Grand Army of the Republic History
In early 1866 the United States of America — now securely one nation again — was waking to the reality of recovery from war, and this had been a much different war. In previous conflicts the care of the veteran warrior was the province of the family or the community. Soldiers then were friends, relatives and neighbors who went off to fight–until the next planting or harvest. It was a community adventure and their fighting unit had a community flavor.
By the end of the Civil War, units had become less homogeneous, men from different communities and even different states were forced together by the exigencies of battle where new friendships and lasting trust was forged. With the advances in the care and movement of the wounded, many who would have surely died in earlier wars returned home to be cared for by a community structure weary from a protracted war and now also faced with the needs of widows and orphans. Veterans needed jobs, including a whole new group of veterans–the colored soldier and his entire, newly freed, family. It was often more than the fragile fabric of communities could bear.
State and federal leaders from President Lincoln down had promised to care for “those who have borne the burden, his widows and orphans,” but they had little knowledge of how to accomplish the task. There was also little political pressure to see that the promises were kept.
But probably the most profound emotion was emptiness. Men who had lived together, fought together, foraged together and survived, had developed an unique bond that could not be broken. As time went by the memories of the filthy and vile environment of camp life began to be remembered less harshly and eventually fondly. The horror and gore of battle lifted with the smoke and smell of burnt black powder and was replaced with the personal rain of tears for the departed comrades. Friendships forged in battle survived the separation and the warriors missed the warmth of trusting companionship that had asked only total and absolute committment.
With that as background, groups of men began joining together — first for camaraderie and then for political power. Emerging most powerful among the various organizations would be the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), which by 1890 would number 409,489 veterans of the “War of the Rebelion.”
Founded in Decatur, Illinois on April 6, 1866 by Benjamin F. Stephenson, membership was limited to honorably discharged veterans of the Union Army, Navy, Marine Corps or the Revenue Cutter Service who had served between April 12, 1861 and April 9, 1865. The community level organization was called a “Post” and each was numbered consecutivelly within each department. Most Posts also had a name and the rules for naming Posts included the requirement that the honored person be deceased and that no two Posts within the same Department could have the same name. The Departments generally consisted of the Posts within a state and, at the national level, the organization was operated by the elected “Commandery-in-Chief.”
Post Commanders were elected as were the Junior and Senior Vice Commanders and the members of Council. Each member was voted into membership using the Masonic system of casting black or white balls (except that more than one black ball was required to reject a candidate for membership). When a candidate was rejected, that rejection was reported to the Department which listed the rejection in general orders and those rejections were maintained in a “Black Book” at each Post meeting place. The meeting rituals and induction of members were similar to the Masonic rituals and have been handed down to the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War.
The official body of the Department was the annual Encampment, which was presided over by the elected Department Commander, Senior and Junior Vice Commanders and the Council. Encampments were elaborate multi-day events which often included camping out, formal dinners and memorial events. In later years the Department Encampments were often held in conjunction with the Encampments of the Allied Orders, including Camps of the Sons of Veterans Reserve, which at the time were quasi-military in nature, often listed as a unit of the state militia or national guard.
National Encampments of the Grand Army of the Republic were presided over by a Commander-in-Chief who was elected in political events which rivaled national political party conventions. The Senior and Junior Vice Commander-in-Chief as well as the National Council of Administration were also elected.
The GAR founded soldiers’ homes, was active in relief work and in pension legislation. Five members were elected President of the United States and, for a time, it was impossible to be nominated on the Republican ticket without the endorsement of the GAR voting block.
In 1868, Commander-in-Chief John A. Logan issued General Order No. 11 calling for all Departments and Posts to set aside the 30th of May as a day for remembering the sacrifices of fallen comrades, thereby beginning the celebration of Memorial Day.
With membership limited strictly to “veterans of the late unpleasantness,” the GAR encouraged the formation of Allied Orders to aid them in its various works. Numerous male organizations jousted for the backing of the GAR and the political battles became quite severe until the GAR finally endorsed the Sons of Veterans of the United States of America (later to become the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War) as its heir. A similar, but less protracted, battle took place between the Womens’ Relief Corps (WRC) and the Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic (LGAR) for the title “official auxiliary to the GAR.” That battle was won by the WRC, which is the only Allied Order open to women who do not have an hereditary ancestor who would have been eligible for the GAR. But in this case the LGAR retained its strength and was made one of the Allied Orders.
Coming along a bit later, the Daughters of Union Veterans of the Civil War, similar to the SUVCW but for women, also earned the designation as an Allied Order of the GAR. Rounding out the list of Allied Orders is the Auxiliary to the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War, which is open to women with hereditary ties to a veteran or who is the spouse, sister or daughter of a member of the SUVCW.
The final Encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic was held in Indianapolis, Indiana in 1949 and the last member, Albert Woolson, died in 1956 at the age of 109 years.
How Smart Homes Work
A smart home’s devices are connected with each other and can be accessed through one central point—a smartphone, tablet, laptop, or game console. Door locks, televisions, thermostats, home monitors, cameras, lights, and even appliances such as the refrigerator can be controlled through one home automation system. The system is installed on a mobile or other networked device, and the user can create time schedules for certain changes to take effect.
Smart home appliances come with self-learning skills so they can learn the homeowner’s schedules and make adjustments as needed. Smart homes enabled with lighting control allow homeowners to reduce electricity use and benefit from energy-related cost savings. Some home automation systems alert the homeowner if any motion is detected in the home when they're away, while others can call the authorities—police or the fire department—in case of imminent situations.
Once connected, services such as a smart doorbell, smart security system, and smart appliances are all part of the internet of things (IoT) technology, a network of physical objects that can gather and share electronic information.
Security and efficiency are the main reasons behind the increase in smart home technology use.
Smart homes can feature either wireless or hardwired systems—or both. Wireless systems are easier to install. Putting in a wireless home automation system with features such as smart lighting, climate control, and security can cost several thousand dollars, making it very cost-friendly.
Hardwired systems, on the other hand, are considered more reliable and are typically more difficult to hack. A hardwired system can increase the resale value of a home. But there is a drawback—it's fairly expensive. Installing a luxury and hardwired smart system can cost homeowners tens of thousands of dollars.
