, 2013. McDonald's golden arches are evident as a symbol of globalization even if store opens in Vietnam or Vermont.
"Gateway Arch," Great Buildings. The Gateway Arch, built between 1961-1966, honoring and remembering settlement of theAmerican West. 630 foot arch designed by Finnish architect Eero Saarinen honoring the historical "gateway to theWest." It is interesting to read the native American point of view as expressed by Daniel Richter, "Facing East from Indian Country," Harvard University Press, 2001. Richter introduces his book by comparing the St. Louis Gateway Arch as to White European and Amerindian points of view. See review of Richter's point of view by Greg O'Brien (University ofSouthern Mississippi) in H-AmIndian, September 2002:
Janet Elizabeth Haws, "Architecture as Art? Not in my Neocolonial Neighborhood: A Case for Providing First Amendment Protection to Expressive Residential Architecture," Brigham Young University Law Review, November 1, 2005. City denies prospective home owners building approval claiming the home is not attractiveenough. Janet Haws discusses that lawsuit.
"Sonic Bloom-A New Solar Powered Sculpture," Smithsonian Magazine, September 18, 2013. The Pacific Science Center in Seattle, Washington exhibits architecture as public art demonstrating solar energy by Dan Corson.


  Figure 7: Corson modeled the flowers after those of the Australian firewheel tree. Photo courtesy of Dan Corson
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Zach Mortice, "Architecture, Populism, and an Election Year," AIA Archiblog, posted by Doug Gordon February 25, 2008. Short article on American architecture, collapsing infrastructure and election 2008. See home page for AIAArchiblog website:
Alex McKeag, "Highways to Boulevards Blog: The Language of Urban Freeways," CNU (Congress for the New Urbanism), September 16, 2013.
Kyle West, "Lessons from Architecture," Blog Critics, December 10, 2008. College student blogger, Kyle West, and his reaction to his college professor displaying the infrastructure, architecture and urban planning of Dallas, Texas. Forexample the 1950-1960's freeways designed to encourage white flight, mall-like mega-Churchs, etc. Architecture and urban design as segrationist.
Marc Pitzke in New York, "The US Ramshackle Infrastructure-When Will the Next Bridge Collapse?" der Spiegel,Germany, August 3, 2007. Germany's der Spiegel highlights America's crumbling infrastructure. Context is the Minneapolis I-35 bridge collapse and other architectural/infrastructure problems across the country.
Bruno Lemieux-Ruibal, "Derrida in the Ghetto (via Eisenman and the NYFD)," artfromnewyork blogspot, August 26, 2005. Lemieux-Ruibal discusses American architech Eisenman.
Emily Anthes, "How Room Designs Affect Your Work and Mood," mashrabiyamyjourney blog, February 2010 originally seen in Scientific America, April 22, 2009.
"Dwelling Places," As if People Mattered word press, June 28, 2011. See articles on dwelling architecture with first being a contrast between Levittown and Usonia.
"Usonia House 1939," An analysis and description of Frank Lloyd Wright's dream of designing affordable homes on a massive scale for the American middle class.
Jon Blackwell, "1951: American Dream Houses, all in a row," originally published in The Trentonian, seen in decade by decadesnapshots and links of American history website, Capital Century. A description of Levittown architecture in 1951.
"The Architectural History of the JFK Assassination Site," Smithsonian Magazine blog, November 21, 2013, posted by Jimmy Stamp.
Eric Klinenberg and Henk Ovink, "The Quest For the Best Design For a Post-Sandy World," Mother Jones, September 17, 2013. America must rebuild infrastructure that can survive increasedly severe weather.
"Combating Climate Change with Landscape Architecture," ASLA (American Society of Landscape Architects) @2013. See many resources and links for landscape architecture as a solution to climate change problems.
Molly Finnegan, "Architecture for the Masses," PBS News Hour Arts Beat, December 16, 2008. 2% of home buyers work with an architect which is evidence for the idea that shelter is a necessity, architecture is a luxury. This PBS interview,audio podcast and slideshare discusses the concept of a "neighborhood architect."
"New York Glamour," Joke Architects, July 22, 2012. Two architects formed JOKE as an architectural observation,research and design website. This article about New York city as center of international commerce and free market capitalism, but "hugely fragmented in terms of its social distribution of capital. rich/poor divide becomes increasedly segregated. "
Kevin Gurley, "The Segregation Walls That Divide Us," Metro Atlantic-Architecture, Cities, Transit and Urbanism, May 6, 2013. Gurley explains Florida urban architecture built to divide the races and rich from the poor through walls.
Bruno Lemieux-Ruibal, "In Apocalyptic Detroit: Ruins and Segregation (Fragments of America)," Art from New York blogspot, August 9, 2005. Lemieux-Ruibal explains the architecture and urban-suburban divide of Detroit, evident in the Grosse Pointe/Cranbrook educational community-Detroit separation.
Dan Austin and JC Reindl, "After a Century, Michigan Central Train Station's Last Stop in Limbo," Detroit Free Press, December 26, 2013. December 26, 1913 the first train pulled into Detroit's Michigan Central Station. Today, property owned by billionaire Manuel Maroun, the architectural jewel "is unquestionably one of the world's eminent examples of urban ruin and spoiled grandeur." A continuity over time as to urban collapse.
Jonathan Nettler, "1968 Inverted: Why the 'Back to the City' Movement is 'White Flight' in Reverse," Planetizen, July 10, 2013. Nettler wonders if the new, young white flight back into urban areas like Detroit and Chicago will change the racial divide and urban design.
"Architecture and Design," University of Minnesota Press. See annotated interactive selection of books published by the University of Minnesota Press on architecture and design, mostly North American. See one example ofthese books below (Diane Harris, "Little White Houses")
Ursala Lang, "Book Review of Diane Harris's"Little White Houses-How the Postwar Home Constructed Race in America," University of Minnesota Press, 2013 seen in "Antipode-A Radical Journey of Geography blog. Lang reveals Diane Harris's research around the theme of racial and class politicsof architecture in post-war America and the 1945-1960 building boom. Harris describes how the ordinary Americanhouse contributed to defining of middle class whiteness and an exclusionary housing market in postwar America.Another example of architecture as segregationist.
Virginia and Lee McAlester, "Great American Houses and Their Architectural Styles," Abbeville Press, 1984, 1994. Some consider this book a classic in American house architecture. See new edition of this book at Virginia McAlester website:
Terrance G. Lichtenwald and Frank S. Perri, "Smuggling Tunnels: The Need for a Transnational Analysis," Homeland Security, Spring 2011. The two security authors look at Canadian, Israeli and South Korean methods to combat smuggling tunnels and excavation. Tunnels as architecture.
Chris Sweeney, "18 Strangest Military Bases," (slide show), Popular Mechanics. Almost all of these bases are US and stationedglobally.
"Arctic Research Station Design Incorporates Inuit Knowledge," CBC News North, Canada, June 17, 2013. Canadian Research base using Inuit environment knowledge in their architectural design.
"Douglas Cardinal, b. 1934," Profile of Metis native architect Douglas Cardinal born in Red Deer, Alberta, Canada, famous for his design of the Museum of Canadian Civilization.
Eleanor J. Bader, "Witnessing the Projects: Audrey Petty's 'High Rise Stories,'" Truth out, October 5, 2013. Ms. Bader reviews Audrey Petty's (editor) "High Rise Stories-Voices from Chicago Public Housing,"McSweeney Books, 2013,280 pages. The sociology of America's public housing architecture as told by those who live in the projects.
Steven Kurutz, "Bauhaus on the Beach," NY Times Homes and Fashion, September 5, 2013. Venice Beach, California home. See slide show of architecture to left of page. Remember, "architecture for the rich, shelter for the poor."
Architect for the poor Auburn University's Dr. Samuel Mockbee (1944-2001) website developed by Mockbee family and Auburn University @ 2009-2013. Samuel Mockbee believed everyone deserved shelter for the soul and spent much of his career trying to help the poor in the deepAmerican South, especially poor, hard scrabble Alabama. His architectural philosophy was inspired by modernist poet and author William CarlosWilliams.
"Citizen Architect Samuel Mockbee," Citizen architect film website. More on Samuel Mockbee who developedthe Rural Studio architect course and philosophy at Auburn University after giving up his career as a professional architect.
Joanna B. Campbell, "A Shelter for the Soul," Sojourners Magazine-Faith in Action For Social Justice, December 2007. Citizen architecture meets real-world challenges in rural southeast North Carolina. Note Ms. Campbell cites Samuel Mockbee.
Naomi Tanabe Uechi,Evolving Transcendentalism in Literature and Architecture: Frank Furness, Louis Sullivanand Frank Lloyd Wright, Cambridge Publishing, February 2013. Ms. Uechi writes how transcendental literature inspired famous architects to place the philosophy into physical space via architecture.
"The World's Tallest Water Slide is More Than 134 Feet Tall," Smithsonian Magazine blog, November 20, 2013. Kansas City, Missouri will replace Brazil with the world's tallest water slide beginning May 2014. The name of the slide is "Verruckt" which means "insane" in German.
"Ancient Near East," DeAnza College, Cupertino, California, nd. Annotated Slide show with large colorful slides, drawings, maps and photographs of Mesopotamia Bronze Age architecture(3300-1200 BCE) and Iron Age (1200-600 BCE).
Karl W. Butzer and Leslie G. Freeman, editors, "Early Hydraulic Civilizations in Egypt: A Study in Cultural Ecology,&rdquo University of Chicago Press, 1976, made available to the internet. Engineering and architecture in early Egypt to control water.
"Ancient Egyptian Fortress Yields New Finds of Battle," Popular Archaeology, September 12, 2013. Egyptian fortress dig in what is now Israel defines Egyptian fortress architecture.
Francois R. Valla and Hamoudi Khalaily, "The First Sedentary Peoples in Israel, Mallaha (Eynan) 1996," Bulletin du Centre de recherche francais a Jerusalem, January 1997, pp. 77-82. Article explaining "dig" at Natufian site of Mallaha and the architecture discovered within that dig.
"The Mud Structure Project in Kermanshah, Iran," Sinba Design, posted July 22, 2012. Iranian architect Poua Khazaeli Parsa is attempting to revive, what he feels, is the lost spirit of architecture by building mud structure buildings in Kermanshah. See one minute thirty one second video. The project began in 2007 and wasto be featured in Paris, France. See more on that development:
"Mud Structure for Humanity-Tehran Rai Studio," Arch Daily, @ Mahsa Masoudi, posted April 8, 2012 by Alison Furuto. More photographs and information on Kermanshah, Iran mud project.


