(ScStr: t 150; 1. 112'; b. 12'6";dr. 8', s. 10k.
a. 2 20-pdr. Parrott r.)
Little Ada, an iron screw steamer; was built in the Clyde Scotland; captured and abandoned in the South Santee River 30 March 1864; recaptured at sea by Gettysburg 9 July 1864; purchased by the Nav y from the Boston Prize Court 18 August 1864, and commissioned at Boston 5 October 1864. Acting Master Samu~l P. Craft in command.
After setting out, Little Ada was ordered to the Western Bar, Cape Fear River, 8 November 1864. In December she participated in the attacks on Fort Fisher.
Little Ada's most active service vas in 1865. She formed part of the separate line of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron 3 January landing provisions for the Army. She again participated in attacks on Fort Fisher 12 to 15 January, carrying dispatches through the fleet. After being assigned to the Potomac flotilla 10 March, she captured a large yard boat 9 April at Hooper Strait, Md. She was sent to the Washington Navy Yard 31 May 1865, decommissioned 24 June 1865, and was transferred to the War Department 12 August 1865.
When the 'Capitol Crawl' Dramatized the Need for Americans with Disabilities Act
On March 13, 1990, over 1,000 people marched from the White House to the U.S. Capitol to demand that Congress pass the Americans with Disabilities Act, or ADA. When they got there, about 60 of them cast aside their wheelchairs and other mobility aids and crawled up the Capitol steps.
The pitol Crawl,” as it’s known, was a physical demonstration of how inaccessible architecture impacts people with disabilities. It also highlighted the urgency behind the need to pass the ADA, which President George H.W. Bush signed into law on July 26, 1990.
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George Boole, (born November 2, 1815, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England—died December 8, 1864, Ballintemple, County Cork, Ireland), English mathematician who helped establish modern symbolic logic and whose algebra of logic, now called Boolean algebra, is basic to the design of digital computer circuits.
Boole was given his first lessons in mathematics by his father, a tradesman, who also taught him to make optical instruments. Aside from his father’s help and a few years at local schools, however, Boole was self-taught in mathematics. When his father’s business declined, George had to work to support the family. From the age of 16 he taught in village schools in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and he opened his own school in Lincoln when he was 20. During scant leisure time he read mathematics journals in the Lincoln’s Mechanics Institute. There he also read Isaac Newton’s Principia, Pierre-Simon Laplace’s Traité de mécanique céleste, and Joseph-Louis Lagrange’s Mécanique analytique and began to solve advanced problems in algebra.
Boole submitted a stream of original papers to the new Cambridge Mathematical Journal, beginning in 1841 with his “Researches on the Theory of Analytical Transformations.” These papers were on differential equations and the algebraic problem of linear transformation, emphasizing the concept of invariance. In 1844, in an important paper in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, “On a General Method of Analysis,” for which he was awarded the Royal Society’s first gold medal for mathematics, he discussed how methods of algebra and calculus might be combined. Boole soon saw that his algebra could also be applied in logic.
Developing novel ideas on logical method and confident in the symbolic reasoning he had derived from his mathematical investigations, he published in 1847 a pamphlet, The Mathematical Analysis of Logic, being an Essay towards a Calculus of Deductive Reasoning, in which he argued persuasively that logic should be allied with mathematics, not philosophy. He won the admiration of the English logician Augustus De Morgan, who published Formal Logic the same year. On the basis of his publications, Boole in 1849 was appointed professor of mathematics at Queen’s College, County Cork (now University College Cork), even though he had no university degree. In 1854 he published An Investigation into the Laws of Thought, on Which Are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities, which he regarded as a mature statement of his ideas. The next year he married Mary Everest, niece of Sir George Everest, for whom the mountain is named. The Booles had five daughters.
One of the first Englishmen to write on logic, Boole pointed out the analogy between algebraic symbols and those that can represent logical forms and syllogisms, showing how the symbols of quantity can be separated from those of operation. With Boole in 1847 and 1854 began the algebra of logic, or what is now called Boolean algebra. Boole’s original and remarkable general symbolic method of logical inference, fully stated in Laws of Thought (1854), enables one, given any propositions involving any number of terms, to draw conclusions that are logically contained in the premises. Boole’s abstruse reasoning has led to applications of which he never dreamed—for example, telephone switching and electronic computers use binary digits and logical elements that rely on Boolean logic for their design and operation. He also attempted a general method in probabilities, which would make it possible from the given probabilities of any system of events to determine the consequent probability of any other event logically connected with the given events.
In 1857 Boole was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. The influential A Treatise on Differential Equations appeared in 1859 and was followed the next year by its sequel, A Treatise on the Calculus of Finite Differences. Used as textbooks for many years, these works embody an elaboration of Boole’s more important discoveries.
Boole contracted pneumonia after walking three miles from his home to Queen’s College in a rainstorm on November 24, 1864. He died on December 8.
This article was most recently revised and updated by Erik Gregersen, Senior Editor.
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Abdüsselam : ( 1926 - ) Pakistanlı Fizik Bilgini İlk nobel ödülü alan müslüman bilim adamı.
Ahmed Bin Musa : ( 10. yüzyıl ) Sistem mühendisliğinin Öncüsü. Astronom ve Mekanikçi.
Akşemseddin : ( 1389 - 1459 ) Pasteur'den önce Mikrobu bulan ilk bilim adamı. İstanbulun fethinin manevi babasıdır. Fatih sultan Mehmet' in Hocasıdır
Ali Bin Abbas : ( ? - 994 ) 1000 sene önce ilk kanser ameliyatını yapan bilim adamı. Kılcal damar sitemini ilk defa ortaya atan bilim adamıdır. Eski çağın en büyük hekimlerinden olan hipokratesin (Hipokrat) Doğum olayı görüşünü kökünden yıktı.
Ali Bin İsa : ( 11. yüzyıl ) İlk defa göz hastalıkları hakkında eser veren müslüman bilim adamı.
Ali Bin Rıdvan : ( ? - 1067 ) Batıya tedavi metodlarını öğreten islam alimi.
Ali Kuşçu : ( ? - 1474 ) Ünlü Bir türk astronomi ve matematik bilginidir.
Ammar : ( 11 yüzyıl ) İlk katarak ameliyatını kendine has biçimde yapan müslüman bilim adamı.