The global home automation market was valued at about $24 billion in 2016, growing to $45.8 billion in 2017. In the U.S. smart home market, the number of active households is expected to amount to 77.0m users by 2025. Video entertainment and smart speakers are currently the largest component of smart home technology, followed by home security and monitoring services. Smart speaker technology has fully penetrated the U.S. market, where more than one-third of households currently use a device like the Amazon Echo (Alexa) or Google Nest.
Currently, 69 VA Medical Centers (VAMC) have made at least one veteran referral to the Veteran Directed Care Program (VDC). There are 18 VAMCs who have not yet referred veterans to VDC and are denoted by an asterisk (*) below.
The Aging and Disability Network Agencies (ADNAs) listed below completed VA Readiness Reviews and have been approved as qualified providers for VDC. ADNAs that subcontract to deliver components of VDC are listed as a sub-bullet under the ADNA who holds the Veteran Care Agreement. As new Readiness Reviews are approved, new VAMCs and ADNAs will be added to the list.
Vivint Smart Home Reviews
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When I got the system installed yesterday, the only question I had was "why didn't I get this sooner?" Being able to monitor and lock and unlock my door from my cell phone is amazing.
Vivint Smart Home response
Stephanie, thanks for your feedback! The door locks are a great feature and we're so glad you're liking them. Thank you for choosing Vivint to protect your home and family!
I have been considering a security system for sometime. My daughters have been insistent that I get one. I was outside my home yesterday and began talking to Omahri **, a Smart Home Pro in my area. He gave an impressive, inclusive presentation with visuals, videos. As a retired educator, I appreciated his knowledge, patience, and empathetic demeanor.
As a young person, he was very skilled in making connections/giving explanations per my ability to assimilate the information and technology. He made references to “seniors,” which we pleasantly changed to “experienced.” . He also made very nice references to his mother and grandmother, which made me feel he cared about the quality of this system for my own, personal use. He helped me load/understand the Vivint app on my phone. He also helped me with the security identification on it. (I also greatly appreciated that I did not feel judged by the total wreckage of many rooms in my home - I may NEVER get all this unpacked!)
I do not remember the name of the electrician/technician who came later to install everything. He was equally prompt, friendly, skilled, and efficient. We deferred to him for location of the main unit/device. It was a better choice than either Omahri or I had considered. He also explained everything patiently, allowed me to ask questions, and was quick and efficient. And he also abided my piles of books . paperwork, and everything else. I was horrified. They were polite professionals.
If this system works as well as these two representatives did, I feel confident I will like it very much. I was surprised to realize/remember it is what my daughter has had for almost a year. Memory is not my strongest attribute. I highly - 10 on scale of 1-10 - recommend both of these young men. Thank you for this opportunity to commend the professionalism of these two gentlemen.
Vivint Smart Home response
This is awesome! Thank you for sharing, Janelle. We are so happy that you had a great experience and look forward to serving you in the future. Thanks for choosing Vivint to protect your home and family! If you would like to refer a friend or family member, please give us a call at 1-800-216-5232. Or you can use our chat option at https://www.vivint.com/company/contact-us?email-chat=1
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I’m glad we have it, but thinking back on the initial meet and greet late in the evening wasn’t the best approach for a salesman. It was around 8:30 in the evening when two men rode up to our open garage door on a Segway. After a few minutes of telling us who they were and about Vivint he said he needed to inspect our doorway to the house and proceeded to open the door and go in. This could have been an imposter or someone wanting to rob us. Then, he said he needed us to come inside. Thinking back on it, it really was a scary way to confront someone about sales and we shouldn’t have let him into our home like that. We would have gladly had him here with a call first from Vivint.
Also, after stating we would be interested, he wanted my social and bank info. I had no idea there was going to be a loan involved. I thought we would be paying Vivint. Had I known there was a loan and it was hitting my credit report I would have given my husband’s information. I’m sure we’ll be happy with the security but I personally thought all the sales tactics and jargon were unneeded. We may be retired but I saw right thru the speech. We are both retired professionals and I’m sure Vivint can do better with its sales approach. They had 2 guys waiting to install immediately, which was done, but it all seemed set up and I’d rather have been spoken to about the attributes of Vivint in a more direct approach rather than constantly asking for my “opinion” on something. The sales guys were polite and knew the product, so I say just talk about the product and its abilities and sales will still get made. Leave the sales jargon out.
Great system. Connie was really awesome with the installation, clean habitat in the job site, great explaining and instructing how the system work, also a good person. When we asked questions she was there to answer and help us out with anything we need to know.
Vivint Smart Home response
Thank you for your feedback Jose! We are so glad to hear about your experience with Connie and how you're loving your system
Nate, a young man of 19 years, approached me when I was outside, but maintained significant distance, which helped me know he meant me no harm. He was very personable and professional, presenting Vivint as a company and moving through the presentation quickly and easily, answering questions and providing evidence on his iPad. He asked about 10-15 minutes into the conversation if I would mind letting him into the house, to sit at a table to continue his presentation. At first I declined, so he stepped a few feet back and continued the presentation. I noticed he was having a little trouble handling his iPad, and finally allowed him in. He was very courteous and polite, accompanying me to the table and patiently waiting as I pulled out chairs for us, staying in one position until I was ready.
As we sat and talked, Nate called in the Regional Manager, Ty, who arrived not long after, introduced himself, and joined us at the table. He was exceptionally personable and professional, answered all of my questions arising from his presentation, and kept Nate in the conversation, having him look things up on the internet and asking him to explain some things. The presentations they both gave and the Internet/Vivint displays they provided were very compelling. But it was the cost, along with the zero % interest rate, that sealed the deal. I was excited when they left, and an installation team had just arrived!
Drew and Jacob made an excellent installation team, working quickly and communicating very briefly when necessary. They were also very personable, joking with me intermittently and explaining things clearly. They had to come back in a day or two, to get the system tied to the Internet, but I had camera warnings and video footage the first night!
Vivint Smart Home response
Thank you for your feedback, Catherine! We are so glad to hear about your experience with Nate and how you're loving your system.
Marian was very helpful with moving the back door camera to the front door and setting up what he could without WiFi - although he did not patch the massive hole in my wall that the previous camera made so now I have to figure out how to cover that up so no bugs or rain water can get in and I don’t hear everyone that passes by my condo.