  Figure 8: "The Dome of the Rock," Islamic Architecture website.
Firouzeh Mirvazavi, "Iranian Architecture," Iran Review, October 2012. Greater Iranian architecture has existed since at least 5000 BCE. Firouzeh Mirvazavi describes elements of Iranian architecture in this summary article.
Nazanin Salimi, "Effects of Climate on the form and elevation of buildings in Iran,", research, nd. Note Architecture tab at this page.
Medhi Haghighat bin and Mojtaba Ansari (Tarbiat Modares University, Iran) and Clemens Steenbergen (TU Delft, Netherlands), "Sustainability of Isfahan's Landscape Design During Safavid Period," Energy, Environment, Ecosystems, Development and Landscape Architecture Conference paper, pp. 228-233, 2009 seen in WSEAS.US website (World Science andEngineering Academy and Society). Discussion of Isfahan's Persian gardens and Persians/Iranians' love of plants, trees and water.
"Isfahan-The City of Paradise," Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts. See description of the famous "maidan," or the geometric piazza (center court) produced by Shah Abbas I from 1598 onwards which some claim is one ofthe most ambitious and novel schemes of town planning in Islamic history.
Professor Kim S. Sexton, "Isfahan-Half the World," University of Washington Silk Road website, 2002. Dr. Sexton, Department of Architecture, University of Arkansas, describes the architecture of Isfahan under Seljuq and Safavid dynasties.
Charles C. Mann, "Gobekli Tepe," National Geographic, June 2011. Charles C. Mann argues that first monumental architecture in Turkey, Gobekli Tepe, was designed for religious worship.
Andrew Curry, "Gobekli tepe: The World's First Temple," Smithsonian Magazine, November 2008. Predating Stonehenge by 6000 years, Gobekli Tepe could be human's first architectural wonder.
Omur Harmansah, "Monuments and Memory: Architecture and visual culture in Ancient Anatolian History," Chapter 28 in Philogical and Historical Topics journal, 26 pp. Download seen in (2 mb). See extensive references.
"Greco Buddhist Art and Architecture," Real Magick resources @ 2000-2013. Resources for Greco Buddhist art and architecture.
"Kushan Empire," Colorado State University, Property management and collection school. See tabs for Afghanistan history over time and examples of art, sculpture and architecture.
"Gandharan Art and Architecture," Fine Art Painting Tips, posted by Jacob Devies, February 5, 2010. See short video clip (4:46) on Gandhara Art, Archaeology.
"Uruk (Warka)-Structural Organization of an ancient near-eastern capital," DAI-Deutsches Archaologisches Institut. Research and description of urban development of the metropolis of legendary King Gilgamesh.
"Architectural Marvels of Ancient Mesopotamia," Homepage of James F. MacDonnell, S.J. (1929-2005), Fairfield University, this site no longer updated.
"Hammurabi's Law Code-Rules for Contractors," Distressed Homeowner blog. Note specific penalties and punishments for shoddy architecture and building.
"Sumerian Architecture," History For Kids. See pictures and photographs of ancient Sumerian architecture.
"Mesopotamian and Babylonian Architecture," Resources for Mesopotamian and Babylonian architecture.
"Petra," American Museum of Natural History. See interactive website for a walk through the ancient trade city of Petra, Joradan to see ruins and architecture.
Ian Reynolds, The History and Architecture of Petra, History of the Ancient World, posted April, 2013 originally seen in JCCC Honors Journal, Vol. 3:1 (2012). See 26 minute 31 second HD Video, "The Ancient City of Petra, Jordan."
"Architecture," An Open Door to the Arab World, last revised June 18, 2009. See Arab Architecturebooks on rightside of page.
"Top Ten Sites from the Bible," Bible Architecture. Images, photographs of ancient cities of the Bible. One example of this site:
"Jericho." Jericho and Catal Huyuk were earliest neolithic cities.At Jericho defensive walls predominated with no streets or ground level doors or windowswhich might allow access to predators and invaders. Residents entered theirhomes from rooftops and pulled ladders up behind them. (Jerry Bentley and Herbert Ziegler,Traditions andEncounters,5th ed., McGraw Hill, 2011, p. 21.)
"Jesus Was Son of an Architect Book Claims," The Telegraph (UK), April 2, 2010. Review of book, "The Jesus Discovery" which claims Jesus was the son of a middle-class, highly educated architect. Joseph as a carpenter has distorted the Bible's meaning. "Desert Water," Bible Walks, last updated February 15, 2013. Water and wells in the arid Judean desert withphotographs of water architecture near monasteries.
Al Altan, "Focus on Catal Huyuk-Catal Huyuk Architecture," Focus, @1998-2007. Short article describing Catal Huyuk, Turkey architecture.
"Mt. Zion Reveals Possible Second Temple Period Priestly Mansion," news, September 17, 2013. Jerusalem dig finds 1st century buildings in "elite" section of town.
Board of Jewish Education, "Synagogue Architecture." See brief page on history and key elements of Jewish synagogue architecture.
"Architecture and Architects," Jewish Virtual Library @ 2013 The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Source: Encyclopedia Judaica, 2008. Short article on Jewish architecture in earliest times to modern times.
Bridgette Schnider, "Baha'i Architecture of Israel," Arch 499 Non Western Architecture, University of Idaho webpage.
"Desert Architecture and Urban Planning," Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. Website dedicated to resources and study of Negev desert architecture.
Kathleen Kuiper, ed., "Islamic Art, Literature, and Culture," The Islamic World, Britannica Education Publishing, 2010. Islamic architecture referenced throughout this book document. See specifically "Early Architecture," pp. 136-157 and "Sinan," pp. 204-208, great Ottoman architect.
"Building Style: Umayyad," Arch Net. See 40 slides of Umayyad architecture (661-750 CE) after short description of Umayyad architecture building history. Syrian Umayyad architecture is described as "formative years for Islamic architecture."
Sheila Blair, "Islamic Architecture-Abbasid Period," Islamic Arts and Architecture, March 12, 2011. Islamic architecture moved from Umayyad Syria (661-750 CE) to Abbasid Iraq, 750-1250 CE. See other resourcesfor Islamic architecture throughout this website, for example to right of page, "Baku-Arabesque in Stone," by Marina Alin, October 6, 2013 as to stone carving architecture dating back 40,000 years in Azerbaijan and "Bara Gumbad Complex, Delhi," architectural photographs of the Sayyid and Lodi dynasties' architecture, 1489-1517 CE.
"Druze Historical Sites and architecture in Palestine," Druze history and
Sarah Brooks (James Madison University), "The Byzantine State Under Justinian I (Justinian the Great), "The Metropolitan Museum of Art-Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, October 2001, revised April 2009. See slideshow and brief article on art and architecture under Justinian.
"Byzantine/Byzantine Revival Architecture," Buffalo 2001. Website maintained by Chuck LaChiusa.
Hagia Sophia Architecture website. See links on left side of page for much information.
Dr. Saphic Omer, "Color and Light in Islamic Architecture," Muslim Tribune, posted June 10, 2011. Professor Saphic Omer is associate professor of architecture at International Islamic University Malaysia.
Review of T. E. Lawrence, "Crusader Castles," Folio Society @ 2013. T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) traveled 1,000 miles, walking, bicycling, and on horseback, visited 36 crusader castles researching his 1910 Jesus College, Oxford undergraduate thesis entitled, "The Influence of the Crusades on European Military Architecture to the End of the Twelfth Century.He traveled through Britain, France, Syria and Palestine and enjoyed the arduous journey and immersion inArab culture. Lawrence's thesis was controversial in that he claimed Crusader castles of the 12th century owed more to western architecture than to anything the Franks found in the East and that Western military architecture absorbed little or nothing from the Orient before the 12th century. One wonders why this archaeologist and architect turned soldier was chosen by the British government andarmy for the "espionage assignment" in WW I Arabia. Reading this review, we know.See reviews for in Good Reads: Crusader Castles:
"Virtual Walking Tours," Saudi Aramco World, September/October 2013. Use your mouse to move around each image which allows you to feel as if you are actually in the site. See 25 image virtual tour of the Alhambra, Moorish style architecture, Spain 14 th century: Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul: Dome of the Rock or Al-Haram Al-Sharif and Al-Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem:
Caroline Stone, "Movable Palaces," Architecture, Design, January 18, 2012 seen in Islamic Art and Architecture. The Ottoman Tent palace architecture.
David Schlosser, Reading List for Islamic History, Purdue University. Scroll down to see bibliography under "Urbanism" for sources on Islamic architecture and urban design.
"Islamic Art-theme of the month," Salaam, UK, March 2, 2013. See Introduction to Salaam's theme of the month which is Islamic Art. Click on "Architecture" link on left side of page to see photographs and article on Islamic architecture.
Laura Salmi, "Revealing the Pyramids of the Future," World Architecture News, August 19, 2008. Modern zigguratsand pyramids built in Dubai and United Arab Emirates.
Jonathan M. Bloom, "The Minaret Symbol of Faith and Power," Saudi Aramco World, March/April 2002. Look to right of page and see "Virtual Walking Tours:" Alhambra, Suleymaniye Mosque, Dome of the Rock, and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
"Islamic Art, Architecture and Culture," Archnet syllabi. Scroll down page to see Urban Planning and Other Resources for more syllabi.
Maylyuda Yuspova, "Evolution of the Architecture of Sufi Complexes in Bukhara," 1999 seen in Archnet.
"Great Islamic Architecture," Islamic-Architecture website. Note tabs on left side of page for more resources as to architects, etc..
"Harem," Turkish Culture Foundation, 2011. See many other examples of Turkish architecture on left side of page and scroll down to bottom of Harem article to see two other pages of Harem architecture images.
"Harem in History and Imagination," Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at MIT. See program of speakers and scroll down to see brief abstracts and biography of the presenter.
Heghnar Waten Paugh (UC Davis art historian), "Learning From Taksim Square: Architecture, State Power, and Public Space in Istanbul," SAH (Society of Art Historians) Blog, June 11, 2013, posted by Kostis Kourelis.
"Marsh Arabs and Water Loss," Ted Case Studies, January 11, 1997. After the first Gulf War the Saddam Hussein government's policies of draining the southern Iraq marshes continued aimed at weakening the Shia Marsh Arab's culture and economy.
Major Eric Russell and Brandt Smith, 4-1 Armored, "Mudhif Houses Capture Spirit of Iraqi Culture," US Army website analysis and description of southern IraqMarsh Arab's mudhif architecture.
"Architecture-Building With Basalt," Umm El-Jimal Project, @ 2007-2013. In areas what are now Syria and Jordan inhabitants built homes/dwellings up to three stories high with basalt rock. See slide share and description of this architecture.
Alessandro Petti, "Dheish Refugee Camp," Campus in Camps, January 2013. Alessandro Petti describes refugee camps as "temporary architecture" and discusses their habitat using the Dheish Palestinian refugee camp as an example.
Par Mona Khechen, "Architecture and War: From Baghdad to Kabul," Les carnats de l'lfpro, September 25, 2012.
Bedre Konya, "Chaldean Architectural Influences Throughout Iraq,", May 6, 2012. Bedre Konya exhibits frustrationwith Western media's crumbling images of Baghdad and it's war ravaged architecture. She discusses Chaldeaninfluences throughout Baghdad and Iraq in this short article.
Catriana Davies, "Can Baghdad Be Beautiful Again?", March 20, 2012. See 8 photo slide share of modern Baghdad architecture.
A. Srvathsan, "Destroyed Bamiyan Buddha Statues Not to be Rebuilt," The Hindu, updated June 6, 2013. UNESCO says Bamiyan Valley Afghanistan two Buddha statues blown up by the Taliban will not be rebuilt.
Aryn Baker, "Afghanistan's Buddhas Can Be Rebuilt, But Should They?" Time World, March 2, 2011. The question of rebuilding architectual history.
Website for award winning film by Christian Frei, "Valley of the Giant Buddhas," Bamiyan Valley, Afghanistan. See synopsis of film site:
Leopold Lambert, "Weaponized Architecture: The Impossiblity of Innocence," a mobile book published by, May 2012. Lambert claims architecture is a political weapon especially as exhibited in Palestinian disobedience to Israeli colonial legislation on Palestinian legal territory.
John Halaka, "Landscapes of Desire," Artists Against Apartheid, May 4, 2009 and November 3, 2010 tags showing samples of Halaka's resistance art depicting Palestinian buildings and homes destroyed during and after the 1948Israeliattacks into Palestinian territory during that war. Broken architecture or as referenced by Leopold Lambert, above, "weaponized architecture" is Halaka's focus. Would it not be comparative to the World Trade Center in New York 9/11 remembrance theme or Israeli remembrance architecture as seen in Yehiam Memorial link below?
John Halaka, "Landscapes of Desire," Arab British Centre exhibit, May 2011. John Halaka is a Palestinian-American born in Egyptwho teaches art at San Diego State University. His most recent exhibits surrounding the themes of remembranceand dissent points out Palestinian's homes and buildings destroyed by Israel in the 1948 struggle, thus theLandscapes of Desire theme. He uses his art as a method of resistance and remembrance. See Dearborn, Michigan Arab American Museum (December 2013) on John Halaka's exhibit and click on see exhibit of photographs "here" tab:
James Verini, "Gaza Tunnels," National Geographic, December 2012. See photographs of Gaza tunnels, their architecture/design, purpose, and current tensions in the region.
Zack Gold, "Tunnel Vision," Carnegie Endowment, October 22, 2013. Egypt attempts to close tunnels into Gaza but finds difficulty in doing so. Current history as to tunnels between Egypt and Gaza.
"Yehiam Memorial, Israel," e-architect, January 2009. Short annotated photo sample of Yehiam Memorial building constructed as remembrance art for the 1948 Israeli Haganah convoy which was wiped out moving supplies to the Yehiam Kibbutz in 1948. See context of this remembrance architecture in the Jewish Virtual Library's short paragraph, "Battle for the Roads, March-May 1948," @ 2013:
"Synagogue Architecture," NSW Board of Jewish Education, 2012. Short history and explanation of Jewish synagogue architecture. See tabs at top of page for more resources.
Ziva Sternhell, "The Architecture of the Kibbutz," Yad Yaari, February 23, 2009. Ziva Sternhell reviews two books on Jewish settlement and architecture of the kibbutz built in the values of socialism and nationalism between the two world wars. One kibbutz built in Israel the other in the Soviet Union.
Mohammad al-Asad, "Architecture For the Rich, Mere Shelter for the Poor," Center for Study of the Built Environment (CSBE), February 7, 2008. CSBE is located in Jordan and al-Asad's short article mentions worker's housing architecture as modeled by Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius in Europe and Hassan Fathy's 1940's "New Gourna" in Egypt.
"Moustadam," Center for Study of the Built Environment (CSBE), Jordan. Moustadam in Arabic means "sustainablity" and this article explains Jordan's lack of resources and poor architecture. See articles on that theme at the end of this introduction.
Google Book. Hasan Fathy, "Architecture for the Poor," University of Chicago Press, 2010. Fathy, in a classic sustainable design plan, used mud brick architecture learned in Nubia to build New Gourma near Luxor, Egypt. Fathy taught the villagers to use mud brick architecture to build the village.
Michael Badu, "The Mosque: Religion, Politics, & Architecture in the 21st Century," The Funambulist, March 6, 2012. British architect, Michael Badu, is asked to be a guest writer by Funambulist editor Leopold Lambert and discuss hiswork building mosques.
Amy Freasrson, "Zaha Hadid Unveils Design for Qatar 2022 World Cup Stadium," de zeen, November 18, 2013. Qatar footballstadium located in southern Qatar, at the port city of Al Wakrah is modeled after the curved form of a dhow.
"Zaha Hadid," Design Museum, biography of Zaha Hadid Iraqi born (1950) architect posted June 29-November 25, 2007. See other buildings designed by Zaha Hadid and note other architectural topics on right side of page. See an analysis of Ms. Hadid's architecture metaphors: "Zaha Hadid: Reading Her Biography Through Her Metaphors in Design," Trans Materials Asia, September 20, 2006 :
"Occupy Gezi: History, Politics, Practice," Ottoman History podcast, Episode 110, June 8, 2013. Two part audio podcast analyzing Turkish protest to protect Gezi Park's architecture and publi space. Bigger theme revolves around urban transformation and current Turkish politics explained in historical context.
Keith Louden, "Architecture-Civil Architecture: The Indus Pyramid," Anthropology 3145 wiki. See text, photographs and video of ancient Indus valley architecture.
"Mandir Architecture History," Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, London. Explanation of the history of Mandir architecture. Mandirs were originally built as shelters to protect the early Vedic age ceremonial sacrificial fire pits from the elements (rain).
"Ancient Indian Cave Architecture," Real History. Ajanta, Ellora and Elephanta ancient cave architecture, art and dwellings.
Jeffry Hays, "Hindu Temples, Architecture and Temple Customs," Facts and Details, 2009, last updated March 2011. Look to left of page for more links to Hindu architecture and temples.
"Interior of the Chaitya Hall, Karle, India-Asia/India," Prehistoric Through Gothic Art Arh101, South Mountain Community College, Maricopa Community Colleges. Large photographs/slide share of India, China, Korea, and Japanesearchitecture, sculpture and art.
Michael D. Gunther, "Monuments of India," Art and Archaeology website, @ 2002. Website with links to annotated photographs/slides of temple monuments in India.
Barbara Ziackova, "To What Extent does the Architecture along the Silk Road relate to Indian antecedents?" Astudent paper for Introduction to the Art and Archaeology of South and Southeast Asia course,
"Ajanta Caves-Ancient Temples Carved From Rock,", November 5, 2010. Beautiful photographs with photographer credits beneath each slide of the Ajanta Cave temples, India. "Ajanta fully displays the Gupta idiom. A horseshoe-shaped cliff of 29 caves, occupied twice, 1st century BCE and again in the 5th and 6th centuries CE rediscovered in the 19th century and its continuing restoration in the late 20th century draws attention to one of the grandest displays of Buddhist architecture/art in Asia." (Robert E. Fisher,Buddhist Art and Architecture,London: Thames & Hudson world of art, 1993, p. 56)
L.K. Karunaratne, "The History of Buddhist Architecture in Sri Lanka," presented at International Symposium on Design and Developmeay of Buddhist Architecture, 1998, pp. 85-96. See links to drawings and small image photographs at end of paper.
"Study Uncovers Interesting Details of Cave Temple Architecture," The Hindu, October 27, 2010. Cave templearchitecture in Tamil Nadu dating back to the Pandyas-Pallavas reign beginning in 571-630 CE which set the foundation for medieval southern Indian architecture. Two types of temples found with one type built by layman the other with royal patronage and interesting uncovering of musical inscriptions engraved on some temples.
Roger Shepherd, "The Great Stupa at Sanchi,", Solution 12/98. Built in 1st century BCE in India this Buddhist architecture housed stupas, temples and monasteries at Sanchi, India. Scroll to bottom of page and see more links to Shepherd articles such as:
"Ancient Indian Architecture," Archit-home blog, March 8, 2011. See article introduced by definition of Sthapatya-Shastra or Indian phrase for science of architecture and civil construction. Architecture was a science and an art. See two videos at the end of this article on ancient India's architecture.
Vinay Lal, (Assistant Professor of History, UCLA), "Architecture of South Asia," @ 2008 (last update). Note culture, history, etc. tabs and links to this website.
"Bhutanese Architecture," Discover Bhutan. Note traditional Bhutanese fortress architecture called Dzong.
Pankaja Srinivasan, "Inside the Chola Temple," The Hindu, June 4, 2012. Srinivasan highlights conference on Chola temple architecture featuring the Brihadeeshwara temple. See more on Chola architecture from
"World Heritage Sites-Chola Temple-Brhadisvara," Archaeological Survey of India, 2011. See other world heritage sites in India on this website. Look to lower left for "video" to view short clips of various Indian architectural heritage sites like the Taj Mahal.
"Kailash Temple," Indian Mirror. See tab for "other temples" and short 2:05 video. Kailash temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva.
James K. Lochtefeld, "Ellora Hindu Monumental Architecture-picture pages," Carthage College, Kenosha, Wisconsin, page last updated August 29, 2011. See beautiful photographs of Ellora, India's most stunning monument, the Kailasanatha temple, Cave 16, dedicated to Lord Shiva. See tabs to other Hindu temples.
Dr. Deepanjana D. Klein and Dr. Arno Klein, "Ellora Caves." The Kleins and their daughter digitized 7000 photographs they took of the Buddhist, Hindu and Jain caves in Ellora, India and produced this wonderful website. See more from Artstor: December 4, 2008 and updated 2012:
James K. Lochtefeld, "Khajuraho Temple," Carthage College, Wisconsin, last updated January 12, 2006. Large photo of Nagara architecture style of northern India (Khajuraho temple) with annotations.
"Orissa temples," India Picks. Annotated drawings and photographs of Orissa temples 11th century architecture.
"Vittala Temple," Vittala is a form of lord Vishnu and Hampi, India has temple architecture dedicated to Vittala including the stone chariot temple from 15th century southern India.
"Exploring Hampi," Archaeology, @ 2013. Slide show of medieval southern Indian city/temple complex of Hampi or Vijayanagara, 1300-1500's CE.
"The Ultimate Site for Indian Temples," Temple Net, @1996. Site developed by K. Kannikeswaran.
"Tallest Temple Towers in India," India Marks. See annotated photographs of the nine tallest Gopurams in India the tallest in 2008 at 243 feet. Goruprams are towers built at temple entrances dating back to Dravidian architecture in southern India.
"Architecture," Indian Saga. See various types of Indian architecture with one small photograph for each type such as Hindu, Buddhist, Fort.
Dr. Vinay Mohan Das, "The Sacred in Indian System of Architecture: A Case Example of 'Mayamatam,'" Issue 3, Monsoon, 2011, Spandrel. Dr. Das is a faculty member in the Department of Architecture, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India.
"Jain Architecture," Culturopedia @ 2012-2015. Besides short summary on Jain architecture see other tabs for all types of Indian architecture.
"Buddhist Architecture Under Ashoka," India Net Zone, last updated December 2, 2010. See other articles on Indian architecture from India Net Zone at end of this Ashoka article.
B. Annapurna Sastri, "Indian Architecture," India Picks website. See tabs at top of page for Indus Valley, Buddhist,Jain, Rajput, Muslim, Mughal architecture with pictures. See example selection for Mughal architecture:
M. J. Raju, "The Impregnable Fortress," Navhindtimes (India) September 4, 2011. Mr. Raju discusses the Hindu impregnable fortress of Kumbalgarh in Rajasthan.
"Who Designed the Taj Mahal?" PBS series Treasures of the World. See links at bottom of page for moreinformation on architecture of the Taj Mahal.
"Taj Mahal History," Taj Mahal blog. See photographs, drawings and statistics about the Taj Mahal built in Mughal architectural style in Agra, India.
Natasha von Geldern, "India Snapshot: Mughal Architecture of Agra," Wandering Kiwi blog, October 9, 2012. Natasha von Geldern photographs and comments on Agra's Muslim architecture.
Galen Frysinger, "Mughal Architecture," See magnificent photographs of Mughalarchitecture especially the Red Fort and continue to see other tabs of Indian architecture in this website.
"Borobudur: Pathway to Enlightenment," PBS Treasures of the World series. In 1814 the British excavated the Borobudur Buddhist temple site on the island of Java finding a thousand statues. Borobudur may be the largest Buddhist ceremonial site in the world.
Gunther Eichhorn, "Bhaktapur-Travel Pictures from Nepal," Guenther Eichhorn website. See annotated photos of Bhaktapur temples in Nepal.
"Twenty-Five Centuries of Buddhist Art and Culture," Special Edition The UNESCO Courier, June 1956. See articles on Buddhist architecture in South Asia and East Asia.
David Galbraith, "16 Impressive Examples of Bamboo Scaffolding," O Object. Note most examples from India.
"Bamboo Architecture," Bamboo Grove. Short article on strengths and weaknesses of bamboo architecture.
"The Vernacular Architecture of Rajasthan," Archinomy, 1992. Description/essay on the "colorful" architecture of Rajasthan, India.
"Indian History and Architecture,"
"India Architecture," @ 1999-2013, site accessed September 1, 2013. Many articles on all aspects of Indian architecture. See example of the articles: Ashish Nangia, "The Indus Valley Civilization: Images From Antiquity," December 21, 2000. See especially ancient Indus Valley city states architecture and town planning:
"Monsoon Masala: Water Architecture in India," India Architecture, Bonjour India, September 8, 2013. Effects of South Asian monsoons on Indian architecture.
Radhika Desai, "Monsoon House," April 28, 2012, originally published in Domus 957/April 2012. Description of amango wood country house built as a "fortress against tropical storms" or monsoons.
S. Kalyanaraman, "Stepwells of India,", posted September 20, 2011.
Nick Glass and George Webster, "Ancient Air Conditioning Cools Building Sustainably," CNN, March 8, 2012. Jaipur, India is home of the Pearl Academy of Fashion which combines modern exterior styling with ancient Mughal Rajasthani architecture designed to keep temperatures down without artificial cooling systems. Award winning architect Manit Rastogi explains the use of baoli (Hindi word) or stepwells which are bodies of water encased by descending set of steps. Rastogi says, "When water evaporates in heat it. brings down the temperature of the space around it. Note 2 minute 26 second video accompanying this article and slide show of the Pearl Academyincluding the step wells.
A. Srivathsan, "Power Symbols of a New Era," The Hindu, March 27, 2010. Srivathsan analyzes post Independence architecture built by the Indian state as seen in the three Legislative Assemblies.
See "The Hindu" articles on architecture in world history.
"The Magnificence of Sikh Architecture," The Tribune of India, February 20, 1999. The Tribune of India published in Chandigarh, India 1999 article on Sikh architecture.
Balvinder Singh Matharu, "Our Historical Heritage Crumbling in India's Museums,", April 8, 2011. Mr. Matharu's short blog post as to his frustration with no care for the Anglo-Sikh War Memorialbuilding.See comments on this angst at the end of the post.