Battani : ( 858 - 929 ) Dünyanın en meşhur 20 astrononumdan biri trigonometrinin mucidi, sinus ve kosinüs tabirlerini kullanan ilk bilgin.
Beyruni : ( 973 - 1051 ) Dünyanın döndüğünü ilk bulan bilim adamı ümit burnu, amerika ve japonyanın varlığından bahseden ilk bilim adamı. Beyruni amerika kıtasının varlığını kristof colomb'un Keşfinden 500 sene önce bildirmiştir. Matematik, Jeoloji, Coğrafya, Tıp, Felsefe, Fizik, Astronomi gibi dallarda eserler yazmıştır. Çağın En Büyük Alimidir.
Bitruci : ( 13. yüzyıl ) Kopernik'e yol açan öncülük eden astronom bilim adamı.
Cabir Bin Eflah : ( 12. yüzyıl ) Ortaçağın büyük matematik ve astronom bilginidir . Çubuklu güneş saatini bulan ilk bilim adamıdır.
Cabir Bin Hayyan : ( 721 - 805 ) Atom bombası fikrinin ilk mucidi ve kimyanın babası sayılır. Maddenin en Küçük parçası atomun parçalana bileciğini bundan 1200 sene önce söylemiştir.
Cahiz : ( 776 - 869 ) Zooloji İlminin öncülerindendir. Hayvan gübresinden amonyak elde etmiştir.
Cezeri : ( 1136 - 1206 ) İlk sistem mühendisi ve ilk sibernetikçi ve elektronikçi Bilgisayarın babası oysa bilgisayarın babası yanlış olarak ingiliz matematikçisi Charles Babbage olarak bilinir..
Demiri : ( 1349 - 1405 )Avrupalılardan 400 yıl önce ilk zooloji ansiklopedisini yazan alimdir . Hayatül hayavan isimli kitabı yazmıştır.
Dinaveri : ( 815 - 895 ) Botanikçi Ve astronom bir alim olarak bilinir.
Ebu Kamil Şuca : ( ? - 951 ) Avrupaya matematiği öğreten islam bilgini.
Ebu'l Fida : ( 1271 - 1331 ) Büyük Bir bilgin tarihçi ve coğrafyacıdır.
Ebu'l Vefa : ( 940 - 998 ) Matematik ve Astronomi bilginidir trigonometriye tanjant, kotanjant, sekant ve kosekantı kazandıran matematik bilginidir.
Ebu Maşer : ( 785 - 886 ) Med-cezir olayını (gel-git) ilk keşfeden bilgindir.
Evliya Çelebi : ( 1611 - 1682 ) Büyük Türk seyyahı ve meşhur seyahatnamenin yazarıdır.
Farabi : ( 870 - 950 ) Ses olayını ilk defa fiziki yönden ele alıp açıklayıp izah getiren ilk bilgindir.
Fatih Sultan Mehmet : ( 1432 - 1481 ) İstanbulu feth eden ve Havan topunu icad eden yivli topları döktüren padişahtır fatihin kendi icadı olan ve adı "şahi" olan topların ağırlığı 17 ton ve bakırdan dökülmüş olup 1.5 ton ağırlığındaki mermileri 1 km ileriye atabiliyordu bu topları 100 öküz ve 700 asker ancak çekebiliyordu..
Fergani : ( 9. yüzyıl ) Ekliptik meyli ilk defa tesbit eden astronomi alimi.
Gıyasüddin Cemşid : ( ? - 1429 ) Matematik alimi. Ondalık kesir sistemini bulan çemşid cebir ve astronomi alimi.
Harizmi : ( 780 - 850 ) İlk cebir kitabını yazan ve batıya cebiri öğreten bilgin. Adı algoritmaya isim oldu rakamları Avrupa' ya öğreten bilgin. Cebiri sistemleştiren Bilgin.
Hasan Bin Musa : ( - ) Dünyanın çevresini ölçen, üç kardeşler olarak bilinen üç kardeşten biri..
Hazini : ( 6 - 7 yüzyıl ) Yerçekimi ve terazilerle ilgili izahlarda bulunan bilgin.
Hazerfen Ahmed Çelebi : ( 17. yüzyıl ) Havada uçan ilk Türk. Planörcülüğün öncüsü.
Huneyn Bin İshak : ( 809 - 873 ) Göz doktorlarına öncülük yapan bilgin.
İbni Avvam : ( 8. yüzyıl ) Tarım alanında ortaçağ boyunca kendini kabul ettiren bilgin.
İbni Battuta : ( 1304 - 1369 ) Ülke ülke , kıta kıta dolaşan büyük bir seyyah.
İbni Baytar : ( 1190 - 1248 ) Ortaçağın en büyük botanikçisi ve eczacısıdır.
İbni Cessar : ( ? - 1009 ) Cüzzam hastalığının sebeb ve tedavilerini 900 sene önce açıklayan müslüman doktor.
İbni Ebi Useybia : ( 1203 - 1270 ) Tıp Tarihi hakkında eşsiz bir eser veren doktor.
İbni Fazıl : ( 739 - 805 ) 12 asır önce ilk kağıt fabrikasını kuran vezir.
İbni Firnas : ( ? - 888 ) Wright kardeşlerden önce 1000 sene önce ilk uçağı yapıp uçmayı gerçekleştiren alim.
İbni Haldun : ( 1332 - 1406 ) Tarihi ilim haline getiren sosyolojiyi kuran mütefekkir. Psikolojiyi tarihe uygulamış, ilk defa tarih felsefesi yapan büyük bir islam tarihçisidir. Sosyolog ve şehircilik uzmanı.
İbni Hatip : ( 1313 - 1374 ) Vebanın bulaşıcı hastalık olduğunu ilmi yoldan açıklayan doktor.
İbni Havkal : ( 10. yüzyıl ) 10 asır önce ilmi değeri yüksek bir coğrafya kitabı yazan alim.
İbni Heysem : ( 965 - 1051 ) Optik ilminin kurucusu büyük fizikçi. İslam dünyasının en büyük fizikçisi, batılı bilginlerin öncüsü, göz ve görme sistemlerine açıklık kazandıran alim. Galile teleskopunun arkasındaki isim.