I was missing a few things apparently (an indoor camera and a glass break sensor, that I can remember) that I assume the previous owner took when they moved. I was disappointed to find out it would be an extra charge to get any of those items replaced, especially since I’m a new customer and already paid $90 something for the first month as a set up charge - shouldn’t I be given a few things to start up with Vivint? I just didn’t realize I would be paying for an install/activation ($90 something) and on top of that would have to pay $200 for window sensors (hard pass - that’s what I pay my HOA each month) and even more for cameras and glass break sensors. I thought that all would be included with the $90 charge because that’s what my parents said they got when they started with Vivint.
He also did not help me change my door code (and I forgot to ask to be fair) so. I don’t know, I guess I’ll have to call Vivint about how to do that along with what to do for an indoor camera since now I just have one at my front door and that’s the only security I have which, living alone, I’m not feeling great about that. The only reason I gave 4 stars is because the guy told me his pay would be reduced for anything lower and I’m not mad at him so that’s not fair of me to inadvertently do that to him - I’m mad at the Vivint company for not setting me up as a first time buyer with everything my parents were set up with as first time buyers. It’s not like you’re losing money on me by giving me a camera to put in my house or a glass break sensor. Or even - idk - window sensors on any of the literal 4 windows I have in my condo. Anyway, I’m probably yelling into the wind but maybe this helps y’all in the future to have better customer care.
Vivint Smart Home response
Thank you for your feedback, Mercedes. We appreciate your honesty about your experience with your billing and would love to investigate this further. Please contact our support team at 1-800-216-5232 so we can assist you as quickly as possible.
MDVA is continuing to respond to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak as the number of reported cases in Minnesota increases. We are working closely with the Minnesota Departments of Health, Public Safety, Nursing Home advocacy groups, the Ombudsman Office and others for latest information and guidance. For our most recent information on COVID-19 policies at our homes, please click here.
We look forward to answering your questions about Resident admissions, requirements and the application process to the Minnesota Veterans Homes.
Our Homes Residents must be:
- Honorably discharged Veterans who entered service from Minnesota, or are current Residents, who served 181 consecutive days on active duty, unless discharged earlier because of disability incurred in the line of duty.
- The spouse of an eligible Veteran who is at least 55 years old and meets residency requirements.
- Able to demonstrate a medical or clinical need for admission.
Residents contribute to the cost of their care according to their means. For questions or more information, contact the benefit coordinator of each Home.
Hear from one of our Veterans Benefit Coordinators in this short video.
Fergus Falls Virtual Tour
Hastings Virtual Tour
Luverne Virtual Tour
1-877-VET MPLS (838-6757)
Minneapolis Virtual Tour
1-877-SBY VETS (729-8387)
Silver Bay Virtual Tour
Volunteers at each of our Homes contribute tremendously to the quality of life of our Veterans. Volunteers provide invaluable support by sharing their experience, time and compassion with our Residents. Family members, friends and community members play a key role in helping us serve those who served through generous donations of time and money. If you or someone you know would like to make a difference, please contact us at 1-888-LinkVet.
For each Home's specific needs please visit their Giving Guide pages, which include specific project funding needs, volunteer opportunities and requested donation items.
It's a legacy that began in the late 1800s when, what was then called the Old Soldiers Home, was built for indigent Veterans of the Civil War. Providing care for Veterans for the past 125 years, the shift in focus to making the health care needs of Veterans Homes a primary concern began in the 1960s. Over the years, a variety of specialized services were added to meet the total needs of our Residents. There are now five State Veterans Homes around the state designed to ensure that our nation's heroes and their spouses can live in a caring community that enriches their lives.
For a complete historical overview, please visit the Veterans Homes history page.
The State of NJ site may contain optional links, information, services and/or content from other websites operated by third parties that are provided as a convenience, such as Google™ Translate. Google™ Translate is an online service for which the user pays nothing to obtain a purported language translation. The user is on notice that neither the State of NJ site nor its operators review any of the services, information and/or content from anything that may be linked to the State of NJ site for any reason. -Read Full Disclaimer
Family, Loved Ones and Friends
COVID-19 Messages / PPE Donations
Paramus Veterans Memorial Home
1 Veterans Drive, Paramus, NJ 07652
This facility, located on 23 acres in northeastern Bergen County, opened on August 4, 1986. It has two modern residential buildings, able to accommodate 336 residents, and two fenced-in garden areas. The home is located across the street from the Bergen Regional Medical Center.
Menlo Park Veterans Memorial Home
132 Evergreen Road, PO Box 3013, Edison, NJ 08818
This facility was rebuilt in 1999 on 109 acres in Middlesex County. It is the most modern, state-of-the-art nursing home in the United States. The 312-bed facility features a "town square" core with resident living areas located around the perimeter. The home is adjacent to Roosevelt Hospital.
Vineland Veterans Memorial Home
524 North West Boulevard, Vineland, NJ 08360
This is the state's oldest operating veterans home, having opened in 1899. It has provided residential and long-term care to New Jersey veterans of every war and armed conflict since the War of 1812. Newly rebuilt in 2005, this state-of-the-art nursing home serves 300 residents.
The idea of a veterans home in the United States originated in the philanthropic mind of New Jersey Governor Marcus L. Ward, who had great concern for the sick and wounded soldiers of the Civil War. He believed that the commitment and obligation of the state and its citizens to those veterans did not end just because the war was over.
With the dedication of the New Jersey Soldiers' Home in Newark in 1866, a proud tradition began - a tradition of concern for and commitment to the veterans of New Jersey. Since that time, New Jersey has remained in the forefront in providing the finest in residential and skilled nursing care for our veterans and in responding and adapting to their changing health care needs.
Facilities & Services
The Division of Veterans Healthcare Services operates three modern long-term care nursing homes located in Paramus, Menlo Park, and Vineland. These homes are inspected and licensed annually by the New Jersey Department Health and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.
Comprehensive services and a deep concern for the residents go hand-in-hand at New Jersey's three state-operated veterans nursing homes. Around-the-clock medical and nursing care is provided by a full-time staff of physicians, nurse practitioners, registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and certified nursing assistants.
Rehabilitative services, such as occupational and physical therapies, speech therapy, and recreational activities are provided under the supervision of contracted licensed therapists.
Resident accommodations are assigned based on level of care required and availability. In spacious dining rooms, residents are provided with wholesome meals prepared under the supervision of licensed dietitians. Tray service is available when necessary and special care is given to individually prescribed diets.
For the convenience and comfort of the residents, the homes feature fully equipped beauty and barber shops, lounges for socializing and watching television, outdoor patios and recreation areas, picnic grounds, and chapels for religious services for all faiths.
