James Stuart

James Stuart, the eldest child of James Gordon Stuart, mill owner, and his wife, Catherine Booth, was born in Newburgh, Fife, on 2nd January, 1843. He had seven brothers, three of whom died in childhood, and one sister.

Stuart was educated at Madras College and at St Andrews University, where he graduated in 1861. The following year he won a scholarship to Trinity College and after graduation he became an assistant tutor at the University of Cambridge. After meeting Josephine Butler he became an advocate of women's education. In 1867 he gave a series of lectures for Butler's North of England Council for Promoting the Higher Education of Women and the London Society for the Extension of University Education.

His biographer, Colin Matthew, has argued: "He should not, as has sometimes been the case, be seen as sole originator of university extension, but he was certainly its most prominent early activist. In 1875 he was elected the first professor of mechanism and applied mechanics at Cambridge and planned the mechanical science tripos. Practical training cut across Cambridge's theoretical tradition, and Stuart's approach and his radical politics led to criticism."

Stuart, a member of the Liberal Party, developed a close relationship with Mary Gladstone, the daughter of William Ewart Gladstone, the prime minister. He encouraged Mary to read Progress and Poverty, a book by Henry George. Mary wrote in her diary that the book is "supposed to be the most upsetting, revolutionary book of the age. At present Maggie and I both agree with it, and most brilliantly written it is. We had long discussions. He (her father) is reading it too." Stuart told her: "The man (Henry George) is a true man, and that it would do one a great deal of good to spend a day or two with him. I, too, was pleased with his smashing of Malthus. I like to see anyone indignant and angry at any doctrine which makes misery and wrong a natural and inevitable and necessary consequence of the world's ordering." Her father was less impressed commenting "it is well-written but a wild book".

Susan K. Harris, the author of The Cultural Work of the Late Nineteenth-Century Hostess (2004) has argued: "One of the late nineteenth century's most influential works of political economy, Progress and Poverty (1879) attacks the premises of land ownership, rejecting Malthus and arguing that nationalization of rents would remedy all economic ills because the money accruing to the government would enable all other taxes to be repealed... In England, it fell into a vigorous British conversation about land, wages, taxes, and the nature of labour; a conversation that was being conducted on a number of levels, from radical Socialists, who loved the book, to landed aristocrats, who didn't. Everyone, however, recognized that this was a work with which it was necessary to contend, and most understood that it was one of the signal texts for trying to think through solutions to the gap between rich and poor that had manifested itself politically - especially through the Chartist movement - in mid-century, and had remained a source of anxiety for the privileged classes over the remainder of the century."

Stuart was also a strong supporter of women's suffrage and tried hard to convince Mary Gladstone of the need for reform. In March, 1884, Stuart replied to a letter he received from Mary. He suggested that female franchisement should follow lines already established by those municipalities that did allow women to vote: "To make women more independent of men is, I am convinced, one of the great fundamental means of bringing about justice, morality, and happiness both for married and unmarried men and women. If all Parliament were like the three men you mention, would there be no need for women's votes? Yes, I think there would. There is only one perfectly just, perfectly understanding Being - and that is God." He added: "No man is all-wise enough to select rightly - it is the people's voice thrust upon us, not elicited by us, that guides us rightly."

After unsuccessfully contesting Cambridge University Stuart was elected for Hackney in 1884. In the 1885 General Election he moved to the Hoxton constituency. Over the next few years he campaigned for women's suffrage and the repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts and the reform of the House of Lords.

In 1890 Stuart married Laura Elizabeth, daughter of Jeremiah James Colman, the mustard manufacturer they had no children. When his father-in-law died unexpectedly in 1898, Stuart moved to Norfolk and managed the firm. Stuart was defeated in the 1900 General Election but was successful in Sunderland in the 1906 General Election. Stuart's radical political views meant that he was never offered a government post under William Ewart Gladstone, Henry Campbell-Bannerman or Herbert Asquith.