İbni Karaka : ( ? - 1100 ) Dokuzyüz yıl önce torna tezgahı yapan bilgin.
İbni Macit : ( 15. yüzyıl ) Ünlü bir denizci ve coğrafyacı. Vasco da Gama onun bilgilerinden ve rehberliğinden istifade ederek hindistana ulaştı.
İbni Rüşd : ( 1126 - 1198 ) Büyük bir doktor, astronom ve matematikçidir.
İbni Sina : ( 980 - 1037 ) Doktorların sultanı. Eserleri Avrupa üniversitelerinde 600 sene temel kitap olarak okutulan dahi doktor. Hastalık yayan küçük organizmalar, civa ile tedavi, pastör' e ışık tutması, ilaç bilim ustası, dış belirtilere dayanarak teşhis koyma, botanik ve zooloji ile ilgilendi, Fizikle ilgilendi, jeoloji ilminin babası.
İbni Türk : ( 9. yüzyıl ) Cebirin temelini atan islam bilgini.
İbni Yunus : ( ? - 1009 ) Galile'den önce sarkacı bulan astronom.
İbni Zuhr : ( 1091 - 1162 ) Endülüsün en büyük müslüman doktorlarından asırlarca Avrupa'da eserleri ders kitabı olarak okutuldu.
İbnünnefis : ( 1210 - 1288 ) Küçük kan dolaşımını bulan ünlü islam alimi.
İbrahim Efendi : ( 18. yüzyıl )Osmanlılarda ilk denizaltıyı gerçekleştiren mühendis.
İbrahim Hakkı : ( 1703 - 1780 ) Büyük bir sosyolog, psikolog, astronom ve fen adamı. En ünlü eseri marifetnâme, Burçlardan, insan fizyoloji ve anatomisinden bahsetmiştir.
İdrisi : ( 1100 - 1166 ) Yedi asır önce bügünküne çok benzeyen dünya haritasını çizen coğrafyacı.
İhvanü-s Safa : ( 10. yüzyıl ) çeşitli ilim dallarını içine alan 52 kitaptan meydana gelen bir ansiklopedi yazan ilim adamı. Astronomi , Coğrafya, Musiki, Ahlâk, Felfese kitapları yazmıştır.
İsmail Gelenbevi : ( 1730 - 1791 ) 18 yüzyılda osmanlıların en güçlü matematikçilerinden.
İstahri : ( 10. yüzyıl ) Minyatürlü coğrafya kitabı yazan bilgin.
Kadızade Rumi : ( 1337 - 1430 ) Çağını aşan büyük bir matematikçi ve astronomi bilgini. Osmanlının ve Türklerin ilk astronomudur.
Kambur Vesim : ( ? - 1761 ) Verem mikrobunu Robert Koch'dan 150 sene önce keşfeden ünlü doktor.
Katip Çelebi : ( 1609 - 1657 ) Osmalılarda rönesansın müjdecisi coğrafyacı ve fikir adamı.
Kazvini : ( 1203 - 1283 ) Ortaçağın Herodot'u müslümanların Plinius'u , astronom ve coğrafyacı bilgin.
Kemaleddin Farisi : ( ? - 1320 ) İbni Heysem ayarında büyük islam matematikçisi, fizikçi ve astronom.
Kerhi : ( ? - 1029 ) İslam Matematikçilerinden.
Kindi : ( 803 - 872 ) İbni Heysem'e kadar optikle ilgili eserleri kaynak olan bilgin. Fizik, felsefe ve matematik alanında yaptığı hizmetleri ile tanınmıştır.
Kurşunoğlu Behram : ( 1922 - ? ) Genelleştirilmiş izafiyet teorisini ortaya atan beyin güçlerimizden. Halen prof. Behram Kurşunoğlu Amerika da florida üniversitesinde teorik fizik merkezinde başkanlık yapmaktadır.
Lagarî Hasan Çelebi : ( 17. yüzyıl ) Füzeciliğin atası, osmanlılarda ilk defa füze ile uçan bilgin.
Macriti : ( ? - 1007 ) Matematikte başkan kabul edilen Endülüslü Matematikçi ve astronom.
Mağribi : ( 16. yüzyıl ) Çağının en büyük matematikçilerinden . Mağribinin eseri olan Tuhfetü'l Ada isimli kitabında üçgen, dörtgen, daire ve diğer geometrik şekillerinin yüz ölçümlerini bulmak için metodlar gösterilmiştir.
Maaşallah : ( ? - 815 ) Meşhur islam astronomlarındandır. Usturlabla İlgili ilk eseri veren bilgindir.
Mes'ûdi : ( ? - 956 ) Kıymeti ancak 18. 19. Yüzyıllarda anlaşılan büyük tarihçi ve coğrafyacı. Mesudi günümüzden 1000 sene önce depremlerin oluş sebebini açıklamıştır. Mesûdinin eserlerinden yel değirmenlerinin de müslümanların icadı olduğu anlaşılmıştır.
Mimar Sinan : ( 1489 - 1588 ) Seviyesine bugün dahi ulaşılamayan dahi mimar. Mimar Sinan tam manası ile bir sanat dahisidir.
Muhammed Bin Musa : ( 9. yüzyıl ) Dünyanın Çevresini ölçen 3 kardeşten biri. Matematikçi ve astronom.
Mürsiyeli İbrahim : ( 15. yüzyıl ) Piri reisten 52 sene önce bugünkü uygun Akdeniz haritasını çizen haritacı. Günümüzden 500 sene önce kadar önce yaşamıştır.
Nasirüddin Tusi : ( 1201 - 1274 ) Trigonometri sahasında ilk defa eser veren, Merağa rasathanesini kuran, matematikçi ve astronom.
Necmeddinü-l Mısri : ( 13 yüzyıl ) Çağının ünlü astronomlarından.
Ömer Hayyam : ( ? - 1123 ) Cebirdeki binom formülünü bulan bilgin. Newton veya binom formülünün keşfi ömer hayyama aittir.
Piri Reis : ( 1465 - 1554 ) 400 sene önce bu günküne çok yakın dünya haritasını çizen büyük coğrafyacı. Amerika kıtasının varlığını kristof kolomb 'dan önce bilen ünlü denizci.