"The Art of South and Southeast Asia-A Resource for Educators," The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2001. Art and Architecture resources for teachers woven around the history and religions of South and Southeast Asia.
"Southeast Asian Art and Architecture-Early History," See especially links to "torana" architecture or "arched portals or festoons."
"Cambodian Architecture," Khmer View @ 2012. First part of comprehensive article discusses Angkor religious architecture. See periodization of Khmer architecture.
Holly Hayes, "Angkor Thom," Sacred Destinations, last updated May 28, 2009. Cambodian sacred Buddhist city of 11-12thcentury with the famous Bayon Temple at it's center. See more information on Angkor Thom below. An importantregional feature was the cult of the god-king, known in India, developed to ever more sophisticated levels especially in Cambodia, Java and Champa. The great ruler Jayavarman VII captured both the physical likeness and wisdom of a human king and the omnipotence and serenity of the bodhisattva. (Robert E. Fisher, Buddhist Art and Architecture, London: Thames & Hudson world of art, 1993, p. 171)
Interactive simulation using Jayavarman VII Bayon Buddhist temple architecture, Cambodia.
Angkorian and Pre-Angkorian Temple Ruins: Index, Canby publications, Cambodia.
"Angkor," UNESCO World Heritage Center, @ 1999-2013. Description of Cambodia's Heritage site at Angkor. See tabs for other sites and description of history and architecture of these world historical treasures.,%20Gate%20of%20Victory%20
"Angkor Thom, Gate of Victory (East Gate), Southeast causeway, Naga Balustrade, Section from Deva Side," Southeast Asia Digitial Library, photograph. See serpent heads and understand each wall or side of the royal city of Angkor Thom is 1.86 miles long holding within 2225 acres. The moat is 328 feet wide. "The serpents as water symbols linked heaven and earth. This illusion of passing from one world toanother was also repeated with arched entrance gates, the passage through which indicated transit between the twoworlds. Heaven's blessings then flowed outward from the temple, the centre of the universe or world of the gods,through the arched gate and across the serpent-railed bridge (over moat) to the benefit of humankind."(Robert E. Fisher,Buddhist Art and Architecture,London: Thames & Hudson world of art, 1993, p. 170)
"Southeast Asia Art and Architecture," The Columbia Encyclopedia, March 2013. Short summaries of regional art and architecture including more articles at the end of this page.
"The Influence of Hinduism and Buddhism on Religious Architecture in Southeast Asia," Youtube video, 6 minutes.
"Thailand's Emerald Buddha," ESCATI, June 10, 2012. Architecture to house Wat Phra Kaew or the Emerald Buddha designed and built in 1782 by King Rama. See article with photographs of the structure.
"Southeast Asia and Oceania Architecture," Barnes and Noble website showing books on this topic.
"Architectural Space and Hmong Identity: Long Chang and Tasoulla Hadjiyanni," University of Minnesota, October 5, 2013. See videos from this conference.
"Vietnam Architecture," Vietnam Country, July 12, 2010. See text, photos and ten minute video clip, "Vietnam's Charm."
"UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Vietnam/Hoi An-Ancient Town," Hoi An once a bustling south Vietnamese trade port architectural sites lost economic power as port filled with silt.
"Underground Tunnels of Cu Chi, Vietnam," Amusing Planet, June 11, 2012. See drawing of a tunnel system used against American troops during Vietnam War and photographs of tunnel architecture.
Dr. Kamarul Syahri Bin Kamal and Dr. Lilawati Bte Ab Wahab, "Architectural Design of Traditional Malay House, Building Conservation blog, March 5, 2007. Article describing regional varieties of Malay home dwelling architecture.
Malaysian Architecture, About Malaysia website. See descriptions of Malaysian architecture over time with links to village exhibits.
Siri Norlizaiha Harun & Rusamah Abdul Jalil, "Morphological History of Malaysian Urban Design," Kota-city blog, Department ofTown and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, University Technology Mara, Perak,Malaysia, June 2012. A history of old towns, "forts," during the Malay Sultanate in Malaka 15th century. Geography,settlement formations and natural resources have attracted many architectural influences to the Malay peninsulaover time.
Ho Kah Chun, Dr. Ahmad Sanusi Hasan, Dr. Norizal M. Noordin, School of Housing, Building and Planning, Science University of Malaysia, Penang, "An Influence of Colonial Architecture to BuildingStyle and Motifs in Colonial Cities in Malaysia," Vintage Malaya, Paper presented at 8th International Conference of the Asian Planning School Association, September 11-14, 2005.
"Project Report-Architectural Heritage Building Analysis, Site: Pre-war shop lots at Jahan Raya Timur (Malaysia," Taylor'sUniversity School of Architecture, Buildings and Design, Architecture, Culture & History 2 (Arc 1323). 15 slide ppt. by Choo Ai Lin, Chin Pui Man, Cheang Eileen and Lim Zhi Hong, posted by Eileen December 6, 2013.
Syaom Barliana, "Architecture, Power, and Nationality (A Research on Youth Response to the Expression of Unity and Diversity in the works of Architecture," Indonesia University of Education, seen in
Syaom Barliana, "Environmental Order and Spatial Behaviour Contribution to Social Capital," Department ofArchitecture Education, University of Pendikikan, Indonesia. As social capital decreases, crime, violence, migration, etc. increases. One symptom is architectural breakdowns as to environmental order and space. -a0253445049
Abidin Kusno, "The Appearances of Memory: Mnemonic Practices of Architecture and Urban Form in Indonesia," Durham: Duke University Press, 2010. Abidin Kusono's second book this focusing on Jakarta's built environment after Suharto.
"Candi Sari," Photographs taken and retrieved by Anandajoti Bhikkhu, text adapted from Wikipedia (retrieved March 9, 2012). Architecture of Candi Sari temple grounds near Prambanan, Java. Look at tabs at top ofpage for other regions in southeast asia and "videos."
"Sasak People in Sade Village," Jember Traveler, January 28, 2013. Travel blogger describes his visit to Indonesian island Sasak village with pictures of their traditional architecture.