A profile of Stuart in Vanity Fair: "He is many-sided and too enthusiastic. He champions Women's Suffrage because, being a student of Exact Science, he cannot understand Woman. He has, indeed, championed more than one unpopular movement; though he is said to have more intimate knowledge of London political and social questions than anyone else. But he is a wicked Radical, whom the Water Companies hate, although he has friends among the Tories."

James Stuart died at his home, Carrow Abbey, Norwich, on 13th October 1913.

The man (Henry George) is a true man, and that it would do one a great deal of good to spend a day or two with him. I like to see anyone indignant and angry at any doctrine which makes misery and wrong a natural and inevitable and necessary consequence of the world's ordering.

To make women more independent of men is, I am convinced, one of the great fundamental means of bringing about justice, morality, and happiness both for married and unmarried men and women. There is only one perfectly just, perfectly understanding Being - and that is God.... No man is all-wise enough to select rightly - it is the people's voice thrust upon us, not elicited by us, that guides us rightly.

He became a Fifeshire Scotchman six-and-fifty years ago; and having been doubly educated (at St. Andrews University and at Trinity, Cambridge) he fashioned himself into a Professor of Mechanics and Applied Mechanics. Then he tried to become Member for Cambridge University; but Cambridge University refusing the honour, he went to Hackney, which place he represented for precisely one year. Since then he has sat for the Hoxton Division of Shoreditch, while he lives in Grosvenor Road.

He neither shoots nor fishes, and he seldom takes a holiday; but he yachts, he cycles, he plays golf, and he sketches. He has also dabbled in journalism, being Chairman of the Board of The Star and Morning Leader Newspaper and Publishing Company, Limited. He is also the husband of the eldest daughter of Jeremiah James Colman: wherefore The Pall Mall Gazette once accused him of introducing mustard into The Star. He has done much to develop the pernicious system of University Extension; and his friends say that the most wonderful thing about him is how little he has been understood by the public. He is many-sided and too enthusiastic. But he is a wicked Radical, whom the Water Companies hate, although he has friends among the Tories. He is a most tireless person of extraordinary physique, who can go all day without food; and though he can dine, he generally eats. Although he is a Professor he is neither a prude nor a pedant; and if it were not for his pernicious Politics he would be a good fellow.

James Stuart

James Stuart's father was Joseph Gordon Stuart ( born in Edinburgh about 1816) who owned a Flax Spinning Mill in Milton of Balgonie in Fife. In the 1861 census he is recorded as employing 225 people. James' mother was Catherine Booth ( born in Edinburgh about 1816) .

James Stuart received his school education at Madras College, St Andrews and then attended St Andrews University, graduating in 1861 . He proceeded to Cambridge, supported by a Ferguson scholarship and a scholarship from Trinity College. On graduating as third wrangler in 1866 , he was elected to a fellowship at Trinity.

An educational pioneer, he established lecture courses in several towns around England and he supported the education of women. He also supported London and Oxford in setting up similar extension courses. From 1875 to 1889 , Stuart was Professor of Mechanism and Applied Mechanics at Cambridge ( a precursor of the Engineering department ) , but he resigned following Senate opposition to his emphasis on practical training and to his radical politics. He was among the first in Cambridge to lecture on Clerk Maxwell's theory of electricity and magnetism.

He married Laura Elizabeth Colman ( Norwich, Norfolk, 1859 - 1920) at Norwich, Norfolk in 1890 .

He was a backbench Member of Parliament during 1884 - 1900 and 1906 - 10 , when he supported votes for women and reform of the House of Lords. He was appointed a Privy Councillor in 1909 .

He was awarded an Honorary LL.D by St Andrews University in 1876 , and he served as Rector of the University during 1898 - 1901 . His wife was the eldest daughter of J J Colman, MP, the mustard manufacturer. From 1898 , Stuart took over management of the firm.

Biographical Note Return to Top

Granville Stuart was born in Clarksburg, Virginia (now West Virginia) on August 27, 1834, and was the son of Robert and Nancy (Currence) Stuart. James was born in the same place on March 14, 1832. Granville and James also had two younger brothers Samuel and Thomas. The family, of Scottish origin, came to the United States in 1775 and is identified with the development of Virginia. In 1837 Robert Stuart moved the family to Illinois, and a year later, to Iowa. Granville Stuart grew up in Muscatine County, attending school and working on the family farm until 1852, when he went to California with his father and his brother James. They remained there prospecting for gold until 1857 when they came to western Montana, then part of the Washington Territory, and settled in Deer Lodge valley, about three miles north of the present town of Pioneer at the mouth of Gold Creek.