Razi : ( 864 - 925 ) Keşifleri ile ün salan asırlar boyunca Avrupa'ya ders veren kimyager doktor ünlü klinikçi. Devrinin En büyük bilgini İbni Sina ile aynı ayarda bir bilgin.
Sabit Bin Kurra : ( ? - 901 ) Newton' dan çok önce diferansiyel hesabını keşfeden bilgin. Dünyanın çapını doğru olarak hesaplayan ilk islam bilgini. Matemetik ve astronomi alimi.
Sabuncu Oğlu Şerefeddin : ( 1386 - 1470 ) Fatih devrinin ünlü doktor ve cerrahlarındandır. Deneysel fizyolojinin öncülerindendir.
Seydi Ali Reis : ( ? - 1562 ) Ünlü bir denizci, matematik ve astronomi alimidir.
Şemsettin Halili : ( ? - 1397 ) Büyük bir astronomi bilginidir.
Şihabettin Karafi : ( ? - 1285 ) orta çağın en büyük fizikçi ve hukukçularından.
Takiyyüddin Er Rasit : ( 1521 - 1585 ) İstanbul rasathanesi ilk kuran çağından çok ileride asrın önde gelen astronomi alimidir.
Uluğ Bey : ( 1394 -1449 ) Çağının en büyük astronomu ve trigonometride yeni çığır açan ünlü bir alim ve hükümdar.
Zehravi : ( 936 -1013 ) 1000 sene önce ilk çağdaş ameliyatı yapan böbrek taşlarının nasıl çıkarılacağını ve ilk böbrek ameliyatını gerçekleştiren bilim adamı..
Zerkali : ( 1029 - 1087 ) Keşif ve hizmetleri ile ün salmış astronomi alimidir.
Facts About the Americans with Disabilities Act
Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 prohibits private employers, state and local governments, employment agencies and labor unions from discriminating against qualified individuals with disabilities in job application procedures, hiring, firing, advancement, compensation, job training, and other terms, conditions, and privileges of employment. The ADA covers employers with 15 or more employees, including state and local governments. It also applies to employment agencies and to labor organizations. The ADA's nondiscrimination standards also apply to federal sector employees under section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act, as amended, and its implementing rules.
An individual with a disability is a person who:
- Has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities
- Has a record of such an impairment or
- Is regarded as having such an impairment.
A qualified employee or applicant with a disability is an individual who, with or without reasonable accommodation, can perform the essential functions of the job in question. Reasonable accommodation may include, but is not limited to:
- Making existing facilities used by employees readily accessible to and usable by persons with disabilities.
- Job restructuring, modifying work schedules, reassignment to a vacant position
- Acquiring or modifying equipment or devices, adjusting or modifying examinations, training materials, or policies, and providing qualified readers or interpreters.
An employer is required to make a reasonable accommodation to the known disability of a qualified applicant or employee if it would not impose an "undue hardship" on the operation of the employer's business. Reasonable accommodations are adjustments or modifications provided by an employer to enable people with disabilities to enjoy equal employment opportunities. Accommodations vary depending upon the needs of the individual applicant or employee. Not all people with disabilities (or even all people with the same disability) will require the same accommodation. For example:
- A deaf applicant may need a sign language interpreter during the job interview.
- An employee with diabetes may need regularly scheduled breaks during the workday to eat properly and monitor blood sugar and insulin levels.
- A blind employee may need someone to read information posted on a bulletin board.
- An employee with cancer may need leave to have radiation or chemotherapy treatments.
An employer does not have to provide a reasonable accommodation if it imposes an "undue hardship." Undue hardship is defined as an action requiring significant difficulty or expense when considered in light of factors such as an employer's size, financial resources, and the nature and structure of its operation.
An employer is not required to lower quality or production standards to make an accommodation nor is an employer obligated to provide personal use items such as glasses or hearing aids.
An employer generally does not have to provide a reasonable accommodation unless an individual with a disability has asked for one. if an employer believes that a medical condition is causing a performance or conduct problem, it may ask the employee how to solve the problem and if the employee needs a reasonable accommodation. Once a reasonable accommodation is requested, the employer and the individual should discuss the individual's needs and identify the appropriate reasonable accommodation. Where more than one accommodation would work, the employer may choose the one that is less costly or that is easier to provide.
Title I of the ADA also covers:
- Medical Examinations and Inquiries
Employers may not ask job applicants about the existence, nature, or severity of a disability. Applicants may be asked about their ability to perform specific job functions. A job offer may be conditioned on the results of a medical examination, but only if the examination is required for all entering employees in similar jobs. Medical examinations of employees must be job related and consistent with the employer's business needs.
It is also unlawful to retaliate against an individual for opposing employment practices that discriminate based on disability or for filing a discrimination charge, testifying, or participating in any way in an investigation, proceeding, or litigation under the ADA.
Federal Tax Incentives to Encourage the Employment of People with Disabilities and to Promote the Accessibility of Public Accommodations
Definition of Disability
Under most employment legislation, such as Age Discrimination in Employment Act or Title VII, it is fairly obvious whether a person is a part of a protected class. However, under the ADA, it is a bit more complicated to determine whether a person is part of a protected class.
The ADA has a three-pronged definition of disability. If any of the three prongs are satisfied, the individual counts as disabled. The definition of disability of the ADA is based on the Rehabilitation Act's definition of "handicap." A judgment under the Rehabilitation Act or the ADA is considered a precedent for the other.
The ADA's first definition of disability states that a disabled person is someone who has a mental or physical impairment that prevents participation in major life activities. If an individual has a record or history of such an impairment, he is considered disabled. Finally, if the individual is regarded as having a mental or physical impairment, the individual is considered disabled under the ADA's first definition of disability.
The ADA defines a physical impairment as a physiological disorder or condition, anatomical loss, or cosmetic disfigurement that impacts one or more of these body systems:
- Special-sense organs
- Hemic and lymphatic
The ADA defines a mental impairment as any psychological or mental disorder, such as emotional or mental illness, mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, and learning disabilities. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and ADA regulations do not offer a list of all the specific conditions that are considered impairments because it is difficult to be comprehensive. Also, it will be difficult to include new disorders that may develop in the future.