Recreational activities available include gardening, ceramics and other arts and crafts, cooking, bingo, shopping trips, music, art and pet therapy programs, movies, dinner trips, fishing excursions, billiards, and trips to sporting events.
The facilities are open to veterans who were honorably discharged from U.S. war or peacetime services, the veteran's spouse, and to spouses and parents of members of the military who were killed in action during a period of war (Gold Star Parent).
Preference is given to applicants who were state residents for at least two years immediately prior to application for admission. Residents pay according to ability based on income.
To Apply for Admission
Refer to the Admissions information for the home of your choice.
The homes are visited regularly by various veterans and civic organizations and individual volunteers who provide the residents with companionship, gifts, parties, bus trips, entertainment, games and other recreational activities. To volunteer at any of the homes, contact the volunteer coordinator at the facility.
Segment 5: After Service:
Appropriateness of questions will vary if the veteran had a military career.
Do you recall the day your service ended?
Where were you?
What did you do in the days and weeks afterward?
Did you work or go back to school?
Was your education supported by the G.I. Bill?
Did you make any close friendships while in the service?
Did you continue any of those relationships?
For how long?
Did you join a veterans organization?
Buttigieg was born on January 19, 1982, in South Bend, Indiana, the only child of Jennifer Anne Montgomery and Joseph A. Buttigieg. His mother uses the name Anne Montgomery.       His parents met and married while employed as faculty at New Mexico State University.  His father was born and raised in Hamrun, Malta, and had studied to be a Jesuit before emigrating to the United States and embarking on a secular career as a professor of literature at the University of Notre Dame near South Bend,   where he taught for 29 years.  His father is a translator and editor of the three-volume English edition of Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci's Prison Notebooks and influenced his pursuit of literature in college.  His mother was born in Stanislaus County, California,  [ user-generated source? ] graduated from Radford High School in El Paso, Texas,  Her mother was born in Oklahoma.   and her father was born in Indiana.  
Buttigieg was valedictorian of the class of 2000 at St. Joseph High School in South Bend.  That year, he won first prize in the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum's Profiles in Courage essay contest. He traveled to Boston to accept the award and met Caroline Kennedy and other members of President Kennedy's family. The subject of his winning essay was the integrity and political courage of then U.S. representative Bernie Sanders of Vermont, one of only two independent politicians in Congress.   In 2000, Buttigieg was also chosen as one of two student delegates from Indiana to the United States Senate Youth Program,  an annual scholarship competition sponsored jointly by the U.S. Senate and the Hearst Foundations. 
Buttigieg attended Harvard University, where he majored in history and literature.  He became president of the Student Advisory Committee of the Harvard Institute of Politics and worked on the institute's annual study of youth attitudes on politics.   He wrote his undergraduate thesis, titled The Quiet American's Errand into the Wilderness, on the influence of Puritanism on U.S. foreign policy as reflected in Graham Greene's novel The Quiet American.   The title of his thesis is also an allusion to American historian Perry Miller's work Errand into the Wilderness.  He graduated magna cum laude from Harvard in 2004, and was elected a member of Phi Beta Kappa. 
Buttigieg was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship to study at the University of Oxford.  In 2007, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree with first-class honours in philosophy, politics, and economics after studying at Pembroke College, Oxford.     At Oxford, he was an editor of the Oxford International Review,  and was a co-founder  and member of the Democratic Renaissance Project, an informal debate and discussion group of about a dozen Oxford students.  
Before graduating from college, Buttigieg was an investigative intern at WMAQ-TV, Chicago's NBC News affiliate.  He also interned for Democrat Jill Long Thompson during her unsuccessful 2002 congressional bid. 
After college, Buttigieg worked on John Kerry's 2004 presidential campaign as a policy and research specialist for several months in Arizona and New Mexico.   When he accepted the offer to work for Kerry's campaign, he declined another to work for Barack Obama's 2004 United States Senate campaign.  From 2004 to 2005, Buttigieg was conference director of the Cohen Group.  In 2006, he lent assistance to Joe Donnelly's successful congressional campaign. 
After earning his Oxford degree, in 2007 Buttigieg became a consultant at the Chicago office of McKinsey & Company,   where he worked on energy, retail, economic development, and logistics for three years.   His clients at McKinsey included the health insurer Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, electronics retailer Best Buy, Canadian supermarket chain Loblaws, two nonprofit environmentalist groups (the Natural Resources Defense Council and Energy Foundation) and several U.S. government agencies (the EPA, Energy Department, Defense Department, and Postal Service).   He took a leave of absence from McKinsey in 2008 to become research director for Jill Long Thompson's unsuccessful campaign for Indiana governor.    Buttigieg left McKinsey in 2010 in order to focus full-time on his campaign for Indiana state treasurer. 
Buttigieg has been involved with the Truman National Security Project since 2005 and serves as a fellow with expertise in Afghanistan and Pakistan.  In 2014, he was named to the organization's board of advisors. 
Buttigieg joined the U.S. Navy Reserve through the direct commission officer (DCO) program and was sworn in as an ensign in naval intelligence in September 2009.  In 2014, he took a seven-month leave during his mayoral term to deploy to Afghanistan.    While there, Buttigieg was part of a unit assigned to identify and disrupt terrorist finance networks. Part of this was done at Bagram Air Base, but he was also an armed driver for his commander on more than 100 trips into Kabul. Buttigieg has jokingly has referred to this role as "military Uber", because he had to watch out for ambushes and explosive devices along the roads and ensure that the vehicle was guarded.  In order to better communicate with the local Afghans, he learned some Dari (a dialect of the Persian language). Buttigieg was awarded the Joint Service Commendation Medal.  He resigned his commission from the U.S. Navy Reserve in 2017.  
Indiana state treasurer election
Buttigieg was the Democratic nominee for state treasurer of Indiana in 2010. He received 37.5% of the vote, losing to Republican incumbent Richard Mourdock.   Much of Buttigieg's campaign had focused on criticizing Mourdock for investing state pension funds in Chrysler junk bonds, and for having subsequently filed a lawsuit against Chrysler's bankruptcy restructuring, which Buttigieg argued imperiled Chrysler jobs in the state of Indiana.   
Buttigieg was elected mayor of South Bend in the November 2011 election, with 10,991 of the 14,883 votes cast (74%).  He took office in January 2012 at the age of 29, becoming the second-youngest mayor in South Bend history (Schuyler Colfax III had become mayor in 1898 when aged 28)  and the youngest incumbent mayor, at the time, of a U.S. city with at least 100,000 residents. 