Granville and James prospected along Gold Creek from 1858 to 1862. Soon after, their operations caused a gold rush to the area. The Stuart brothers and their large prospecting party helped open up Western Montana to settlers. James Stuart remained in Deer Lodge until 1870, when he was appointed to the post of physician at the Fort Peck agency. He remained there until his death from cancer on Sept. 30, 1873.

In 1863 Granville Stuart moved to Alder Gulch just after its discovery, and entered the mercantile business. In 1865 he sold this business and entered into extensive trading in Deer Lodge. In 1873 Granville sold all of his merchant interests and went back into mining. In 1876 he moved to Helena and became a bookkeeper for the First National Bank. After three years he went onto the cattle business with S. T. Hauser of the First National Bank and A. J. Davis, a millionaire miner from Butte. From 1879-1894 Granville was the controller and manager of this extensive cattle business. The Hauser, Davis, Stuart Cattle Co. came to be known as the "D-S" ranch. In the 1880s Granville represented the "D-S" ranch at the Montana Stock Growers Assoc. meetings. In 1883 the "D-S" range held 12,000 cattle. In 1885 this Cattle co. was worth one million dollars. After 1887 Granville got out of the cattle business, but remained the president of board of stock commissioners in Montana until 1894. In 1891 Granville became a state land agent in charge of 600,000 acres given to Montana by the federal government for school purposes.

Granville married Isabel Allis Brown in 1891. In 1894 he was appointed envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the republics of Uruguay and Paraguay. He spent four years in South America, exploring the Amazon, and looking for mining prospects. In 1904 Granville was appointed librarian of the Butte Public Library and there he began preparing his journals for publication. In 1916 he was commissioned by the state to write a history of Montana, and he was at work on this when he died on Oct. 2, 1918.

Granville Stuart was involved in politics and served on the territorial council in 1872, 1875, 1879, and was elected president of the council in 1883. In 1865 Mr. Stuart published a book, Montana As It Is, on the geography and climate of Montana. This was the first guidebook ever printed about Montana. He had extensive dealings with the Native Americans of the area, and was concerned for their welfare. In the 1870s he composed a dictionary of the Snake River Indian language. He was concerned about the effects of whiskey trading among the Indians, and the resulting degeneration of their society. Late in his life he expressed concern about the future of the Native Americans on reservations and hoped they would learn farming as a means of self-support.

Mr. Stuart began condensing his journals into a biography later in his life. After his death editors who eventually published his book posthumously continued this work. The end result of this labor was the publication of Forty Years on the Frontier in 1925, in two volumes, edited by University of Montana professor Paul C. Phillips.

Content Description Return to Top

This collection includes four reels of microfilm of the Granville and James Stuart Papers and Granville Stuart's letters to Andrew Fergus. This collection is mostly made up of letterbooks, which are Granville Stuart's copies of his outgoing correspondence from 1868-87 and 1890-1892. The first reel contains the only letters written by James, dating from Oct. 1868 to April 1870. Granville Stuart's ranch, the "D-S" ranch, was located on the Fort Maginnis Cattle range, and during the 1880s the "D-S" Co. sold beef to the fort for the soldiers. This business is the major concern of Granville Stuart's letters to Andrew Fergus who was the cattle man representing the Fort. These letters to Mr. Fergus are the only correspondence in this collection from 1880-1887.

Microfilm Reels 1-3 contain the Stuart Papers from 1868-80 and 1890-92. These letters are a mix of private correspondence with friends and business correspondence, mostly concerning the cattle business Granville managed. Reel one begins with a biography and genealogy of the Stuart family. This includes a history of the Royal Stuart line in Scotland, and then a brief family history of the Stuarts in America. The rest of the reel contains copies of Granville Stuart's outgoing correspondence from Oct. 1 1868 to March 17, 1879, and James' letters from Oct. 1868 to April 1870. The letters originate from Deer Lodge during 1868-1876, and from Helena during 1876-1879. The letterbooks include a list of Granville and James' associates, a map of Deer Lodge County, and several studies of the climate and geography of western Montana.