The ADA did include examples of covered mental and physical impairments. Some of these impairments include:
- Muscular dystrophy
- Orthopedic, speech, and hearing impairments
- Visual impairments
- Heart disease
- Cerebral palsy
- Mental retardation
- Drug addiction
- Specific learning disabilities
Cancer, Multiple Sclerosis, and other serious impairments are not considered disabilities.
Under the ADA, an impairment needs to be a physiological or mental disorder. Depression, stress, and similar conditions are only sometimes considered impairments under the ADA. Whether depression and stress are considered impairments depends on if they result from a documented mental or physiological disorder or if they result from personal life or job pressures. The impairment must substantially limit at least one major life activity.
If you want to learn more about the list of disabilities covered under ADA, you can post your legal need on UpCounsel’s marketplace. UpCounsel accepts only the top 5 percent of lawyers to its site. Lawyers on UpCounsel come from law schools such as Harvard Law and Yale Law and average 14 years of legal experience, including work with or on behalf of companies like Google, Menlo Ventures, and Airbnb.
In October 1891, two years before the Warm Springs home for orphans, the Statesman reported the tragedy that “six unfortunate children had been thrown upon the county.” The six, called the Jewett children, had been discovered in squalor among transients from Iowa and Montana in a muddy shanty near Five Mile Road. Their mother had deserted her husband and run off with her brother-in-law.
Three others sent to the poor farm that same October were the Neal children of North End’s Arnold Addition. Elvira Neal, age 3, had been discovered with two young siblings, asleep on a soiled couch. Their mother was denounced as “depraved” their father, a “half-crazed” prisoner in the county jail.
In the women’s ward, meanwhile, a young mother named Rose Storms cared for her infant daughter. From Minnesota, Storms had taken the train to Boise to wait for a suitor who never arrived. Storms and the infant joined 23 others at the Ada poor farm. One elderly man was said to have been a protester in Jacob Coxey’s “army,” a tattered march of the unemployed on the U.S. Capitol Building. Another was Cornelius Sproule of Nampa, who was suspected of being insane.
The History of the Americans with Disabilities Act
The history of the ADA did not begin on July 26, 1990 at the signing ceremony at the White House. It did not begin in 1988 when the first ADA was introduced in Congress. The ADA story began a long time ago in cities and towns throughout the United States when people with disabilities began to challenge societal barriers that excluded them from their communities, and when parents of children with disabilities began to fight against the exclusion and segregation of their children. It began with the establishment of local groups to advocate for the rights of people with disabilities. It began with the establishment of the independent living movement which challenged the notion that people with disabilities needed to be institutionalized, and which fought for and provided services for people with disabilities to live in the community.
The ADA owes its birthright not to any one person, or any few, but to the many thousands of people who make up the disability rights movement – people who have worked for years organizing and attending protests, licking envelopes, sending out alerts, drafting legislation, speaking, testifying, negotiating, lobbying, filing lawsuits, being arrested – doing whatever they could for a cause they believed in. There are far too many people whose commitment and hard work contributed to the passage of this historic piece of disability civil rights legislation to be able to give appropriate credit by name. Without the work of so many – without the disability rights movement – there would be no ADA.
The disability rights movement, over the last couple of decades, has made the injustices faced by people with disabilities visible to the American public and to politicians. This required reversing the centuries long history of “out of sight, out of mind” that the segregation of disabled people served to promote. The disability rights movement adopted many of the strategies of the civil rights movements before it.
Like the African-Americans who sat in at segregated lunch counters and refused to move to the back of the bus, people with disabilities sat in federal buildings, obstructed the movement of inaccessible buses, and marched through the streets to protest injustice. And like the civil rights movements before it, the disability rights movement sought justice in the courts and in the halls of Congress.
From a legal perspective, a profound and historic shift in disability public policy occurred in 1973 with the passage of Section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act. Section 504, which banned discrimination on the basis of disability by recipients of federal funds, was modelled after previous laws which banned race, ethnic origin and sex based discrimination by federal fund recipients.
For the first time, the exclusion and segregation of people with disabilities was viewed as discrimination. Previously, it had been assumed that the problems faced by people with disabilities, such as unemployment and lack of education, were inevitable consequences of the physical or mental limitations imposed by the disability itself. Enactment of Section 504 evidenced Congress’ recognition that the inferior social and economic status of people with disabilities was not a consequence of the disability itself, but instead was a result of societal barriers and prejudices. As with racial minorities and women, Congress recognized that legislation was necessary to eradicate discriminatory policies and practices.
Section 504 was also historic because for the first time people with disabilities were viewed as a class – a minority group. Previously, public policy had been characterized by addressing the needs of particular disabilities by category based on diagnosis. Each disability group was seen as separate, with differing needs. Section 504 recognized that while there are major physical and mental variations in different disabilities, people with disabilities as a group faced similar discrimination in employment, education and access to society. People with disabilities were seen as a legitimate minority, subject to discrimination and deserving of basic civil rights protections. This “class status” concept has been critical in the development of the movement and advocacy efforts. The coalition of people with disabilities has been constantly put to the test by attempts to remove protections for particular groups. The history of the ADA is a testament to the movement’s commitment to solidarity among people with different disabilities.
After Section 504 established the fundamental civil right of non-discrimination in 1973, the next step was to define what non-discrimination meant in the context of disability. How was it the same or different from race and sex discrimination? The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) had been given the task of promulgating regulations to implement Section 504, which would serve as guidelines for all other federal agencies. These regulations became the focus of attention for the disability rights movement for the next four years. During this time the movement grew in sophistication, skill and visibility. The first task was to assure that the regulations provided meaningful anti-discrimination protections. It was not enough to remove policy barriers – it was imperative that the regulations mandated affirmative conduct to remove architectural and communication barriers and provide accommodations.
The second step was to force a recalcitrant agency to get the regulations out. All over the country people with disabilities sat-in at HEW buildings. The longest sit-in was in San Francisco, lasting 28 days. A lawsuit was filed, hearings before Congress were organized, testimony was delivered to Congressional committees, negotiations were held, letters were written. The disability community mobilized a successful campaign using a variety of strategies, and on May 4, 1977 the Section 504 regulations were issued. It is these regulations which form the basis of the ADA. In the early 1980’s the disability community was called upon to defend the hard-fought-for Section 504 regulations from attack. After taking office President Reagan established the Task Force on Regulatory Relief under the leadership of then Vice President George Bush. The mission of the Task Force was to “de-regulate” regulations which were burdensome on businesses. The Section 504 regulations were chosen for “de-regulation.” This news sent a current throughout the disability movement across the country, which quickly mobilized a multi-tier strategy to preserve the regulations.