On April 14, 2011, before Buttigieg took office as mayor, Jiha'd Vasquez, a 16-year-old black boy, was found hanging from an electrical tower.   Vasquez's backpack, on the ground near his body, had several items missing, according to Vasquez's mother Stephanie Jones.  The coroner, Chuck Hurley, who had no medical experience, claimed Vasquez's death was a suicide Buttigieg later appointed Hurley to serve as interim police chief.  Vasquez's body was cremated without an autopsy being conducted.  Jones attempted to get Buttigieg to investigate her son's death, but he did not, fearing "potential political risks."  According to Jones, Buttigieg told her to call his office, but she never got a response.  Jones and South Bend NAACP legal redress chair Tom Bush claimed the event was a cover-up, with Bush saying he suspected the Ku Klux Klan may be involved and hoped for a federal investigation, but did not expect it, saying "the only reason this will get done is if you’re on a microphone yelling and screaming."  When Buttigieg's presidential campaign was asked about the incident by a reporter in 2019, they did not give a response.  In 2019, Jones and St. Joseph County coroner Mike McGann argued that the case should be reopened however, sheriff William Redman said he would not consider reopening the case unless further evidence came to light. 
In 2012, after a federal investigation ruled that South Bend police had illegally recorded telephone calls of several officers, Buttigieg demoted police chief Darryl Boykins.  (Boykins had first been appointed in 2008 by Mayor Stephen Luecke, and reappointed by Buttigieg earlier in 2012.  ) Buttigieg also dismissed the department's communications director, the one who had actually "discovered the recordings but continued to record the line at Boykins' command".  The police communications director alleged that the recordings captured four senior police officers making racist remarks and discussing illegal acts.   The city is 26% black, but only 6% of the police force is black. 
Buttigieg has written that his "first serious mistake as mayor" came shortly after taking office in 2012, when he decided to ask for Boykins's resignation. The city's first ever African-American police chief accepted the request. However, the next day, backed by supporters and legal counsel, Boykin requested reinstatement. When Buttigieg denied this request, Boykin sued the city for racial discrimination,  arguing that the taping policy had existed under previous police chiefs, who were white.  Buttigieg settled the suits brought by Boykins and the four officers out of court for over $800,000.   A federal judge ruled in 2015 that Boykins's recordings violated the Federal Wiretap Act.  Buttigieg came under pressure from political opponents to release the tapes, but said that doing so would be a violation of the Wiretap Act.  He called for the eradication of racial bias in the police force.  An Indiana court is hearing a case for the release of the tapes. 
As mayor, Buttigieg promoted a number of development and redevelopment projects.  Buttigieg was a leading figure behind the creation of a nightly laser-light display along downtown South Bend's St. Joseph River trail as public art. The project cost $700,000, which was raised from private funds.  The "River Lights" installation was unveiled in May 2015 as part of the city's 150th anniversary celebrations.  He also oversaw the city's launching of a 3-1-1 system in 2013.   Buttigieg's administration oversaw the sale of numerous city-owned properties.     One of Buttigieg's signature programs was the "Vacant and Abandoned Properties Initiative". Known locally as "1,000 Properties in 1,000 Days", it is a project to repair or demolish blighted properties across South Bend.   The program reached its goal two months before its scheduled end date in November 2015.  By the thousandth day of the program, before Buttigieg's first term ended, nearly 40% of the targeted houses were repaired, and 679 were demolished or under contract for demolition.  Buttigieg took note of the fact that many homes within communities of color were the ones demolished, leading to early distrust between the city and these communities. 
While mayor, Buttigieg served for seven months in Afghanistan as a lieutenant in the U.S. Navy Reserve, returning to the United States on September 23, 2014.  While deployed, he was assigned to the Afghan Threat Finance Cell, a counterterrorism unit that targeted Taliban insurgency financing.   In his absence, Deputy Mayor Mark Neal, South Bend's city comptroller, served as executive from February 2014 until Buttigieg returned to his role as mayor in October 2014.   
In 2015, during the controversy over Indiana Senate Bill 101 – the original version of which was widely criticized for allowing discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people – Buttigieg emerged as a leading opponent of the legislation. Amid his reelection campaign, he came out as gay to express his solidarity with the LGBTQ community.  
In 2014, Buttigieg announced that he would seek a second term in 2015.  He won the Democratic primary with 78% of the vote, defeating Henry Davis Jr., the city councilman from the second district.  In November 2015, he was elected to his second term as mayor with over 80% of the vote, defeating Republican Kelly Jones by a margin of 8,515 to 2,074 votes. 
In 2013, Buttigieg proposed a "Smart Streets" urban development program to improve South Bend's downtown area,  and in early 2015 – after traffic studies and public hearings – he secured a bond issue for the program backed by tax increment financing.   "Smart Streets" was a complete streets implementation program.  "Smart Streets" was aimed at improving economic development and urban vibrancy as well as road safety.  Elements of the project were finished in 2016,  and it was officially completed in 2017.  The project was credited with spurring private development in the city. 
In 2016, Buttigieg signed an executive order helping to establish a recognized city identification card.  
In a new phase of the Vacant and Abandoned Properties Initiative, South Bend partnered with the Notre Dame Clinical Law Center to provide free legal assistance to qualifying applicants wishing to acquire vacant lots and, with local nonprofits, to repair or construct homes and provide low-income home ownership assistance using South Bend HUD (Housing and Urban Development) funds.  
In 2016, the City of South Bend partnered with the State of Indiana and private developers to break ground on a $165 million renovation of the former Studebaker complex, with the aim to make the complex home to tech companies and residential condos.  This development is in the so-called "Renaissance District", which includes nearby Ignition Park.   In 2017, it was announced that the long-abandoned Studebaker Building 84 (also known as "Ivy Tower") would have its exterior renovated with $3.5 million in Regional Cities funds from the State of Indiana and another $3.5 million from South Bend tax increment financing, with plans for the building and other structures in its complex to serve as a technology hub. 
Under Buttigieg, the city also began a "smart sewer" program, the first phase of which was finished in 2017 at a cost of $150 million.  The effort utilized federal funds  and by 2019 had reduced the combined sewer overflow by 75%.  The impetus for the effort was a fine that the EPA had levied against the city in 2011 for Clean Water Act violations.  However, Buttigieg also, in 2019, sought for the city to be released from an agreement with the EPA brokered under his mayoral predecessor Steve Luecke, in which South Bend had agreed to make hundreds of millions dollars in further improvements to its sewer system by 2031. 