  Figure 9: Rice Barn. The rice barn (lumbung) is a distinctive feature of Sasak architecture. The structure is raised on piles in typical Austronesian fashion and sports an unusual 'bonnet'-shaped roof, thatched with alang-alang grasses. The four foundation posts support a pair of transverse beams on top of which rests a cantilevered roof frame with bamboo rafters. The only opening is a small rectangular hatch, high up in the gable end, into which the harvested rice is placed. Large wooden discs (jelepreng), are set onto the top of the foundation posts to prevent rodents from getting at the rice store. [email protected] 2005
Katherine Bolman, "Architecture From the Jomon Era," Art History Worlds. See photographs of paleolithic Japanese architecture with annotations.
"Jomon Culture," Website. See tab to "Jomon Architecture" in neolithic period. University of South Florida.
Katherine Bolman, "Banpo Architecture," Art History Worlds. See photographs of neolithic architecture at Bampo Village just east of Xian, China from Banpo Neolithic Village Museum.
"Banpo Neolithic Village Museum," China Planner. Neolithic village of Banpo just east of Xian, China existed from 4500-3750 BCE. See short tourist planning article with photograph describing this village.
"Architecture-Ancient Chinese Architecture," See tab at top of page for "Feng-shui" for article onspirituality and Chinese home design and tabs for more Chinese temples and architecture at bottom of page.
Gavin Jon Mowatt, "Ancient Chinese Design and its Influence on Modern Chinese Architecture-an interview with Hu Leike at Prince Gongs Palace," People's Daily online (English edition), June 12, 2009.
Daniel Waugh, "Xi'an/Chang'an," University of Washington (Seattle Silk Road Project), last updated December 27, 2001. The world's greatest city during the first millenium CE. See photographs of it's famous architecture andexplanation of Chang'an's history.
"Sino-Islamic Architecture," Essential-Architecture. See two photographs of Chinese Islamic mosques atXi'an and Niujie. First mosque built in Xi'an during the Tang dynasty-8th century.
"Chinese Islamic Architecture: A Case Study in Sinification," wordpress blog, posted November 20, 2009. This academic blog is dedicated to studying the process of sinification or the "making Chinese" something that was not Chinese originally such as Islamic mosques. Mosques of the Hui and Uyghur minority peoples are the focus. See other blogs such as China Meets Islam: A Journey in the Study of Religion.
"Traditional Vernacular Dwellings," Top China Travel, Concise page describing Siheyuan and Tulou domestic architecture.
"Earthen House (Tulou), Fujian Province," Cultural Affairs Bureau, do Instituto Cultural, Macau. Community housing built by the Hakka people of central China as they migrated south. This architecture is unique in that these three to five story earthen houses (tulous) display no social stratification and could house up to 80 families usually consisting of one large clan. See Wikipedia description of this architecture:
Institute for East Asian Architecture and Urbanisn-IEAAU website. Note links tab on left side of page for more resources.
"Asian Historical Architecture," Oriental Architecture website which describes itself as a photographic survey of Asian architecture which houses 17,500 photographs of 848 sites in 21 countries. See Index site:

Dr. Ronald Knapp, Chinese Architecture website, New Paltz State University of New York. Dr. Knapp, University of Pittsburgh, website last updated July 10, 2010. Great site which includes Japanese, Taiwanese, etc. architecture links.
Ammani Atul, Kabilan Kaushik, Navaneeth Vatsalya, "Chinese Architecture," Descriptive discussion on Chinese imperial architecture with drawings and photographs. See tab at top of page for more "Case Studies."
"Ancient Chinese Architecture: Concrete Music," China Daily-Ministry of Culture, 2003. See photographs and links for further exploration of ancient Chinese architecture from China government PR site.
Andrew I-kang Li, "The Yingzao fashi Project," Department of Architecture The Chinese University of Hong Kong, @ 1995, 1997. This course, project uses computer models to teach 12th century Chinese wood frame architecture. The project is based on the earliest known Chinese manual on woodframe architecture written in 1103,Yingzao fashi.
John Walsh, "Nguyen An," Vietnamese boy taken as captive tribute by Ming Chinese becomeseunuch and architect in first half of 15th century China. Directs building of Forbidden City. Frugal, hard working and incorruptible, Nguyen An dies penniless.
Sally K. Church, Zheng He: An Investigation Into the Plausibility of 450-FT Treasure Ships, Monumenta Series, Journal of Oriental Studies, Vol. LIII, 2005. Architecture or engineering or both? Sally K. Church scours primary source documentation from the era (15th century) to find if there were Chinese ships 447 feet long and 183 feet wide or did those dimensions come from a popular novel of the time?
"Art of China-Architecture and Landscape Architecture/Gardens," Smithsonian Encyclopedia, 1999, revised October 11, 2000. See annotated bibliography of Chinese landscape architecture.
"East Asia in Geographic Perspective," Asia for Educators, Columbia University. See standard 10 for architecture and scroll down to view "Case Study" Korea and two Feng-shui and architecture links.
Patricia Buckley Ebrey, "House Architecture," University of Washington. Chinese house design with this page discussing elements such as orientation, Feng-shui or geomancy involved with Chinese dwellings. See other pages for how Chinese homes variedas to wealth and region. See "Contents" and "Site Map" on Home page of this vast website formore resources on Chinese house, home, temple architecture:
"The Poetics of Feng Shui in Architecture," Build llc, June 2013. Seattle, Washington architectural firm explains their point of view as to Feng Shui and Chinese architecture.
"Database for Buddhist Cave Temples in China," Digital Silk Road website. See Bezeklik (Bazaklik) cave temples' images.
Holland Cotter, "Rebirth for Cave Buddhas-Echoes of the Past: Chinese Buddhist Cave Art in New York," NY Times, September 13, 2012. NY Times article on Chinese Cave Buddhist art with links to Yungang and Longmen cavesand Xiangtangshan (University of Chicago) cave temples.
"Yin Yu Tang-A Chinese Home," Peabody Museum interactive website. Huang merchant family who had lived in Yin Yu Tangfor 200 years during the late Qing dynasty (1644-1911) has home re-erected at the Peabody Museum. The home is an example of Huizhou architecture. This site originally seen in "Chinese," Essential Architecture. See tabs at top of this page for other Chinese regional architecture:
"Great Hall of the People,", English section. Designed in 1959 by architect Zhang Bo the Great Hall of the People was one of the buildings planned by Mao Ze dong. This slim article with links is copied from!artworks
"Imminent Domain: Designing Life Tomorrow," Hong Kong Art exhibit January 31-March 31, 2013, Asia Society. Six design artists displaying lighting, architecture, jewelry, art. See 54 second time lapse video, "Time Lapse of William Lim's Bamboo Wind Pavilion, Asia Society, published April 17, 2013 which was part of this exhibit:
And slide share of Lim's Bamboo Wind Pavilion from CL 3 Architect's website, January 2013. One can more easily see the bamboo, solar panels, LED lighting and tension cables utilized in Lim's urban design:
KK Rebecca Lai, "William Lim," HK (Hong Kong) Magazine, July 5, 2012. William Lim explains his architecturalphilosophy which is based on a social obligation to improve urban environments.
"Pritzker Architecture Prize Winner Wang shu, Chinese Architect," People's Daily Online (English edition), November 23, 2012. See slide share of Wang shu designs.
"Next Architects' Mobius-like Chinese Bridge," Phaidon (UK), November 11, 2013. Northern Europeans design pedestrian bridge in Changsa, China copying an ancient Chinese knot popular in historic folk art.
"Seokguram,", @ 1996 Haein Stone Company. Website dedicated to the Buddhist Stone Cave Hermitage or Seokguram built in mid-eighth century by Silla King. See images, photographs and other links on the right side of this page for Korean stone architecture.
Francis Tae-Young Chung, "Creating a New Space: Gendered Space and Worship in Korean Church Architecture,"Udini ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2009.
"Tibet's Sacred Architecture: Potala Palace," architecture revived blog, October 1, 2013. Article with photographs one can enlarge on Lhasa, Tibet's Potala Palace.
"Kathmandu Lhasa Tour," The Trekker's Society. See Gyantse, Tibet temples plus others with brief descriptions and note other sites with architecture photographs on right side of page.
"Tibet Temples," Tibet Trip. See brief descriptions and history of Tibet's Jokhang and Ramoche Temples with photographs.

Monica Cellio, "The Construction of a Yurt,", 1995. Monica Cellio, using drawings and annotations, shows you how to build a Mongolian yurt. Webmaster Greg Lindahl at
"Architecture of Mongolia," MDNews-Mongolia Daily Economic Update, August 11, 2010 post. Summary of Mongolian cultures beginning with the Xiongnu and details on Mongol culture's architecture. Note traces of wood architecture and houses and some city development within some of the "empires."
"Mongolian Architecture," Blue Mongolia Tours. Note description of ger or yurt "homes" and some evidence of cities, wood architecture and Buddhist temples.
"Category Archive: Architecture," steppe Magazine. See more categories on right side of page and two articles (2013) "Living Shrines of Uyghur China" and "Trespassing Modernities-Post-Stalinist Soviet Architecture."
"Yurt history,", 2008. Also called a 'ger.'
Chris Witcombe, "Ise Shrine," Sacred Places, Sweet Briar College, Virginia Art Department. In ancient times there were no buildings, shrines, in that Japanese Shinto believers worshiped in forests and used ropes to climb mountains. The Isi Shinto Shrine was first built in 4 BCE to honor goddess Amaterasu-omikami. Isi, Japan evolved into a shrine city with 125 shrines built near forests and two mountain areas. Note other sacred places architecture to the right of this page and see more on Isi Shrine and other Shinto shrines:
Okada Shoji, "Medieval Shinto," Encyclopedia of Shinto, Kokugakuin University, July 24, 2006.
Professor John Nelson, "Teaching Comparative Religion Through Art and Architecture," Sacred Spaces in Shinto, ORIAS (Office of Resourcesfor International and Area Studies), University of California, Berkeley.
Guru P. Lukalapu, "San Ju Gendo Temple," Temples of Japan, 2013. See San Ju Gendo temple built/established in 1164 by powerful warrior politician Taira-no-Kiyomori in the "wa yo" Japanese architectural style.
East Asia in Geographic Perspective, Asian Topics in World History, Columbia University, faculty advisor Dr. Ronald G. Knapp. See number 3 China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam architecture links.
"Japanese Architecture,", 2002. See summary of Japanese architecture, comparisons to Chinese architecture and other links on left side of page for more information on Japanese architecture.
Cornell University Teahouse Project website. In 1500's Japan "rustic huts" (soan) were built as places where teamasters and their guests gathered to share whisked green tea (matcha) as part of artistic gatherings called chanoyu. These "huts" had an appearance of a mossy forest environment. Forty Cornell University students in 2003 joined together with advisors and teachers to build a soan.
Tri Noensie, "Zen Buddhism and Architecture in Medieval Japan Version 2,", May 1, 2010. Slide share on temples, tea rooms, gardens during Kamakura (1185-1333) and Muromachi (1333-1573) periods. See another prezi version at:
"Shoin-zukuri," digplanet wiki. Japanese residential architecture used in mansions of the military, temple guest halls, and Zen abbot's quarters of the Azuchi-momoyama (1568-1600) and Edo periods (1600-1868). Shoin-zukuri style architecture forms the basis for today's traditional Japanese house.
"Japanese Open-Air Folk House Museum,Nihon Minkaen, Japan, 2013. See website for Minkaen city museum dedicated to "folk dwellings" (minka) built in 17th-19th century Japan. Twenty-five have been restored.
"Obaku Zen Architecture,", wikipedia links. Obaku Zen arrived in Japan in the mid-seventeenth century later than other Zen schools. It's shrine architectural style is based on Chinese Ming and Qing. Scroll down page to see other external links.
"Japanese Architecture-Buildings," See key example of contemporary Japanese architecture with eight pages of "selections" with links to hundreds of individual project pages. Some traditional Japanese resources included.
Alexandra A. Seno, "Architecture," Wall Street Journal online, February 12, 2010. A profile of Japanese architect Shigeru Ban who intrigued the architecture world in 1995 by creating paper tube buildings to provide fast shelter for earthquake victimsand has insisted on quality and a small manageable architectural team as opposed to big building projects andhuge corporate staffs.
"Shrine Architecture," Encyclopedia of Shinto, Kokugakuin University @ 2002-2006. Note elements of Shinto shrine architecture highlighted on this page. Click on that architectural "element" to see the entire description.
Kussain Marsden, The Architectural and Imaginary Spaces of Anime Models, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 72, 2012. Kussain Marsden discusses Japanese animation, architectural ideas within that genre and kami spirits. Note a mention of Catholic architecture in Japan within these "imaginary spaces."
"Architecture: The Art of Asia," Minneapolis Institute of Arts website.
"Philippine's Architecture," Slide share posted by chengbesa, July 25, 2011. See 25 slides and first ones of Nipa hut (bahay kubo) which is the icon of Philippino culture exhibiting the value of "Bayanihan" or spirit of communal living or working together. The bamboo bahay kubo saw a change over time to bahay na bato or stone and brick homes. See more below.
Robert Gardner, "From Bahay Kubo to Bahay na Bato to. " Robert Gardner, citing historical primary source eyewitnesses, laments the loss of traditional Philippino architecture. Scroll to bottom of this page to see more Philippino resources.
Jayson Braza Portem, "Architecture of the Philippines," The Freeman Architect. Description of Philippino architecture with emphasis on Spanish imprint.
"Catal Huyuk," In Search of Ancient Communities, McDougal Littell Web Quest, Houghton Mifflin Co. @ 1995-2005. See other lessons for Rapa Rui (Easter Island), Stonehenge, and Caves of Lascaux.
"Life in Ancient Mesopotamia-Clues From the Past-Visit a Mesopotamian House: Architecture," The Oriental Institute Museum, University of Chicago. Lesson plan surrounding a house in Ur, ancient Mesopotamia.
Siddharth Khanna, "Ancient River Civilizations," 64 slide ppt. including slides of these river valley's architecture.