Reel two contains Granville Stuart's outgoing correspondence from March 18, 1879 to March 25, 1880, and from Jan. 10, 1890 to Sept. 4, 1890. Granville is writing from Helena during this period. Of note in this correspondence is a letter to President Rutherford B. Hayes. Granville thanked him for pardoning his friend, D. M. Burrett.

Reel three contains Mr. Stuart's outgoing correspondence from Sept. 4, 1890 to Dec. 3, 1892. These letters are often about accounts owed to the cattle ranch business that Granville managed at the time. There are also four misc. items on this reel.

Reel four is a partial microfilm reel containing Granville Stuart's letters to Andrew Fergus. These are copies of Granville Stuart's correspondence with Andrew Fergus from May 12, 1880 to April 3, 1887. Mr. Stuart was in Helena writing to Mr. Fergus at Fort Maginnis, Montana. Much of this correspondence concerns the buying and selling of cattle, from the "D-S" ranch to the Fort. Included are lists of cattle, their price and condition. In these letters they also discuss the weather and how the crops are doing. Included are a few miscellaneous items and many short articles on early Montana life and activities written by Granville. The materials on this reel were copied from the Granville Stuart Letter Press, which is part of the Western America Collection at Yale University Libraries.

Use of the Collection Return to Top

Restrictions on Use

Researchers are responsible for using in accordance with 17 U.S.C. and any other applicable statutes. Copyright not transferred to the University of Montana.

Preferred Citation

[Name of document], Granville and James Stuart Papers, Archives and Special Collections, The University of Montana--Missoula.

Reagent King [ edit | edit source ]

His sister abdicated her crown in July 1567. James returned to Edinburgh from France on 11 August 1567, and was appointed Regent of Scotland on 22 August.

The appointment was confirmed by Parliament in December. When Mary escaped from Loch Leven on 2 May 1568 nobles rallied to her standard, but James defeated her forces at the Battle of Langside close to Glasgow on 13 May 1568 and Mary was compelled to flee to England and James gained the title "The Gude Regent".

In September 1568, James chose commissioners and went to York to discuss a treaty with England. During this conference, he produced the casket letters which were supposed to incriminate his sister, Queen Mary, and justify his rule in Scotland. Rumor has it, a plan to assassinate him on his way back was called off.

Scotland was now in a state of civil war. James moved against the supporters of Mary, Queen of Scots in their southwest homelands with a military expedition in June 1568. His army and the royal artillery was taken to Biggar, where his allies were commanded to muster on to Dumfries.

Along the way James' captured houses belonging to supporters of Queen Mary.One of whom estimated the army to number 6,000 men, then returned to Carlisle where he saw Queen Mary's servants play football in the middle of June. James took Lochmaben Castle, then captured Lochwood and Lochhouse before returning to Edinburgh via Peebles. James was responsible for the destruction of Rutherglen castle, which he burned to the ground in 1569 in retribution against the Hamiltons for having supported Mary at the Battle of Langside.

James Stuart, King of Scotland, England, Wales and Ireland

This isn’t a base slander on my part, this was his honest academic opinion. In The True Law of Free Monarchies, James explains that kings (such as himself) had been chosen by God to rule over nations simply because they were superior beings. But, he explained, it would be wrong of you to be jealous. Because God had made king’s lives more difficult, as they were powerful enough to bear it. Besides, since they were king by divine right, it would be blasphemy to criticise or attempt to contradict a king. As such, therefore, Parliament was there to endorse the laws made by the king, rather than to block them or (blasphemy of blasphemies) attempt to suggest laws of their own. Kings had existed before laws, after all. And had Parliament been chosen by God for their position?