For two years, representatives from the disability community met with Administration officials to explain why all of the various de-regulation proposals must not be adopted. These high level meetings would not have continued or been successful without the constant bombardment of letters to the White House from people with disabilities and parents of children with disabilities around the country protesting any attempt to de-regulate Section 504.
After a remarkable show of force and commitment by the disability community, the Administration announced a halt to all attempts to de-regulate Section 504. This was a tremendous victory for the disability movement. Those two years proved to be invaluable in setting the stage for the ADA. Not only were the Section 504 regulations, which form the basis of the ADA, preserved, but it was at this time that high officials of what later became the Bush administration received an education on the importance of the concepts of non-discrimination contained in the Section 504 regulations in the lives of people with disabilities.
During much of the 1980’s, the disability community’s efforts in Washington were focused on reinstating civil rights protections which had been stripped away by negative Supreme Court decisions. The longest legislative battle was fought over the Civil Rights Restoration Act (CRRA), first introduced in 1984 and finally passed in 1988. The CRRA sought to overturn Grove City College v Bell, a Supreme Court decision that had significantly restricted the reach of all the statutes prohibiting race, ethnic origin, sex or disability discrimination by recipients of federal fund. Because the court decision affected all of these constituencies, the effort to overturn the decision required a coalition effort. For the first time, representatives of the disability community worked in leadership role s with representatives of minority and woman’s groups on a major piece of civil rights legislation.
Working in coalition again, in 1988, the civil rights community amended the Fair Housing Act (FHA) to improve enforcement mechanisms, and for the first time disability anti-discrimination provisions were included in a traditional civil rights statute banning race discrimination. During these years working on the CRRA and the FHA, alliances were forged within the civil rights community that became critical in the fight for passage of the ADA. Because of its commitment to disability civil rights, the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights played an important leadership role in securing passage of the ADA.
During the 1980’s, it also became clear to the disability community that it should play a very active role in Supreme Court litigation under Section 504. The first Section 504 case which was decided by the Supreme Court in 1979, Southeastern Community College v. Davis, 442 U.S.397, revealed at best, a lack of understanding, and at worst, a hostility toward even applying the concept of discrimination to exclusion based on disability. In that case, a hearing impaired women was seeking admission to the nursing program of Southeastern Community College. The court found that Ms. Davis’s hearing impairment rendered her unqualified to participate in the program because she would not be able to fully fulfill all of the clinical requirements. However, the Court did not limit itself to the fate= of Ms. Davis, but included within the decision several very broad negative interpretations of Section 504. In fact, the Davis’s decision cast doubt on whether those entities covered by Section 504 would be required to take any affirmative steps to accommodate the needs of persons with disabilities. Contrary to established Court doctrine, the Section 504 regulations that had been issued by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) were given little deference by the Court. Ironically the Court attributed this lack of deference to the fact that HEW had been recalcitrant in issuing the regulations.
After the Davis decision it was clear that the Supreme Court needed to be educated on the issue of disability based discrimination and the role that it plays in people lives. Moreover, it was clear to the disability community that the focus of its efforts in any future Supreme Court litigation must be to reinforce the validity of the 1977 HEW regulations. In the next case to be granted review by the Supreme Court, Consolidated Rail Corporation v. Darrone, 465 U.S.624(1984), the disability community focused its efforts on educating the Court and bolstering the validity of the HEW Regulations interpreting Section 504. The issue in Consolidated Rail Corporations was whether employment discrimination was covered by the anti-discrimination provisions of Section 504. In order to educate the court on the pervasive role of discrimination in the un-employment and under-employment of persons with disabilities, the Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund filed an amicus brief on behalf of 63 national, state and local organizations dedicated to securing the civil rights of persons with disabilities. This amicus brief served not only to educate the courts on discriminatory employment policies and practices, but also to demonstrate to the Court that these issues concern the millions of Americans who were affiliated with the organizations who filed the brief. DREDF also worked very closely with the lawyer representing the disabled person in the lawsuit in order to present to the court the very best legal arguments on the validity of the 1977 HEW regulations which had found that employment discrimination was covered by provision of Section 504. The decision in Consolidated Rail Corporation v. Darrone marked a significant victory for the disability rights community. The court found that employment discrimination was in fact prohibited by Section 504, but equally importantly the Court found that the regulations issued in 1977 by HEW were entitled to great deference by the courts. It is these regulations which were elevated by the Court in Consolidated Rail Corporation which formed the basis of the ADA.
The disability community continued its active involvement in Section 504 cases in the Supreme Court throughout the 1980’s. In 1987, the Court was presented with the issue of whether people with contagious diseases are covered by Section 504. Although the case involved a women with tuberculosis, it became clear through out the country that and the court’s decision in this case would be critical for protection against discrimination by people with HIV infection. The disability rights community worked closely with the lawyers representing the woman with tuberculous as well as filing numerous amicus briefs in the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court’s decision in School Board of Nassau County v. Arline, 480 U.S.273,(1987), became the foundation for coverage of people with AIDS under Section 504 and the ADA. Working on the Arline case also provided a critical opportunity for lawyers in the disability rights community and lawyers in the AIDS community to work closely together and form alliances that would carry through and prove to be critical in the battle to secure passage of the ADA.
During the 1980’s the disability community was also successful in overturning by legislation several disability – specific negative Supreme Court rulings. Legislation was passed to reinstate the coverage of anti-discrimination provisions to all airlines, the right to sue states for violations of Section 504, and the right of parents to recover attorney fees under the Education for Handicapped Children’s Act (now called IDEA). These legislative victories further advanced the reputation of the disability community and its advocates in Congress. The respect for the legal, organizing, and negotiations skills gained during these legislative efforts formed the basis of the working relationships with members of Congress and officials of the Administration, that proved indispensable in passing the ADA. Whether by friend or foe, the disability community was taken seriously – it had become a political force to be contended with in Congress, in the voting booth, and in the media.