"The Art of South and Southeast Asia-A Resource for Educators," The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2001. Art and Architecture esources woven around the history and religions of South and Southeast Asia.
"City-reading cities as cultural documents," Lesson modules such as Jing migration and how the Jing and other empires decided to build capital cities, two lessons on Chang'an the Tang capital city and other lessons.
Ted Mitchell, "Silk Road: Examining Foreign Influences Assignment," Ancient China Curriculum, Alan Shawn Feinstein Middle School, Coventry, Rhode Island. Assignment based on architecture (see Sikhara tower architecture and Buddhist pagoda), art, agriculture, commoditiesbrought into China via the Silk Road trade route. Incorporates maps in the project. See another version of this Silk Road assignment:
Patricia Buckley Ebrey, "Virtual Sourcebook for Chinese Civilization," University of Washington. See many lessons for high school and college.
Linda Wohlman, "Roman Art and Architecture 500 BCE-400 CE," Closeup Teaching Unit World History For Us All, San Diego State University. Ms. Wohlman teaches gifted and talented sixth grade students in Long Beach, California. See powerpoint and background resources.
Lesson #4, "Monument to the Stars," The Story of India with Michael Wood, PBS, 2008. This lesson asks students to form architecture teams responding to a project from a local Indian college, The University of Aryabhatta, asking for a monument design for it's namesake, Aryabhatta 5th century CE renowned Indian scientist and mathematician.
Renaissance Architecture, free online course via See other free courses from this website.
"Lesson One: What is Architecture?" Oxford Art Online. Note other lessons dealing with architecture left of this page.
"Architects in Action," Discovery Education. Students will learn how ratios and architecture blend.
Art and Culture, Edsitement lesson plans. 156 shown, some architecture centered.
Herman Hertzberger, "Lessons For Students in Architecture," Rotterdam: 101 Publishing, 2001. Google EBook. Notso much "lesson plans" but casestudies discussingspatial design and architecture from Dr. Hertzberger's Delft University, Netherlands lectures from 1973 on.
"Can Buildings Make You Sick?" NOVA Education lesson activity, PBS program 1995.
"Teaching Historic Places," National Park Service. Lesson plans, images, readings on American public buildings and architecture. Last updated June 13, 2011. See Home:
Jackie Craven, "8 Free Teaching Architecture Lesson Plans," Architecture, @ 2013.
Rhonda L. Deeg (University of Wisconsin, Madison, Using Architectural History to Raise Community Awareness,Wisconsin History Society. One can replace this Spring Green, Wisconsin city with any other city to teach this lesson.
Allison Schwerin, "Charleston Architecture Study," Teaching American History in South Carolina, Grade Level 8th, 2009. This lesson easily adapted to high school and college and to your home city.
Architecture in Mississippi, Mississippi History Now Lesson Plan, 4th grade lesson plan. See one of the sources used in this lesson. Students will understand what "vernacular architecture" means: "Architecture in Mississippi From Prehistoric to 1900," Mississippi History Now website.
"3 Awesome Historical Google Maps Mashups," posted on by Mark Gleeson, October 1, 2013. Using google maps one can pin your city and town and see what it looked like 50 to 100 years ago. Architecture comparative lesson-past and present? Change over time activity?
Candace O'Shea, "Lesson Plan for Thomas Cole's 1840 painting The Architect's Dream," November 20, 2007. This lesson designed for students 6-8 yrs. of age. Candace O'Shea in an art student at the University of Toledo.
"Tracing the Roots of Modern Cities," Discovery Education Lesson module, Grades 6-8. This lesson can easily be adapted for more advanced grades and students.
Sandhya Naidu, "Instinct," Curriki, Open Architecture Network, Lesson 1 (see other lessons on left side of page). This site was built to support Architecture for Humanity's Portable Classroom Challenge which invites studentsto investigate their school and view it as architecture and design and to critique that design through sustainable points of view. See Lesson 3 by Jennifer Begonia, "Sustainable Building" as another example.
"Michael Gonchar, "Vertical Living: Exploring Identity, Social Class and Global Change Through the Highrise," NY Times Learning Network, October 29, 2013. Highrise architecture Lesson Plan with a supplemental comparative with China.
"Architecture Quizzes," See 3 quizzes on this page, "Planning," Architecture Theory," and an Accounting Review quiz. Each quiz contains interactive 50 multiple choice questions which when completed will show your score and reward you with a "certificate." A Rough draft lesson as to sustainable architecture as a solution to the trash, greed, consumption seen in your local community and then a comparative of two societies, the US and India. First, students study the issue of trash in their own community and discuss problems and thecommunities' attitude toward trash/pollution, consumption. Based on their own research and discussion of their own community issues the students can now use the sources below to compare and contrastproblems of trash, greed and consumption in the US and India. Lastly, can the problem in their own local community, the US and India be addressed through sustainable architecture? by John Maunu Trashing India and the United States Comparative:
Sean Paul Kelley, "India Today: Behind the Haze of Wealth and Greed," sikh chic, December 18, 2009. Stinging critique of modern India, it's waste, trash, lacking infrastructure and a society that does not care. POV.
Della I. Hansmann, "American Trash," University of Minnesota Library blog, lost between the letters, August 12, 2007. Author cites environmentalist Wendell Berry's disgust with trash dumped though out rural America which is symbolic of our entire society. Berryblames this trashing of America on greed, laziness, passive self-indulgence in a consumption society. See architecture posts from Della Hansmann's blog: And Della I. Hansmann's Architecture/Housing Master's Thesis (2008) University of Minnesota: A solution to the problem: Two sources-Recycled sustainable art and architecture?
Detroit, Michigan's Heidelberg Project.
"A Towering Waste: The Tallest Abandoned Buildings in the World that were once the height of architectural achievement before left to fall into ruin," Daily Mail (UK), June 14, 2013. Not only is this Daily Mail headline an example of wordiness "trash" but, evidence that trashing the environment can be done by all, including the rich.
A rough draft Comparative Lesson idea comparing European "explorers" and their Victorian racist ideas of native architecture abilities:
by John Maunu A continuity over timeof explorers believing Native Peoples (The Other) unable to build astonishing architecture and crediting others:
1. Thor Heyerdahl believed the Polynesian peoples were not able to build the Stone structures found in some Pacific islands. He credited South American Indians who had migrated there in two waves.
Thor Heyerdahl Expeditions and Archaeology of the Pacific Peoples, Great Dreams, 2002.
Peter Leiataua Ahching, "The Peter Ahching Theory on Polynesian Origins and Thor Heyerdahl Theory," University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2003.
"Thor Heyerdahl 1914-2002," Kon-Tiki Museum, Thor Heyerdahl Research Foundation.
2. Great Zimbabwe and European archaeologists and anthropologist's conclusions as to origin of it's architecture. Comparativeto Shona people and Great Zimbabwe stone architecture which Europeans could not believe were built by "savage" African-Bantu peoples.
"Great Zimbabwe," Architectural Guidance Blog, August 4, 2008. Omkar from Puna, India, an architecturalstudent posts article on Great Zimbabwe architecture.
Neil Faulkner, "Great Zimbabwe," World Archaeology, May 3, 2009. See section on historical misinterpretations in this short selection of Faulkner's article.,_Zimbabwe
"Zimbabwe," Note section on historical interpretations as to the architecture and who built Great Zimbabwe massive (for it's time) stone structure. Lesson idea surrounds Victorian racism and disbelief that the Other in Polynesia and Africa could build such advanced architectural structures and note their "stretch" in giving credit to other "more civilized" cultures. This comparative could be used to emphasis "The WHY" as to these histories which are included in the links provided. Note another example of this "history:"
Richard Thornton, "Amazing Archaeological Discoveries in Georgia and South Carolina," Examiner, October 2, 2013. Evidence going back to pioneer anthropologist Charles C. Jones, 1873 Antiquities of the Southern Indians,as to native stone architecture in 7 state region of the American south had been ignored and it was teepees andwigwams for the native culture in the history books.

Lesson posted with permission of Susan Brittle.

AP World History Year End Review Project by Susan Brittle
Fairfax County Schools, Virgina (maunu note this project states 5 eras-I would combine periods 1-2 as one era for our Revised AP World eras which has 6 eras-Period one (earliest times-10,000/8000 BCE-600 BCE), Period two 600 BCE-600 CE, Period three 600 CE-1450, Period four 1450-1750, Period five 1750-1900, Period six 1900-Present. World view museum project/Year long project/all eras: From the five eras we study this year you must choose 5 works of art for each period. It can be a painting, artwork, statuary, architecture, or an item of material culture etc. - anything you would find in a museum. You must create a presentation either in Powerpoint, Youtube, or any other electronic media in which you are comfortable that you will present to the class. You will present an image of the object, or an image that represents a style or form you are trying to convey and explain why you would have this in your personal museum. You must explain why this object or work of art is important and representative of the period.

Explanation: The Coit Tower murals in San Francisco were painted as part of the Works Progress Administration and were extremely controversial at the time. Artists such as Diego Rivera, who oversaw the project, were known communist sympathizers and the tenor of the WPA and the Recovery Act seemed, to some Americans, as a thinly veiled attempt by the Roosevelt administration to forward a socialist agenda for the United States. In this mural one can see Marx's Communist Manifesto being removed from the shelves by one of the subjects. There are also works by other Soviet authors, such as Maxim Gorky. The headlines also reflect the events of the time, such as a longshoreman's strike along the San Francisco docks. This too was controversial as unions were often seen as toeholds for socialist sympathizers. At the time the exhibition opened many of San Francisco's city fathers felt it was too controversial and wanted it destroyed. This is an important painting to understand in a contemporary light as many comparisons to the current economic climate are being made to the Great Depression of the 1930's. A further comparison can be made to the controversy the American people are currently facing with President Obama's attempt to institute a comprehensive health care system which many are accusing the administration of communist sympathies. You must explain why it is important that people today who come to see your museum need to see this as representative of that period and how this item is relevant today. Included is an example of one exhibit for the modern era-"Unemployed and Protestors:


  Figure 11: by Bernard Zakheim was one of the most controversial San Francisco Coit Tower murals produced as part of the Public Works Arts Project (PWAP).
Rubric: My Museum Up to 25 points each 20-24 points each 15-20 points each Up to 15 points each Visual Quality Image/clip or representation is clear,visible, and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the timeframe and topic. Image/clip or representation is clear, visible and adequately identifies the timeframe and topic. Image/clip or representation is unclear to time frame and topic or is obscured. Image/clip or representation is irrelevant to topic and makes little connection to time period. Textual Quality Text is minimal, does not obscure image and is relevant to timeframe and topic, and demonstrates a thorough understand. Text is minimal, does not obscure image and is relevant to timeframe and topic. Overly textual which obscure image but is relevant to timeframe and topic. All text, little relevance to image.Presentation Thoroughly explains why image/clip or representation is relevant to the time frame discussed and make linkages to events surrounding its creation. Explains why image/clip or representation is relevant to the time frame discussed. Attempts to explain how image/clip or representation is relevant to the time frame discussed. Does not understand the relevance of the image or clip to the timeframe. World View Creates a unique and coherent link to current society with image/item and explains the relevance of that work both for contemporary and historic viewers. Creates a link to current society with image/item and explains the relevance of that work either historically or contemporarily. Attempts to link item/image to current society. Unable to link item/image to current society or attach any historical or contemporary relevance to work.
Amir H. Ameri, "History of Architecture 1," University of Colorado, Denver, Spring 2011. History of architecture course syllabus from earliest times through the Renaissance 16th century.
Louis Iarocci, "Architecture of the Ancient World," University of Washington, Fall 2012. Note links for images, resources, etc.
Professor Anne Marshall, "Non-Western Architecture," University of Idaho Department of Architecture, Spring 2002 syllabus. Native American, Islamic Middle East and Asian architecture is focus of this course.
Syllabus for Arch 223, Non-Western History, University of Maryland. Broad overview of world architecture.
"Islamic Art, Architecture and Culture," Architecture and Design university course syllabi, Scroll down page to see Urban Planning syllabus and "Other Resources" for syllabus. See example of Dr. CarelBertam's (University of Texas at Austin) syllabus, "The Architecture of Power: Palaces and Palatial Spaces in Islam:
Professor Nasser Rabbat, "Religious Architecture and Islamic Culture," MIT Department of Architecture course syllabus. Seen in
Omur Harmansah syllabi for Archaeology and Architecture courses, Brown University, 2005, 2006. See more information on Omur Harmansah:
MIT Open Courseware, Architecture courses. Scroll down to MIT Architecture classes/courses and their syllabi and resources.
David Rifkind, School of Architecture, Florida International University course syllabi.
Nancy Hubbard, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, "Arch 300 Architectural History and Theory (online)," Spring2012 syllabus Pt. 1-3.
Phyllis J. Henderson, "Survey of Architectural History on-line course, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Dr. Henry Smith, "Meiji Culture: Space, City, Image," Colloquium in Modern Japanese History, Columbia University, syllabus, Spring 1994.