In other words, James was an absolutist. Unfortunately, he was born in an era when countries were growing too large for the rule of an absolute monarch. His son, Charles I, would reap the consequences of what his father had sown, when the Parliament he scorned rose against him and placed him on the executioner’s block. Ironically, it was James’ mother’s path to the scaffold that had put him in this position. Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, was forced to abdicate in his favour in 1567 when he was eighteen months old. In part this was because of her complicity in the plot that killed James’ father, Henry Stuart, before James was born. Mary fled south to England, but her status as the great-granddaughter of Henry VII had seen her raised up as a possible alternative to Elizabeth, and her cousin had her imprisoned for eighteen years, before a plot to free her led to her execution. In the absence of his Catholic mother, James was raised as a Protestant in Stirling Castle, under a succession of regents. The first was assassinated, the second fell in battle, the third died of illness and the fourth was executed by James himself for complicity in the murder of Henry Stuart fifteen years earlier. So the young king came into power.

The young king showed little interest in women, which led some to praise him as a model of Christian chastity, and others to darkly proclaim that his most trusted councillor, his father’s cousin Esmé Stewart, “went about to draw the King to carnal lust”. In fact, through his life James would always have male “favourites”, and historians generally tend to assume that his relationships with these favourites went beyond “just good friends”. James was always an advocate of the laws against homosexuality, but as we’ve already discussed, he didn’t think the laws applied to kings. Still, a king needed a queen to guarantee the succession. Princess Anne of Denmark, a good Protestant girl, was chosen. However her journey to Scotland was disrupted by storms, so in the autumn of 1589 James set off for Denmark to fetch her. This trip was to have fearful consequences for many Scottish innocents.

James and Anne were married in Oslo in November, and the couple stayed in Denmark for six months before returning to Scotland. On the trip home, they were beset by storms and forced to seek shelter in Norway. The Norwegian fleet had been devastated by the storm, and blame first fell on the minister of finance for failing to equip the fleet for the weather. He responded by claiming that it was witchcraft that had raised the storm, and no amount of equipment would have saved them. His blatant attempt at blame deflection succeeded admirably, and the ensuing rounds of torture leading to confessions and accusations leading to more torture led inevitably to thirteen innocent women being burned at the stake in Kronborg Castle. James was present for the beginning of this, and received news of the conclusion. Being convinced that servants of the Devil would naturally have aimed such a storm at his own divinely-ordained person, James instituted a witch hunt of his own.

A surviving newsletter called Newes From Scotland has a woodcut showing the alleged witches meeting the devil while their menfolk sleep.

Gillis Duncan was a maid servant in the town of Tranent, about ten miles from Edinburgh. Her master David Seaton caught her sneaking out of the house one night. Gillis had a talent for healing wounds and comforting the dying, and naturally Mr Seaton thus assumed that she must be a servant of Satan. He had her tortured, and under this torture she confessed, confirming that any name given to her was also a witch. [1] This came to the attention of the King, as he believed that this great coven must be the ones responsible for trying to use “magic” to sink his ship as it returned from Denmark. He took a personal interest in what became known as the North Berwick Witch Trials, and in the examination of those accused. Of these, the most infamous example is that of Agnes Sampson. Agnes was a midwife, a group of people often accused of witchcraft simply for practising their trade. Agnes was brought to Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, where James personally supervised her torture. She was chained to the wall of her cell by means of a piece of metal inserted into her mouth, with four spikes digging into her cheeks and gums. She was deprived of sleep. She had a rope tied around her head, and then had it brutally jerked around. She was stripped naked, and had her hair all over her body crudely shorn off to search for the “witch’s mark”, which was predictably found on her “privities”. Finally, understandably, she confessed. Not only women were targetted – a schoolteacher named John Fian (accused of leading the coven) had his fingernails torn out and nails thrust into the wounds, followed by having his thumbs and feet crushed in torture devices. James later wrote a handbook for future witch hunters entitled Daemonologie. In it, he declared that witchcraft “merits most severely to be punished”. In accordance with this belief Agnes, and Gillis Duncan, and John Fian, and over two hundred others were all garroted before having their bodies publicly burned. Thousands more in Scotland would follow them in the coming centuries. [2]

The witches before the king, from Newes From Scotland.