In April 2019, the Common Council approved Buttigieg's request to enable his administration to develop a city climate plan. The Common Council did so, and that month Buttigieg contracted with the Chicago firm Delta Institute to develop a plan.  In late November 2019, the city's Common Council voted 7–0 to approve the resultant "Carbon Neutral 2050" plan, setting the goal of meeting the Paris Agreement's 26% emission reduction by 2025, and aiming for a further reductions of 45% by 2035. 
Buttigieg continued to support private developments in the city.      By one account, by the year 2019, the city had seen $374 million in private investment for mixed-use developments since Buttigieg had taken office.   By another account, during Buttigieg's tenure, Downtown South Bend saw roughly $200 million in private investment. 
Beginning in August 2018, Buttigieg promoted the idea of moving the city's South Shore Line station from South Bend International Airport to the city's downtown.  He made it a goal to have the city complete this project by 2025. 
In 2019, South Bend launched Commuters Trust, a new transportation benefit program created in collaboration with local employers and transportation providers (including South Bend Transpo and Lyft) and made possible by a $1 million three-year grant from Bloomberg Philanthropies Mayors Challenge.  
Under Buttigieg, South Bend invested $50 million in the city's parks, many of which had been neglected during the preceding decades. 
After a white South Bend police officer shot and killed Eric Logan, an African-American man, in June 2019, Buttigieg was drawn from his presidential campaign to focus on the emerging public reaction. Body cameras were not turned on during Logan's death.  Soon after Logan's death, Buttigieg presided over a town hall attended by disaffected activists from the African-American community as well as relatives of the deceased man. The local police union accused Buttigieg of making decisions for political gain.   In November 2019, Buttigieg secured $180,000 to commission a review of South Bend's police department policies and practices to be conducted by Chicago-based consulting firm 21CP Solutions. 
In 2020, the website "Best Cities" ranked South Bend number 39 on its list of the 100 best small cities in the United States, giving much credit to the progress made under Buttigieg. 
Increased national profile
In the 2016 U.S. Senate election in Indiana, he campaigned on behalf of Democratic Senate nominee Evan Bayh  and criticized Bayh's opponent, Todd Young, for having voiced support in 2010 for retaining the military's don't ask, don't tell policy, which Bayh had voted to repeal.  In the 2016 Democratic presidential primaries, Buttigieg endorsed Hillary Clinton.  He also endorsed Democratic nominee Lynn Coleman in that year's election for Indiana's 2nd congressional district, which includes South Bend. 
In 2016, columnist Frank Bruni of The New York Times published a column praising Buttigieg's work as mayor, with a headline asking if he might be "the first gay president".  Additionally, Barack Obama was cited as mentioning him as one of the Democratic Party's talents in a November 2016 profile on the outgoing president conducted by The New Yorker. 
By the end of 2017, it had been noted that, as his national profile increased following his run in the 2017 DNC chairmanship election, Buttigieg had increased his out-of-city travel.  By the early months of 2018, there was speculation that Buttigieg was looking towards running for either governor or president in the year 2020.   There was some speculation that, despite a presidential bid being a long shot, he garner enough recognition to become a dark horse contender for the vice presidential slot on the Democratic ticket. 
For the 2018 midterms, Buttigieg founded the political action committee Hitting Home PAC.  That October, Buttigieg personally endorsed 21 congressional candidates.  He also later endorsed Mel Hall, Democratic nominee in the election for Indiana's 2nd congressional district.  Buttigieg also campaigned in support of Joe Donnelly's reelection campaign in the United States Senate election in Indiana.  Buttigieg campaigned for candidates in more than a dozen states, including early presidential primary states such as Iowa and South Carolina, a move indicating potential interest in running for president.  He officially announced his run on January 23, 2019. 
Succession as mayor
In December 2018, Buttigieg announced that he would not seek a third term as mayor of South Bend.  In February 2019, Buttigieg endorsed James Mueller in the 2019 South Bend mayoral election.   Mueller was a high-school classmate of Buttigieg's and his mayoral chief of staff, and later executive director of the South Bend Department of Community Investment.  Mueller's campaign promised to continue the progress that had been made under Buttigieg's mayoralty.  Buttigieg appeared in campaign ads for Mueller and donated to Mueller's campaign.  Mueller won the May 2019 Democratic primary with 37% of the vote in a crowded field.    In the November 2019 general election, Mueller defeated Republican nominee Sean M. Haas with 63% of the vote.   Mueller took office on New Year's Day 2020. 
In January 2017, Buttigieg announced his candidacy for chair of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) in its 2017 chairmanship election.  He built a national profile as an emerging dark horse in the race for the chairmanship with the backing of former DNC chairman Howard Dean, former Maryland governor Martin O'Malley, Indiana senator Joe Donnelly, and North Dakota senator Heidi Heitkamp.   Buttigieg "campaigned on the idea that the aging Democratic Party needed to empower its millennial members". 
Former U.S. Secretary of Labor Tom Perez and U.S. representative Keith Ellison quickly emerged as the favored candidates of a majority of DNC members. Buttigieg withdrew from the race on the day of the election without endorsing a candidate, and Perez was elected chair after two rounds of voting. 
On January 23, 2019, Buttigieg announced that he was forming an exploratory committee to run for President of the United States in the upcoming 2020 election.  Buttigieg sought the Democratic Party nomination for president.   If he had been elected, he would have been the youngest and first openly gay American president.  Buttigieg officially launched his campaign on April 14, 2019, in South Bend.  
Buttigieg described himself as a progressive and a supporter of democratic capitalism.  Historian David Mislin identifies Buttigieg as a pragmatic progressive in the tradition of the Social Gospel movement once strong in the Midwest.  Buttigieg identifies regulatory capture as a significant problem in American society.  Amid the start of his presidential effort, Buttigieg published his debut book, autobiography Shortest Way Home.