Professor Linduff, "Asian Art," Spring 2002, University of Pittsburg syllabus.
"Community Planning and Urban Design," 2004 class description, University of Washington course sending architectural/LandscapeDesign students to Quanzhou, Fujan Province China to develop proposals and plans to develop two areasin Quanzhou. One area is a poor village, the other more urban.
Dr. Manuel Aguilar, "Colonial Art of Mexico: Tequitqui, Baroque and Churrigueresque," California State at Los Angeles, syllabus with links to Introduction, author, resources for course.
Art and Architectural History Program at University of California, Santa Barbara.
Franklin Toker, History of Western Architecture, University of Pittsburgh course website and syllabus.
Christopher Gregg, syllabus for Art History, "Urbanization and Architecture in the Roman Empire: Rome, Ostia and Pompeii, George Mason University, spring 2013.
Franklin Toker, "Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture," University of Pittsburgh course syllabus. Seebibliography and "figures" (upper left of page). Clicking on figures shows slides for each class session.

Michael Stern, "Town Planning in Post-Suburban America," University of Virginia, Spring 1995. Seen in H-Net. You will see H-Net page, see "Urban Planning and Architecture" tab, click on that which will take you to "Town Planning in Post-Suburban America" link. Click on that and see collaborative course led by Michael Stern and Catholic University of America colleague, Dr. Neil Payton dealing withurban design through a team andinteractive learning module based on students designing a "town" outside Owen Mills,Maryland. See updated coursedescription (July 14, 2010):
Heghnar Waterpaugh, "Gender, Space, Architecture," course syllabi, MIT seen in
"Architecture," University of Maryland Architecture and Design courses with links to syllabus and course content summaries, 2012. See link to course websites on right side of page.
"Architecture and World History Syllabus," My A number of architecture and world history syllabi.
Syllabus Exchange, Vernacular Architecture Forum, last updated August 5, 2012.
Patricia Andrasik, "Building Performance Analytics," Department of Architecture and Planning, Catholic University of America, Washington DC, Fall of 2013 Undergraduate syllabus.
Courses for MA in Zero Carbon Architecture and Retrofit Design, Birmingham City University (UK), 2013.

Architectural Blogs and websites:

"Exploring the Built Environment," SCAD The University for Creative Careers, Architectural History department blog, May 2, 2013.

Angkor Wat Temple, Cambodia: Among the Great Ancient Temples in Southeast Asia

Angkor Wat is a temple complex in Cambodia (located in Angkor in the Siem Reap Province) and the largest religious monument in the world. Located near the Mekong river, the temple (Dedicated to Hindu God Lord Vishnu) is a symbol of Cambodia (appearing on its national flag), a UNESCO World Heritage Centre, and one of the most visited tourist attraction in Cambodia.

In Cambodia, Angkor (means ‘City’) and Wat means temple or Pagoda. The temple is not only a mega structure but also an engineering marvel, simply because its built on water (its floating on a swamp), and that too centuries ago.

Watch: Ancient Megastructures – Angkor Wat (Monument of Hindu God Vishnu)

Although India movies have not been shot here yet, few Hollywood films have already been filmed at the Angkor Wat (Laura Croft’s Tomb Raider & Indiana Jones’ Temple of Doom).

Lara Croft: Tomb Raider, Army of Statues. Scenes filmed at Angkor Wat

Indiana Jones And The Temple Of Doom Trailer. Scenes were filmed at the Indiana Jones And The Temple Of Doom Trailer.

Recently, a team of archaeologists discovered buried ‘towers’ and remains of a huge structure near the world’s largest religious monument. They now believe that the Angkor Wat temple was much larger and more complex than previously thought.

If you happen to visit the place, make sure you see the main temple in Angkor Wat towards the end, else all the other temples would seem a bit disappointing compared to this mega-structure. Most pictures you see on the internet actually don’t do justice to the place. Its definitely one of the worlds most amazing sights.

Zep's Blog

Krakatoa: The Last Days is a BBC Television docudrama based upon a selection of four eyewitness accounts of the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa, an active stratovolcano between the islands of Sumatra and Java, present day Indonesia.

It is the second greatest volcanic eruption in recorded history (after Mount Tambora, only 68 years earlier), erupting more than 18 cubic kilometers of tephra in less than 48 hours, and killing about 36,500 people.

Megastructures Angkor Wat - History

In this class, you will be working out of the textbook entitled World Geography. This grading period will cover some of Chapters 17 through 34, and will take us through Africa, Asia, Oceania and Antarctica. The focus will be on human geography, although we will also learn the basics of physical geography as well as maps of each of the regions we will study.

As you are no doubt aware, all classes at JHS are utilizing the Formative Instructional Practices (FIP) instructional model this year. Essentially, the goal is to make sure you master the material, no matter how quickly you do so, how slowly you do so, or how many attempts (within reason) it takes you to do so. As such, you should understand that there are two types of assignments: formative and summative . Formative assignments encourage learning of the material, and serve as both exposure to and practice with that material. The other type of assignment is summative, and is designed to assess how much of the information you have learned/retained. Since mastery is the goal, formative assessments are not figured into your grade, but summative assessments are .

1. You may use your own notes for a few (usually 7) minutes during summative tests if you are present for the original test date only. All notes must be handwritten, must be in a spiral-bound notebook, and must be submitted with your other test materials when you finish the test. If you choose to use homework assignments as notes, they must also be included with your notebook.

2. Students scoring below 60% on the original summative assessment must reassess. Those that score at least 60% but less than 76% may reassess. Students that score 76% or greater may not reassess. Students must complete interventions assigned by the teacher before reassessment. If reassessing, the highest score a student can receive on a summative reassessment will be 76% (Note: Once an assignment has been reassessed, the higher of the two scores will be used as the final grade for that assessment). Students will have 1 week and 1 opportunity to reassess (Clarification: within 1 week of the date the original assessment was returned to the student).

3. As outlined above, missed questions on a test may be reassessed on a chapter/sectional basis for full credit (up to the 76% reassessment limit). Failure to show up for an assigned reassessment time with reassessment work done will constitute a refusal to reassess, and will negate a student’s right to reassess on that material. If you fail to show up and/or complete the remedial work for a required reassessment (initial score <60%), further disciplinary action will be taken, as well- as per the Student Handbook.

4. Either student notes or the optional homework assignments can be used for reassessment purposes on a chapter/section by chapter/section basis. Mr. Huffman reserves the sole and exclusive right to determine if sufficient effort has been invested in a student's remedial work for it to count as complete. Work that has been deemed insufficient or inadequate will not count as having been completed, and may negate a student's ability to reassess, either for that chapter/section or for the entire test.

5. Projects may be reassessed one time for full credit, and must include the original project, the rubric/gradesheet, and the revised copy- complete with notations of changes.

6. Barring special circumstances, all reassessments must be completed within five school days of the return of the initial assessment.

7. Participation is highly recommended, since it will both make the class more interesting and make the information easier to retain.

8. There will be no extra credit opportunities.

9. You may usually contact me by e-mail if you have any questions on assignments or other issues. I check it regularly, and generally get back to you the same day.

10. Academic dishonesty of any type will result in appropriate disciplinary action, and will necessitate re-doing the work.

Megastructures Angkor Wat - History

“Echoes of Silence the beauty and mystical ambiance of Ta Prohm. Angkor, Cambodia,” the photographer wrote. This scene may appeal to the Indiana Jones in all of us. Photo #1 by Peter Nijenhuis

Buddhist monks in front of the reflection pool at Angkor Wat, Cambodia, the city’s most notable edifice. It was built to represent the Hindu “Mountain of the Gods,” and served as a funerary temple. The main temple of Angkor Wat was built between 1113 and 1150 “by King Suryavarman II,” Wikipedia informs. “Suryavarman ascended to the throne after prevailing in a battle with a rival prince. An inscription says that, in the course of combat, Suryavarman leapt onto his rival’s war elephant and killed him, just as the mythical bird-man Garuda slays a serpent.” Photo #2 by Sam Garza

Aerial of Angkor Wat. The Earth Observatory explains, “Tucked deep in the Cambodian rainforest, the ancient Angkor Wat temple is considered one of the most valuable architectural sites in Asia. Angkor Wat is the pinnacle of the city of Angkor, capital of the once-powerful Khmer Empire of Southeast Asia. The temple was built by Suryavarman II between 1113 and 1150 AD. Dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu, Angkor Wat is a representation of Mount Meru, home of the gods and the center of the Hindu universe. In addition to its unique pyramid temple architecture, Angkor Wat is covered with intricate bas-relief carvings of Hindu epics. At the center of Angkor Wat are five towers that represent the five peaks of Mount Meru. The round towers mark out the corners and the center of the innermost square of the complex. Like the mountain peaks they represent, the towers are pointed on top. The pinnacle of each tower is slightly lighter than the surrounding black stone in this image.” Photo #3 by NASA

Iconic tree at Ta Prohm, Siem Reap, Cambodia. According to Wikitravel, “Built during the time of king Jayavarman VII and is best known as the temple where trees have been left intertwined with the stonework, much as it was uncovered from the jungle. It might be considered in a state of disrepair but there is a strange beauty in the marvelous strangler fig trees which provide a stunning display of the embrace between nature and the human handiwork. This is one of the most popular temples after Angkor Wat and the Bayon because of the beautiful combinations of wood and stone.” You may recognize a few scenes from Angelina Jolie’s Tomb Raider in this collection of images. Photo #4 by Brian Jeffery Beggerly

The photographer wrote, “Mythic statues line the causeway over a moat leading to the south gate of Angkor Thom, literally called ‘Great City.’ The images represent a Hindu myth of creation called the Churning of the Sea of Milk. On one side of the causeway, fifty-four guardian deities (called ‘devas’) pull the head of a mythical serpent or ‘naga.’ On the other side, fifty-four images of demon gods (called ‘asuras’) push the tail of the serpent.” Photo #5 by Rene (Taiger808)

“The Origin of Suffering is Attachment.” Bayon, Cambodia. Destination Truth wrote, “Many carvings depict a direct interaction between the human and spirit world and it is said that malevolent Hindu demons still haunt the vast and overgrown premises to this day. Reports of physical interactions and audible voices around many of the temples, most notably Angkor Wat, Ta Prohm and Bayon, have erupted over the years. Most recently, Buddhist monks are said to communicate with the spirits during meditation on the premises.” Photo #6 by By James…….