In 1603 James became king of England. Elizabeth had unofficially recognised him as her heir in a treaty signed the year before she executed his mother, and though the execution had upset James it had not disrupted the treaty. As a Protestant, James was far more acceptable than any of the alternatives to her ministers. Chief among them was Robert Cecil, who would serve as James’ chief minister (and spymaster) until his death in 1612. [3] Some other ministers were less happy, leading to a plot that conveniently cleared out relics of the previous reign such as Sir Walter Raleigh and allowed James to install several of his Scottish supporters in English position. This was followed by an attempt to force through a union of England and Scotland, but though James declared himself the king of “Great Britain”, the first time the term had been used to refer to a single kingdom, the English Parliament proved far less willing to bend to his absolute rule than its Scottish equivalent. [4] In fact, aside from a brief period of sympathy for him following the unsuccessful “Gunpowder Plot” of 1605, James would have incessant trouble with Parliament. The highlight was the “Addled Parliament” of 1614, which was summoned to impose a new tax, refused to do so, and was dissolved after eight weeks. This left James to raise money instead through Crown business ventures and the sale of honours. In 1621 he called another Parliament, but when they petitioned him to declare war on Spain and pledge that the heir, the future Charles I, would marry a Protestant, he flatly refused. They made a formal protest, but the enraged James tore the protest out of the record book and dissolved them. Ironically, the final parliament he called in 1624 was to finance a war with Spain caused, in part, by the failure of Charles to marry the Catholic Infanta (Spanish princess) Maria Anna.

One of James’ most notable legacies to his subjects was the King James Version of the Bible, still considered the definitive version by some branches of Christianity. James had originally conceived the project in 1601, prompted by the loud concerns raised by Puritans over inaccuracies in the two available (for example, Psalm 105 in the CoE’s Bishop’s Bible declared that God had sent darkness upon the lands as punishment for being obedient to his commands). With their faith declaring Biblical studies a necessity, this was a serious concern for them. In 1604, now head of the Anglican church, James was able to convene this great translation. The competing influences of the Anglicans and Puritans helped to ensure an impartial translation, while one bugbear of previous translations (marginal notes expresssing opinions on the text) were banned outright. All translators had to be Anglican, and all but one were clergymen. [5] The translations (from the Hebrew of the Old Testament, and from the Greek of the New) were completed in 1608, at which point a long review for inaccuracies took place. Finally, in 1611, the first printing took place.

A painting by Rubens on the roof of the Banqueting House in Whitehall shows James being carried off to heaven.

James died in 1625. He had been suffering from a variety of illnesses, most notably gout and kidney stones, but it was a violent attack of dysentery that finally finished him off. James had always been popular with the people, largely due to the lack of violence in his accession and the peacefulness of his reign. Somewhat glossing over the intestinal details of his final hours, the Earl of Kellie said “”As he lived in peace, so did he die in peace, and I pray God our king may follow him.” Of course, the foundations of the division between monarch and parliament he had lain would prevent that. Within twenty years, the English Civil War would break out, and in the ideological conflict that followed James would briefly be recast as an authoritarian monster, before the restoration of his grandson Charles II to the throne saw him returned to his status as father of the Stuart dynasty. In his defence, one could say that he always thought what he was doing was right – that he was the divinely-appointed guardian of the realm, the sole one fit to steer it through the dangerous waters of international and religious conflict, defending it against the encroaching forces of evil and darkness. I doubt the hundreds of victims of his misguided crusade in North Berwick would see it that way. Just remember, whatever your opinion, James wouldn’t have cared. After all, he was better than you.

[1] The fact that Scotland, unlike the rest of the United Kingdom, accepted confessions under torture as evidence is why the number of those killed as witches in Scotland number in the thousands, as opposed to the hundreds killed in England.

[2] Exact figures are hard to come by, but a study by the University of Edinburgh indicate that over 3,000 people were accused of witchcraft and around two-thirds of those were executed.

[3] The combination of hatred and fear that Cecil (probably deliberately) inspired can be measured by the number of libellous poems released after his death.