Initially regarded as a long-shot candidate,    Buttigieg rose into the top-tier of candidates in the primary by December 2019.  In early February 2020, Buttigieg led the 2020 Iowa Democratic caucuses results with 26.2% to Bernie Sanders' 26.1%, winning 14 delegates to Sanders's 12.   The LGBTQ Victory Fund, Buttigieg's first national endorsement, [c] noted the historical first of an LGBTQ candidate winning a state presidential primary.  Buttigieg finished second behind Sanders in the New Hampshire primary.  After placing a fourth in the South Carolina primary with 8.2% of the vote, behind Joe Biden (48.7%), Bernie Sanders (19.8%), and Tom Steyer (11.3%) he dropped out of the race on March 1, 2020, and endorsed Biden.  
In April 2020, Buttigieg launched Win The Era PAC – a new super PAC to raise money and distribute it to down-ballot Democrats.  The PAC focused on local elected positions, and its list of endorsements included candidates such as Jaime Harrison, Cal Cunningham, Gina Ortiz Jones, Christine Hunschofsky, and Levar Stoney.  On June 8, 2020, the University of Notre Dame announced that it had hired Buttigieg as a teacher and researcher for the 2020–21 academic year. 
Buttigieg acted as a surrogate for Biden's campaign in the general election.   He delivered a speech on the closing night of the 2020 Democratic National Convention,  and also announced Indiana's votes during the convention's roll call.  On September 5, 2020, Buttigieg was announced to be a member of the advisory council of the Biden-Harris Transition Team, which was planning the presidential transition of Joe Biden.   Ahead of the vice presidential debate, Buttigieg played the role as a stand-in for Republican vice president Mike Pence in Democratic vice presidential nominee Kamala Harris's debate prep. Buttigieg was selected to do this because of his experience working with Pence during the overlapping time when Buttigieg was serving as mayor and Pence was serving as governor of Indiana. 
In October 2020, Buttigieg released his second book, Trust: America's Best Chance. 
Following the end of his presidential campaign, Buttigieg was considered a possible Cabinet appointee in Joe Biden's administration.   After Biden was declared the winner of the election on November 7, 2020, Buttigieg was again mentioned as a possible nominee for Secretary of Veterans Affairs, Ambassador to the United Nations, Ambassador to China or Secretary of Transportation.  On December 15, 2020, Biden announced that he would nominate Buttigieg as his Secretary of Transportation.  The Senate Commerce Committee advanced Buttigieg's nomination to the full Senate with a vote of 21–3.  Buttigieg was confirmed on February 2, 2021, with a vote of 86–13  and was sworn in the next morning. 
In his early acts as secretary, Buttigieg worked on re-organizing the department's internal policy structure, including carrying out a thorough review process of rules enacted under the Trump administration.  
In late February 2021, Buttigieg addressed the African American Mayors Association to discuss systemic racism. He argued that misguided investments in the federal transport and infrastructure policy had contributed to racial inequity.  In early March, Politico noted that Buttigieg had mentioned racial equity in almost every interview he gave to the press as it related to his work at the department. 
Early into his tenure, Buttigieg noted that the United States' actions surrounding road traffic safety is lacking and encouraged the improved design of roads. He also encouraged a shift in the policy from decisions based on cars to decisions based on human actions. 
In March 2021, Buttigieg indicated he was open to tolls on Interstate 80, but not the tollage of bridges, suggesting "big picture solutions" instead, like a mileage tax.   The Biden administration, however, did not include a gas tax or mileage tax in the infrastructure plan it released that month. 
In late March 2021, Buttigieg informed Congress that the administration was planning to prioritize the construction of the Gateway Rail Tunnel Project due to its economic significance.  The progress of the project, which was stalled by President Trump,  was announced to be moving faster, according to New York senator, Chuck Schumer. Buttigieg announced the environmental impact assessment of the project - which was largely seen as a sign of major progress in the project. 
Buttigieg has served as a promoter of the American Jobs Plan. 
On May 19, 2021, Buttigieg reinstated a Obama-era pilot program which ensures local hiring for public works projects, with the goal of helping minorities and disadvantaged individuals. This program had been revoked in 2017 during the Trump administration, when the Department of Transportation (under the leadership of Elaine Chao) moved back to rules established during the Reagan administration, which banned geographic-based hiring preferences. 
During his 2020 campaign for the Democratic nomination, Buttigieg proposed spending $1 trillion on U.S. infrastructure projects over the next ten years, estimating that the plan would create at least six million jobs. The plan focused on green energy, protecting tap water from lead, fixing roads and bridges, improving public transportation, repairing schools, guaranteeing broadband internet access, and preparing communities for floods and other natural disasters.   
Buttigieg supports abortion rights   and the repeal of the Hyde Amendment, which blocks federal funding for abortion services except in cases of rape, incest, or the life of the mother is in danger.  He favors amending civil rights legislation, including the Federal Equality Act so that LGBT Americans receive federal non-discrimination protections. 
Buttigieg supports expanding opportunities for national service, including a voluntary year of national service for those turning 18 years old.   
In July 2019, Buttigieg shared his "Douglass Plan", named after abolitionist Frederick Douglass, to address systemic racism in America.  The initiative would allocate $10 billion to African-American entrepreneurship over five years, grant $25 billion to historically black colleges, legalize marijuana, expunge drug convictions, halve the federal prison population, and propose a federal New Voting Rights Act designed to increase voting access.  
Buttigieg supports eliminating the death penalty,  marijuana legalization,  moving toward reversing criminal sentences for minor drug-related offenses,  and eliminating incarceration for drug possession offenses. 
In 2019, he called for the U.S. to "decriminalize mental illness and addiction through diversion, treatment, and re-entry programs" with a goal of decreasing "the number of people incarcerated due to mental illness or substance use by 75% in the first term."  
Buttigieg favors the abolition of the Electoral College  and has also called for restoring voting rights to felons who have completed their prison sentences.  
Campaign finance reform
He supports a constitutional amendment on campaign finance to reduce the undue influence of money in politics.  During his 2020 presidential run in response to accusation of campaign finance concerns Buttigieg's campaign told Newsweek that the candidate does "not accept contributions from registered federal lobbyists, corporate PACs or the fossil fuel industry." In the statement, it was also made known that "Pete has made enacting critical campaign finance reforms part of his campaign platform, including strengthening the Federal Election Commission (FEC) and pushing to overturn Citizens United and Buckley v. Valeo, if necessary, by a constitutional amendment." 