The ADA, as we know it today, went through numerous drafts, revisions, negotiations, and amendments since the first version was introduced in 1988. Spurred by a draft bill prepared by the National Council on Disability, an independent federal agency whose members were appointed by President Reagan, Senator Weicker and Representative Coelho introduced the first version of the ADA in April 1988 in the 100th Congress.
The disability community began to educate people with disabilities about the ADA and to gather evidence to support the need for broad anti-discrimination protections. A national campaign was initiated to write “discrimination diaries.” People with disabilities were asked to document daily instances of inaccessibility and discrimination. The diaries served not only as testimonials of discrimination, but also to raise consciousness about the barriers to daily living which were simply tolerated as a part of life. Justin Dart, Chair of the Congressional Task Force on the Rights and Empowerment of People with Disabilities, traversed the country holding public hearings which were attended by thousands of people with disabilities, friends, and families documenting the injustice of discrimination in the lives of people with disabilities.
In September 1988, a joint hearing was held before the Senate Subcommittee on Disability Policy and the House Subcommittee on Select Education. Witnesses with a wide variety of disabilities, such as blindness, deafness, Down’s Syndrome and HIV infection, as well as parents of disabled children testified about architectural and communication barriers and the pervasiveness of stereotyping and prejudice. A room which seated over 700 people overflowed with persons with disabilities, parents and advocates. After the hearing, a commitment was made by Senator Kennedy, Chair of the Labor and Human Resources Committee, Senator Harkin, Chair of the Subcommittee on Disability Policy, and Representative Owens of the House Subcommittee on Select Education, that a comprehensive disability civil rights bill would be a top priority for the next Congress. At the same time, both presidential candidates, Vice President Bush and Governor Dukakis, endorsed broad civil rights protections for people with disabilities. The disability community was determined to assure that President Bush would make good on his campaign promise, and reinvoked it repeatedly during the legislative process.
On May 9, 1989 Senators Harkin and Durrenberger and Representatives Coelho and Fish jointly introduced the new ADA in the 101st Congress. From that moment, the disability community mobilized, organizing a multi-layered strategy for passage. A huge coalition was assembled by the Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities (CCD), which included disability organizations, the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR), and an array of religious, labor and civic organizations.
A team of lawyers and advocates worked on drafting and on the various and complex legal issues that were continually arising top level negotiators and policy analysts strategized with members of Congress and their staffs disability organizations informed and rallied their members a lobbying system was developed using members of the disability community from around the country witnesses came in from all over the country to testify before Congressional committees lawyers and others prepared written answers to the hundreds of questions posed by members of Congress and by businesses task forces were formed networks were established to evoke responses from the community by telephone or mail protests were planned – the disability rights movement coalesced around this goal: passage of the ADA. From the beginning the “class” concept prevailed – groups representing specific disabilities and specialized issues vowed to work on all of the issues affecting all persons with disabilities. This commitment was constantly put to the test. The disability community as a whole resisted any proposals made by various members of Congress to exclude people with AIDS or mental illness or to otherwise narrow the class of people covered. Even at the eleventh hour, after two years of endless work and a Senate and House vote in favor of the Act, the disability community held fast with the AIDS community to eliminate an amendment which would have excluded food-handlers with AIDS, running the risk of indefinitely postponing the passage or even losing the bill. Likewise, all of the groups, whether it was an issue particularly affecting their constituencies or not, held fast against amendments to water down the transportation provisions. The underlying principle of the ADA was to extend the basic civil rights protections extended to minorities and women to people with disabilities. The 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibited employment discrimination by the private sector against women and racial and ethnic minorities, and banned discrimination against minorities in public accommodations. Before the ADA, no federal law prohibited private sector discrimination against people with disabilities, absent a federal grant or contract.
The job of the disability rights movement during the ADA legislative process was to demonstrate to Congress and the American people the need for comprehensive civil rights protections to eradicate fundamental injustice -to demonstrate not only how this injustice harms the individual subjected to it, but also how it harms our society.
The first hearing in the 101st Senate on the new ADA was an historic event and set the tone for future hearings and lobbying efforts. It was kicked off by the primary sponsors talking about their personal experiences with disability. Senator Harkin spoke of his brother who is deaf, Senator Kennedy of his son, who has a leg amputation, and Representative Coelho, who has epilepsy spoke about how the discrimination he faced almost destroyed him.
The witnesses spoke of their own experiences with discrimination. A young woman who has cerebral palsy, told the Senators about a local movie theater that would not let her attend because of her disability. When her mother called the theater to protest that this attitude “sounded like discrimination,” the theater owner stated “I don’t care what it sounds like.” This story became a symbol for the ADA and was mentioned throughout the floor debates and at the signing. The members and the President related this story to demonstrate that America “does care what it sounds like” and will no longer tolerate this type of discrimination.
A Viet Nam veteran who had been paralyzed during the war and came home using a wheelchair testified that when he got home and couldn’t get out of his housing project, or on the bus, or off the curb because of inaccessibility, and couldn’t get a job because of discrimination he realized he had fought for everyone but himself – and he vowed to fight tirelessly for passage of the ADA. The President of Galludet College, gave compelling testimony about what life is like for someone who is deaf, faced with pervasive communication barriers. The audience was filled with Galludet students who waved their hands in approval.
The committee also received boxes loaded with thousands of letters and pieces of testimony that had been gathered in hearings across the country the summer before from people whose lives had been damaged or destroyed by discrimination.
A woman testified that when she lost her breast to cancer, she also lost her job and could not find another one as a person with a history of cancer. Parents whose small child had died of AIDS testified about how they couldn’t find any undertaker that would bury their child.
At this Senate hearing and in all the many hearings in the House, members of Congress heard from witnesses who told their stories of discrimination. With each story, the level of consciousness was raised and the level of tolerance to this kind of injustice was lowered. The stories did not end in the hearing room. People with disabilities came from around the country to talk to members of Congress, to advocate for the Bill, to explain why each provision was necessary, to address a very real barrier or form of discrimination. Individuals came in at their own expense, slept on floors by night and visited Congressional offices by day. People who couldn’t come to Washington told their stories in letters, attended town meetings and made endless phone calls.