[4] Unlike its English equivalent, the Scottish parliament did not include a section of “Commons”, but consisted mostly of the lairds of various clans.

[5] Popular legend has it that several famous authors of the era contributed to the KJV, though no actual evidence backs this up. Some point to Shakespeare, with the somewhat dubious assertion that as he was 46 in 1610 when the book was completed, and the 46th word of Psalm 46 is “shake”, and the 46th word from the end is “spear”, that proves it! Another popular candidate is noted Freemason Sir Francis Bacon, a claim which is furiously debunked by those who regard the KJV as the definitive edition, and wholeheartedly embraced by those who believe he embedded Rosicrucian symbols in it.

  1. ↑ Source: #S-2057070331 Class: HO107 Piece 568 Book: 22 Civil Parish: Liverpool County: Lancashire Enumeration District: 85 Folio: 47 Page: 10 Line: 2 GSU roll: 438720. Note: Birth date: abt 1839 Birth place: Lancashire, England Residence date: 1841 Residence place: Liverpool, Lancashire, England Ancestry Record 8978 #5991353
  2. ↑ Source: #S-2057070487 Class: RG 9 Piece: 2701 Folio: 48 Page: 44 GSU roll: 543015. Note: Birth date: abt 1839 Birth place: Liverpool, Lancashire, England Residence date: 1861 Residence place: Toxteth Park, Lancashire, England Ancestry Record 8767 #23094115
  3. ↑ 3.03.1 Source: #S-942501326Ancestry Record 9841 #40385294
  • Source: S-2037723051 Ancestry Family Trees Publication: Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members. Note: This information comes from 1 or more individual Ancestry Family Tree files. This source citation points you to a current version of those files. Note: The owners of these tree files may have removed or changed information since this source citation was created.Ancestry Family Trees Ancestry Family Tree 19900560
  • Source: S-2057070331 1841 England Census Publication: Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc, 2010.Original data - Census Returns of England and Wales, 1841. Kew, Surrey, England: The National Archives of the UK (TNA): Public Record Office (PRO), 1841. Data imaged from the National Note: Record Collection 8978
  • Source: S-2057070487 1861 England Census Publication: Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2005.Original data - Census Returns of England and Wales, 1861. Kew, Surrey, England: The National Archives of the UK (TNA): Public Record Office (PRO), 1861. Data imaged from The National A Note: Record Collection 8767
  • Source: S-942501326 England, Select Births and Christenings, 1538-1975 Publication: Operations, Inc. Record Collection 9841

in the England & Wales, Civil Registration Marriage Index, 1837-1915 Name: James Stewart Registration Year: 1862 Registration Quarter: Jul-Aug-Sep Registration District: Liverpool Parishes for this Registration District: View Ecclesiastical Parishes associated with this Registration District Inferred County: Lancashire Volume: 8b Page: 427 Records on Page: Name Maria Dunphy John Fury James Stewart Mary Ann Tyrell

in the 1861 England Census Name: James Stuart Age: 22 Estimated Birth Year: 1839 Relation: Head Spouse's Name: Mary A Stuart Gender: Male Where born: Liverpool, Lancashire, England Civil Parish: Toxteth Park Ecclesiastical parish: St Thomas County/Island: Lancashire Country: England Street Address: Occupation: Condition as to marriage: View image Registration District: West Derby Sub-registration District: Toxteth Park ED, institution, or vessel: 21 Neighbors: View others on page Household Schedule Number: 228 Piece: 2701 Folio: 48 Page Number: 44 Household Members: Name Age James Stuart 22 Mary A Stuart 22 [Also born Liverpool]