During his campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination, Buttigieg stated that, if elected, he would restore the United States' commitment to the Paris Climate Agreement and double its pledge to the Green Climate Fund. He also supports the Green New Deal proposed by House Democrats,   solar panel subsidies, and a carbon tax and dividend policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  
Buttigieg identifies as a democratic capitalist and has decried crony capitalism.  He has entertained the possibility of antitrust actions against large technology companies on the basis of privacy and data security concerns.  During the Democratic primary, he supported deficit and debt reduction, arguing that large debt makes it harder to invest in infrastructure, health and safety. 
In July 2019, he released a plan to strengthen union bargaining power, to raise the minimum wage to $15, and to offer national paid family leave. 
Buttigieg's education plan includes a $700 billion investment in universal full-day child care and pre-K for all children from infancy to age 5.  Buttigieg also wants to triple Title I funding for schools.  Other goals include doubling the amount of new teachers of color in the next 10 years, addressing school segregation with a $500 million fund, paying teachers more, expanding mental health services in schools, and creating more after-school programs and summer learning opportunities. 
His plan for debt-free college partially involves expanding Pell Grants for low and middle-income students, as well as other investments and ending Trump's tax cuts for the wealthy.  Under his plan, the bottom 80% of students would get free college, with the other 20% paying some or all of the tuition themselves on a sliding scale.  Buttigieg opposes free college tuition for all students because he believes it unfairly subsidizes higher-income families at the expense of lower-income people who do not attend college, a position distinguishing him from other progressives who support free college tuition for all. 
Buttigieg called for modifying the structure of defense spending,  while suggesting that he might favor an overall increase in defense spending. 
Buttigieg has said that he believes the 2001 U.S. invasion of Afghanistan following the September 11 attacks was justified  but now supports withdrawing American troops from the region with a maintained intelligence presence.  He is a committed supporter of Israel,   favors a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict,   opposes proposals for Israel to annex the Israeli-occupied West Bank,  and disapproves of Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu's comments in support of applying Israeli law in Jewish settlements in the West Bank. 
In 2008, Buttigieg wrote an op-ed in the New York Times calling on the United States to support the de facto independent Republic of Somaliland 
In June 2019, Buttigieg said: "We will remain open to working with a regime like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for the benefit of the American people. But we can no longer sell out our deepest values for the sake of fossil fuel access and lucrative business deals."  He supports ending U.S. support for Saudi Arabia in Saudi Arabia's war in Yemen. 
Buttigieg has condemned China for its mass detention of ethnic Uyghurs in Xinjiang.  He criticized Trump's decision to withdraw U.S. troops from Syria, which critics say gave Turkey the green light to launch its military offensive against Syrian Kurds. 
In 2018, Buttigieg said he favored Medicare for All.  During his presidential campaign, Buttigieg has promoted "Medicare for All Who Want It" (a public option for health insurance).    He has spoken favorably of Maryland's all-payer rate setting.  Buttigieg has described "Medicare for All Who Want It" as inclusive, more efficient than the current system, and a possible precursor or "glide path" to single-payer health insurance.   He also favors a partial expansion of Medicare that would allow Americans ages 50 to 64 to buy into Medicare, and supports proposed legislation (the Family and Medical Insurance Leave Act), that would "create a fund to guarantee up to 12 weeks of partial income for workers to care for newborn children or family members with serious illnesses." 
In August 2019, Buttigieg released a $300 billion plan to expand mental health care services and fight addiction.  
Buttigieg supports Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) and has drawn attention to the Trump administration's aggressive deportation policies. He defended a resident of Granger, Indiana, who was deported after living in the U.S. for 17 years despite regularly checking in with ICE and applying for a green card. 
Buttigieg has said Trump has been reckless in sending American troops to the southern border, and that it is a measure of last resort. 
Buttigieg is a Christian,   and he has said his faith has had a strong influence in his life.    He was baptized in the Catholic Church as an infant and he attended Catholic schools.  While at the University of Oxford, Buttigieg began to attend Christ Church Cathedral and said he felt "more-or-less Anglican" by the time he returned to South Bend.  St. Augustine, James Martin, and Garry Wills are among his religious influences.  A member of the Episcopal Church, Buttigieg is a congregant at the Cathedral of St. James in downtown South Bend. 
In addition to his native English, Buttigieg has some knowledge of Norwegian, Spanish, Italian, Maltese, Arabic, Dari Persian, and French.   Buttigieg plays guitar and piano,   and in 2013 performed with the South Bend Symphony Orchestra as a guest piano soloist with Ben Folds.   Buttigieg was a 2014 Aspen Institute Rodel Fellow. 
In a June 2015 piece in the South Bend Tribune, Buttigieg came out as gay.  By coming out, Buttigieg became Indiana's first openly gay elected executive.    He was the first elected official in Indiana to come out while in office,  and the highest elected official in Indiana to come out.  Buttigieg was also the first openly gay Democratic presidential candidate, and the second overall, after Republican Fred Karger, who ran in 2012. 
On December 14, 2017, in a post on Facebook, Buttigieg announced his engagement to Chasten Glezman, a junior high school teacher.   They had been dating since August 2015 after meeting on the dating app Hinge.   They were married on June 16, 2018, in a private ceremony at the Cathedral of St. James in South Bend.   This made Buttigieg the first mayor of South Bend to get married while in office.  Chasten uses his husband's surname, Buttigieg.  Buttigieg and his husband plan to have children in the near future, he revealed on The Carlos Watson Show in September 2020. 
In 2015, Buttigieg was a recipient of the Fenn Award, given by the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library. It was given in recognition of his work as mayor.  In June 2019, to mark the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall riots, Queerty named him one of its "Pride50" people identified as "trailblazing individuals who actively ensure society remains moving towards equality, acceptance and dignity for all queer people".  In October 2019, at the Golden Heart Awards, run by God's Love We Deliver, Buttigieg was awarded the "Golden Heart Award for Outstanding Leadership and Public Service".  In August 2020, Equality California, an LGBT-rights organization, gave Buttigieg and his husband Chasten their Equality Trailblazer Award.  Attitude, an LGBTQ publication, named Buttigieg their Person of the Year in 2020, in recognition of his groundbreaking run for the presidency. 
The first armed drone strikes
2001: In the aftermath of 9/11, the CIA began flying armed drones over Afghanistan as part of the war against the Taliban. The first CIA drone-based kill operation took place in February 2002, when an unmanned Predator drone was used to target a suspect thought to be Osama bin Laden. However, it turned out to be an innocent man named Daraz Khan who was out collecting scrap metal. Instances such as this began concerns about the use of drones in warfare, which continues to rage today.