Chau Say Tevoda Just east of Angkor Thom, two minor temples line the Victory Way: Thommanon (N) and Chao or Chau Say Tevoda (S), both in the Angkor Wat style. They were built in the 12th century, Thommanon early, Chao Say Tevoda somewhat later, and were planned well before Angkor Thom and the Victory Way which date from the end of the 12th century. Photo #7 by Ricardo Hurtubia

Phimeanakas was “built at the end of the 10th century, during the reign of Rajendravarman (from 941-968), then rebuilt by Suryavarman II in the shape of a three tier pyramid as a Hindu temple. On top of the pyramid there was a tower. According to legend, the king spent the first watch of every night with a woman thought to represent a Nāga in the tower, during that time, not even the queen was permitted to intrude. Only in the second watch the king returned to his palace with the queen. If the naga who was the supreme land owner of Khmer land did not show up for a night, the king’s day would be numbered, if the king did not show up, calamity would strike his land.” Photo #8 by Tangge

Finely carved reliefs and corridors from the ruins of the Buddhist temple of Angkor Ta Prohm. It dates to the 12th and 13th century and was built by king Jayavarman VII who is considered to be one of the greatest rulers of the ancient Khmer Empire. Photo #9 by Allie Caulfield

Detailed reliefs in the underworld. Sandstone bas relief on the hidden wall at the Leper King Terrace, part of the Royal Square of Angkor Thom – Angkor Wat. Photo #10 by Rene (Taiger808)

Banteay Srei (left): “is a 10th century temple of Khmer architecture dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva. Consecrated in 967 C.E., Banteay Srei was the only major temple at Angkor not built by a monarch its construction is credited to a courtier named Yajnyavahara, who served as a counselor to King Rajendravarman.” Banteay Samre (right): “located ca. 500 m east of the Eastern Baray, is one of the temples of Angkor. It was built in the first half of the 12th century, and has been a thoroughly restorated. It is a complete Hindu temple with an Angkor Wat style sanctuary tower.” Photo #11 by Allie Caulfield & #12 by Richard Socher

Lara Croft: Tomb Raider, Army of Statues. Video #1 by movieclips

Tomb Raider (Ta Prohm, Siem Reap, Cambodia). Wikipedia states, “Unlike most Angkorian temples, Ta Prohm has been left in much the same condition in which it was found: the photogenic and atmospheric combination of trees growing out of the ruins and the jungle surroundings have made it one of Angkor’s most popular temples with visitors.UNESCO inscribed Ta Prohm on the World Heritage List in 1992. Today, it is one of the most visited complexes in Cambodia’s Angkor region. The conservation and restoration of Ta Prohm is a partnership project.” Photo #13 by Matthew Stewart

“The Secret Passageway to the Treasure,” Trey Ratcliff wrote. “After the crowds of Angkor Wat, it was nice to go find a remote temple in the jungle and be alone. This temple laid under the jungle, completely undiscovered for centuries. The hallway and mysterious chambers seemed to go on forever. If you want to see how I made this (and how you can too!), visit my HDR Tutorial. I hope it gives you some new tricks!” Photo #14 by Trey Ratcliff

Banteay Srey Temple “is a 10th century Cambodian temple dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva.” It was “built largely of red sandstone, a medium that lends itself to the elaborate decorative wall carvings which are still observable today. The buildings themselves are miniature in scale, unusually so when measured by the standards of Angkorian construction. These factors have made the temple extremely popular with tourists, and have led to its being widely praised as a ‘precious gem’, or the ‘jewel of Khmer art’.” Photo #15 by Bernard Oh

Angkor: Pre Rup, one of the many temple ruins within the Angkor Archaeological Park. It was built “as the state temple of Khmer king Rajendravarman and dedicated in 961 or early 962. It is a temple mountain of combined brick, laterite and sandstone construction. The temple’s name is a comparatively modern one meaning ‘turn the body’. This reflects the common belief among Cambodians that funerals were conducted at the temple, with the ashes of the body being ritually rotated in different directions as the service progressed.” Photo #16 by Jimbo7

“The famous empty doorway of Ta Prohm — ” the photographer wrote, “there’s usually a queue of people lining up to be photographed here!” Wikitravel wrote, “While the temple is very popular, most visitors follow a central route and the sides of the complex can be surprisingly quiet. Note that large sections of the temple are unstable rubble and have been cordoned off, as they are in real danger of collapse. As of 2010, authorities have started to restore Ta Prohm. All the plants and shrubs have been cleared from the site and some of trees are also getting removed. A crane has been erected and a large amount of building work is underway to rebuild the temple, much of it seemingly from scratch. Wooden walkways now block some of the previously famous postcard photos.” Photo #17 by Jpatokal

2 million people a year must feel the call of adventure to explore these ancient ruins. If the site is being repaired, will these famous roots covering the ruins and enhancing the mystique be removed? Left: “Swallowing the Ruins at Ta Prohm.” Right: “Wrapping Around Time ancient ruins of Angkor Wat.” Photo #18 by Trey Ratcliff & #19 by Trey Ratcliff

Taken in 1965, the weight of time was already crushing Angkor Wat. Photo #20 by H. Grobe

Indiana Jones And The Temple Of Doom Trailer. Video #2 by FilmTrailersChannel

The Angkor Thom Terrace of the Elephants was named for the 350m-long (1,148 feet) carvings of elephants on its eastern face. Photo #21 by Thom Watson

The photographer for the image on left wrote, “Have you ever been in Angkor Wat? I think it is a must. Fantastic, mysterious, ancient, beautiful, etc…” Right: The cramped corridors of ancient Bayon. “Very little space is left between the inner gallery and the upper terrace.” Photo #22 by alfaneque & #23 by Markalexander100

Preah Khan temple ruins. The photographer wrote, “A view of the ruins of the temple of Preah Khan at Angkor in Cambodia. Preah Khan was built by the powerful Khmer king Jayavarman VII in the late 12th century who dedicated it to his father, Dharanindravarman II.” Photo #24 by Allie Caulfield

Neak Pean Temple “is an artificial island with a Buddhist temple on a circular island in Preah Khan Baray. The name is derived from the sculptures of snakes (Nāga) running around the base of the temple structure.” Photo #25 by 3coma14

A view of the Terrace of the Leper King in Angkor Thom. Photo #26 by Allie Caulfield

Built in the late 12th century or early 13th century: A temple called Bayonne, Angkor Thom, the Angkor complex. There are 216 massive stone faces adorning the towers of Bayon which jut out from the upper terrace and cluster around its central peak. Photo #27 by David Sim

Nature reclaiming the temples. Buddha being swallowed by roots at Angkor Archaeological Park. Photo #28 by H. Grobe & #29 by Peter Nijenhuis

13th century Bayon Khmer Buddhist temple — at Angkor. Photo #30 by Charles J Sharp

Phnom Bakheng. The photographer wrote, “Just between Angkor Wat and the Bayon lies the temple of Phnom Bakheng, a good walk up the hill and a popular place to witness the sunset as it gives a great view of the surrounding area. The main temple on the top of the hill lies up some pretty steep steps. When climbing down those very steps this view caught my eye and I quickly pulled out my tripod and took a few, dodging passing tourists. I’m also trying to work on some techniques to minimize the HDR psychedelic effect while still maintaining that enhanced reality feeling. Still not there yet, but hopefully good for now.” Photo #31 by stoicviking

Prasat Suor Prat is a series of 12 towers in Angkor Thom. Photo #32 by Kazenelenbogen

Prasat Preah Palilay. The new research claims “The grid of canals suggests the ancient builders took a shortcut when constructing the Angkor Wat temple, which may explain how the imposing complex was built in a mere 20 years. Photo #33 by BluesyPete

Ancient Megastructures – Angkor Wat. Video #3 by InuKool

Roots of Ta Prohm Temple. It looks like a scene you’d step into in a temple exploring adventure video game. Photo #34 by David Pham

Apsaras, detail of lower pediment. Bayon style, late 12th – early 13th century sandstone. Photo #35 by Vassil

Left: Angkor Thommanon relief. Right: A statue at the Bayon temple. Photo #36 by Allie Caulfield & #37 by Allie Caulfield

The 12th Century stone was dedicated to Buddha. Photo #38 by Writer128

The Srah Srang reservoir was dug in the mid-10th century and has steps that lead down to the water are flanked by two guardian lions. At present Srah Srang measures 700 by 350 m and is still partially flooded. Photo #39 by Samuel Maddox

[email protected] Wat. “The temple complex is surrounded by a 174-meter- (570-foot-) wide moat, visible in the large image, that represents the oceans at the edge of the universe,” wrote the Earth Observatory. “A stone causeway leads through the Hindu universe to the temple home of the gods from the west, on the left side of the image. The temple complex itself is a series of buildings on rising terraces like the slopes of a mountain.” Photo #40 by randomix

7 Interesting Facts about Angkor Wat in Cambodia

1. It is the largest religious monument in the world

Stretching over some 162.6 hectares, including forested area, Angkor Archaeological Park is the largest religious site in the world. Scattered across the park are the remains of the different capitals of the Khmer Empire. These date from the 9th to the 15th century. This includes 72 major temples and many minor temples. The most famous is the Temple of Angkor Wat and, at Angkor Thom, the Bayon Temple with its countless sculptural decorations.

2. It is one of the largest archaeological sites in operation in the world

UNESCO designated Angkor Wat a World Heritage Site in 1992 in recognition of it as an important cultural site and one of the largest archaeological sites in operation in the world. UNESCO describes it as “a major site exemplifying cultural, religious and symbolic values, as well as containing high architectural, archaeological and artistic significance.”

3. This Buddist temple used to be a Hindu site

King Jayavarman II established the Angkor state in the year 802. Originally, Angkor Wat was a Hindu site. King Jayavarman II built it for the god Vishnu. Vishnu “The Preserver” is the second god in the Hindu triumvirate. He protects the universe from destruction and preserves it. Over the years, it gradually incorporated Buddhist structures and by the end of the 12th-century, it became a Buddhist temple.

4. Mount Meru inspired Angkor Wat

The five central towers of Angkor Wat symbolise the peaks of Mount Meru. In Hindu, Jain and Buddhist cosmology, Mount Meru is a golden mountain in the centre of the universe. It is the axis of the world and the home of the gods. The three chief Hindu gods living in Mount Meru are Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver and Shiva the Destroyer. Also living there are the Devas, the Hindu demi-gods.

5. The clue is in the name

The official language of Cambodia is Khmer. The phrase ‘Angkor Wat’ means ‘City of Temples’ in the Khmer language. Its original name, however, was ‘Vrah VishnuLok’. This means ‘the sacred dwelling of Vishnu’ in Sanskrit, which is the sacred language of Hinduism.

6. Angkor Wat faces west

Most Khmer temples face to the east, but not Angkor Wat. One theory for this is to do with Vishnu, who is associated with facing the west. With Angkor Wat being dedicated to Vishnu, its temples do the same. Another theory put forth is to do with life and death. The sun rises in the east (life-giving) and sets in the west (associated with death). It is thought that the original intention may have been to use Angkor Wat as a funeral ground, much like the pyramids in Giza in Egypt.

7. Angkor Wat is on the flag of Cambodia

The flag of Cambodia has featured Angkor Wat since 1850. It is one of just six flag states to have a building on its flag. The other countries are Afghanistan, Bolivia, Portugal, San Marino and Spain.

About the author
Melanie May

Melanie is an intrepid solo traveller, endlessly curious about people, places and food. She is a fan of slow travel and loves exploring the world by mouth, discovering a culture through its food. Having backpacked her way around the world she turned her wanderlust into a career and is now a full-time travel writer.


Category: Movies
Genre: Drama

Everybody has a secret, so there are many lies and secrets hiding. People lie to escape from their sins, and to continue living their lives. But, a lie is a shadow of the truth….. (taken from the drama’s preamble)

Ini dia satu lagi drama Jepang terbaru yang patut ditonton. Berkisah tentang seorang detektif yang merupakan orang baru (shinzanmono) yang ditempatkan di sebuah kota. Ia bertugas menyelidiki kasus pembunuhan yang terjadi di kota itu. Pendekatan dalam penyelidikannya dilakukan dengan cara yang "unik". Dari drama ini saya belajar tentang salah satu unsur dalam kehidupan manusia bernama "lie"….

In the Ningyo-cho area of Nihonbashi, Tokyo – a woman was murdered. Detective Kaga Kyoichiro, who just transferred to the Nihonbashi police precinct, is placed in charge of the murder case. With virtually the entire residents of Ningyo-cho’s shopping street emerging as suspects, Detective Kaga must use his keen sense of deductive reasoning to uncover the truth

Watch the video: Ancient MegaStructures Angkor Wat english Documentary Part 1 (January 2022).