War years

Following the capture of General George Washington, a small delegation from the remains of the Continental Congress (led by an ailing Joseph Hewes) came to North Carolina to meet with James Roberts. Hewes and the others were aware of Roberts' true identity. They managed to convince him to return to Pennsylvania with them and meet with the rest of Congress. Roberts was then persuaded to become Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army (General Nathaniel Greene had been in command of the army following Washington's capture). General James Roberts' first task was to rebuild the shattered Continental Army. General Greene had done an exemplary job of keeping a force in the field, but he had been unable to stop many men (including officers) from deserting. Within a year, General Roberts had a force that was on par with the one Washington commanded prior to Monmouth. This army's first major action was the Battle of Morristown (1779), a fierce battle won by the British but one that proved Roberts to be an excellent general. Roberts gained further stature by recapturing the fort at West Point following it's betrayal to the British in August, 1780. General Roberts' most momentous decision as commander was to abandon the planned attack on Sir Henry Clinton's forces in New York and march south in an effort to catch the southern British army in Virginia. The successful siege at Yorktown, combined with the French naval victory off the Virginia coast, resulted in the capture or death of over one-quarter of the British forces in the American colonies. News of the surrender brought about the fall of Lord North's government in London. His successors were inclined to end the war and entered into negotiations with the Americans.

Charles I (1625 – 1649)

Charles I came to the throne after his father’s death. He did not share his father’s love of peace and embarked on war with Spain and then with France. In order to fight these wars he needed Parliament to grant him money. However, Parliament was not happy with his choice of favourites, especially the Duke of Buckingham and made things difficult for him.

In 1629 he dismissed Parliament and decided to rule alone for the next 11 years. Like his father he also believed in the Divine Right of Kings and he upset his Scottish subjects, many of whom were Puritans, by insisting that they follow the same religion as his English subjects. The result was the two Bishops Wars (1639-1640) Charles’ financial state had worsened to such a degree that he had no choice but to recall a Parliament whose condemnation of his style of rule would lead the country to Civil War and Charles I to his execution in 1649.


Son of James III (10 July 1451 – 11 June 1488) and Margaret of Denmark (23 June 1456 – before 14 July 1486)

  1. James, Duke of Rothesay (21 February 1507, Holyrood Palace – 27 February 1508, Stirling Castle)
  2. A stillborn daughter at Holyrood Palace on 15 July 1508.
  3. Arthur, Duke of Rothesay (20 October 1509, Holyrood Palace – Edinburgh Castle, 14 July 1510).
  4. James V (Linlithgow Palace, 15 April 1512 – Falkland Palace, Fife, 14 December 1542), the only one to reach adulthood, and the successor of his father.
  5. A second stillborn daughter at Holyrood Palace in November 1512.
  6. Alexander, Duke of Ross (Stirling Castle, 30 April 1514 – Stirling Castle, 18 December 1515), born after James's death.

Illegitimate children with Marion Boyd:

  1. Alexander (c.1493 – Battle of Flodden Field, 9 September 1513), Archbishop of St Andrews.
  2. Catherine Stewart(c. 1494 – 1554), who married James Douglas, 3rd Earl of Morton.

Illegitimate children with Margaret Drummond:

Illegitimate children with Janet Kennedy:

And two children who died in infancy.

Illegitimate children with Isabel Buchan

Stuart, James Francis Edward

Stuart, James Francis Edward (1688�), the ‘Old Pretender’. Son and heir of James VII of Scotland and II of England and Ireland by his second wife, Mary of Modena. The oddity of the catholic James II as head of the Anglican church-state was acceptable to protestant opinion only because his heir was the protestant Mary, daughter of a first marriage and wed to William of Orange. The birth of Prince James in June 1688 precipitated the Glorious Revolution. He was taken to France at his father's command in December 1688.

The propaganda querying his parentage was false, but the decision by Louis XIV to recognize him as heir to the British thrones when his father died in 1701 helped precipitate the War of the Spanish Succession. He participated in an abortive invasion of Scotland in 1708. In 1713 he was expelled from France to Lorraine. In late 1715 he joined the Scottish rising, fleeing from Montrose in the following spring. He was in Spain during the 1719 rising in the Highlands, returning to Italy to marry the Polish princess Clementina Sobieska, by whom he had two sons, Charles and Henry, and little happiness. He spent the last Jacobite rising, the '45, as a papal pensioner in Rome, happy to abdicate if Prince Charles succeeded. Latterly he had little to do except attend religious services. He died in January 1766.

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