And it was a long haul. After the spectacular Senate vote of 76 to 8 on September 7,1989, the Bill went to the House where it was considered by an unprecedented four Committees. Each Committee had at least one subcommittee hearing, and more amendments to be explained, lobbied and defeated. Grass roots organizing became even more important because by this time many business associations had rallied their members to write members of Congress to oppose or weaken the bill. The perseverance and commitment of the disability movement never wavered. Through many moments of high stress and tension, the community stayed unified. For every hearing the hearing room was full and for every proposed amendment to weaken the bill letters poured in and the halls of Congress were canvassed. As the effective date for Title III of the ADA covering Public Accommodations and Title II of the ADA covering State and Local Government passed by on January 26, 1992. As the effective date for the employment provisions in Title I of the ADA approach on July 26, 1992, the awareness of the ADA and its requirements is heightened. For the first time in the history of our country, or the history of the world, businesses must stop and think about access to people with disabilities. If the ADA means anything, it means that people with disabilities will no longer be out of sight and out of mind. The ADA is based on a basic presumption that people with disabilities want to work and are capable of working, want to be members of their communities and are capable of being members of their communities and that exclusion and segregation cannot be tolerated. Accommodating a person with a disability is no longer a matter of charity but instead a basic issue of civil rights.
While some in the media portray this new era as falling from the sky unannounced, the thousands of men and women in the disability rights movement know that these rights were hard fought for and are long overdue. The ADA is radical only in comparison to a shameful history of outright exclusion and segregation of people with disabilities. From a civil rights perspective the Americans with Disabilities Act is a codification of simple justice.
Settlement and history of the British Virgin Islands
Tortola was first settled in 1648 by Dutch buccaneers who held the island until it was taken over in 1666 by a group of English planters. In 1672 Tortola was annexed to the British-administered Leeward Islands. In 1773 the planters were granted civil government, with an elected House of Assembly and a partly elected Legislative Council, and constitutional courts. The abolition of slavery in the first half of the 19th century dealt a heavy blow to the agricultural economy. In 1867 the constitution was surrendered and a legislative council was appointed that lasted until 1902, when sole legislative authority was vested in the governor-in-council. In 1950 a partly elected and partly nominated legislative council was reinstated. Following the defederation of the Leeward Islands colony in 1956 and the abolition of the office of governor in 1960, the islands became a crown colony. In 1958 the West Indies Federation was established, but the British Virgin Islands declined to join, in order to retain close economic ties with the U.S. islands. Under a constitutional order issued in 1967, the islands were given a ministerial form of government. The constitution was amended in 1977 to permit a greater degree of autonomy in internal affairs.
One of the Last Slave Ship Survivors Describes His Ordeal in a 1930s Interview
More than 60 years after the abolition of slavery, anthropologist Zora Neale Hurston made an incredible connection: She located one of the last survivors of the last slave ship to bring captive Africans to the United States.
Hurston, a known figure of the Harlem Renaissance who would later write the novel Their Eyes Were Watching God, conducted interviews with Oluale Kossola (renamed Cudjo Lewis),ut struggled to publish them as a book in the early 1930s. In fact, they were only released to the public in a book called Barracoon: The Story of the Last 𠇋lack Cargo” that came out in May of 2018.
Author Zora Neale Hurston (1903-1960).
Hurston’s book tells the story of Lewis, who was born Oluale Kossola in what is now the West African country of Benin. A member of the Yoruba people, he was only 19 years old when members of the neighboring Dahomian tribe invaded his village, captured him along with others, and marched them to the coast. There, he and about 120 others were sold into slavery and crammed onto the Clotilda, the last slave ship to reach the continental United States.
The Clotilda brought its captives to Alabama in 1860, just a year before the outbreak of the Civil War. Even though slavery was legal at that time in the U.S., the international slave trade was not, and hadn’t been for over 50 years. Along with many European nations, the U.S. had outlawed the practice in 1807, but Lewis’ journey is an example of how slave traders went around the law to continue bringing over human cargo.
To avoid detection, Lewis’ captors snuck him and the other survivors into Alabama at night and made them hide in a swamp for several days. To hide the evidence of their crime, the 86-foot sailboat was then set ablaze on the banks of the Mobile-Tensaw Delta (its remains may have been uncovered in January 2018).
Most poignantly, Lewis’ narrative provides a first-hand account of the disorienting trauma of slavery. After being abducted from his home, Lewis was forced onto a ship with strangers. The abductees spent several months together during the treacherous passage to the United States, but were then separated in Alabama to go to different owners.
A marker to commemorate Cudjo Lewis, considered to be the last surviving victim of the Atlantic slave trade between Africa and the United States, in Mobile, Alabama.
Womump/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 4.0
“We very sorry to be parted from one ’nother,” Lewis told Hurston. “We seventy days cross de water from de Affica soil, and now dey part us from one ’nother. Derefore we cry. Our grief so heavy look lak we cain stand it. I think maybe I die in my sleep when I dream about my mama.”
Lewis also describes what it was like to arrive on a plantation where no one spoke his language, and could explain to him where he was or what was going on. “We doan know why we be bring ’way from our country to work lak dis,” he told Hurston. 𠇎verybody lookee at us strange. We want to talk wid de udder colored folkses but dey doan know whut we say.”
As for the Civil War, Lewis said he wasn’t aware of it when it first started. But part-way through, he began to hear that the North had started a war to free enslaved people like him. A few days after Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered in April 1865, Lewis says that a group of Union soldiers stopped by a boat on which he and other enslaved people were working and told them they were free.
Erik Overbey Collection, The Doy Leale McCall Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of South Alabama
Lewis expected to receive compensation for being kidnapped and forced into slavery, and was angry to discover that emancipation didn’t come with the promise of 𠇏orty acres and a mule,” or any other kind of reparations. Frustrated by the refusal of the government to provide him with land to live on after stealing him away from his homeland, he and a group of 31 other freepeople saved up money to buy land near Mobile, which they called Africatown.
Hurston’s use of vernacular dialogue in both her novels and her anthropological interviews was often controversial, as some black American thinkers at the time argued that this played to black caricatures in the minds of white people. Hurston disagreed, and refused to change Lewis’ dialect—which was one of the reasons a publisher turned her manuscript down back in the 1930s.
Many decades later, her principled stance means that modern readers get to hear Lewis’ story the way that he told it.