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Images of War: US Infantry Weapons of the Second World War, Michael Green


Images of War: US Infantry Weapons of the Second World War, Michael Green

Images of War: US Infantry Weapons of the Second World War, Michael Green

This book covers a wide range of weapons, split into three general categories - individual weapons, crew served weapons and infantry support weapons. The first part looks at weapons including pistols, rifles, sub-machine guns. The section on crew served weapons focuses on the heavier machine guns that required more than one man to operate. The final chapter covers the widest range of topics, including anti-tank guns, bazookas, recoilless rifles, flamethrowers, mortars, infantry support artillery (those that served with Infantry Divisions) and the various armoured vehicles that fought with US Marine Corps divisions.

The book is nicely organised. Each chapter begins with a lengthy introduction that examines each of the weapon types, the various weapons that fell into each category, looking at their technical development and use in combat. This is followed by the photo section, with each picture supported by a useful caption (not simply repeated text from the introduction). Although there are some combat pictures, the focus is on pictures that clearly show the weapon in question, including some of museum pieces where that gets a better picture. The focus is on those weapons that were used in sizable quantities, although several more obscure weapons do get a mention.

This is a well organised visual guide to the impressively wide range of weapons used by US army and marine infantrymen during the Second World War, and gives an idea of just how complex warfare became during the Second World War.

Chapters
1 - Individual Infantry Weapons
2 - Crew-Served Infantry Weapons
3 - Infantry Support Weapons

Author: Michael Green
Edition: Paperback
Pages: 192
Publisher: Pen & Sword Military
Year: 2015



The most widely used handgun in American military (i.e. the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps) service during the Second World War was officially referred to as the Pistol, Automatic, Caliber .45 Model 1911A1. Most referred to it as the ‘.45’, the ‘.45 automatic’, or the ‘Colt .45’. It entered into production in 1926 and was an improved version of the original (or first generation) model of the weapon designated the Pistol, Automatic, Caliber Model 1911, employed during the First World War. As so many of the M1911s remained in the inventory, only a small number of the improved second generation A1 variant were built prior to the Second World War.

With America’s entry into the Second World War, following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and with the American military dramatically growing in size, the Colt Patent Firearms Company was contracted to build a large number of the M1911A1 version of the weapon. Because Colt could not construct the quantity asked for by the U.S. Army Ordnance Department (hereafter referred to as merely the Ordnance Department), four civilian firms were contracted by the Ordnance Department to build the weapon. The American military saw the M1911A1 primarily as a defensive weapon and sought to restrict its issue to officers, to some crew-served weapons, and rear area service troops.

A comparison between the M1911A1 and the various German military semiautomatic pistols comes from a U.S. Army report published in March 1945: ‘The standard caliber .45 U.S. automatic is preferred to any of the German-issue pistols. The greater striking power is desired over the advantage of a lightweight weapon. The safety features are considered superior to those of German pistols.’

U.S. Army Ordnance Department

The Ordnance Department was responsible for the design, procurement, distribution, and maintenance of all the U.S. Army’s weapons, and by default, the majority of weapons for the U.S. Marine Corps although, prior to the Second World War, the U.S. Navy, which oversaw the U.S. Marine Corps, acquired some weapons that had not been adopted by the U.S. Army. When a new weapon passed all its acceptance tests it was standardized (accepted/adopted) by the Ordnance Department and ordered into full-scale production. The letter ‘M’ in a weapon’s designation indicated that it had been standardized.

The only other handgun to see service in any substantial way with the American military during the Second World War was .45 caliber Model 1917 double-action revolver. It was a leftover from the First World War and had been built by both Smith and Wesson and Colt during that conflict. Approximately 15,000 were pulled from storage in 1941 and refurbished before being reissued.

Bolt-Action Rifles

Another First World War era weapon that was updated for use during the Second World War was officially labeled the Rifle, Caliber .30, M1903. The bolt-action rifle had been developed prior to the First World War and was built by both the government-owned Springfield Armory and Rock Island Arsenal. The bolt-action system of operation for the weapon was a derivative of the German military Mauser rifle design.

The Rifle, Caliber .30, M1903 fired the M1906 cartridge commonly referred to as the .30-06 cartridge, which proved to be the standard American rifle and machine gun cartridge of both the First and Second World Wars. The rifle itself was best known to American infantrymen as the ‘Springfield 03’ or just the ‘03’ and earned a sterling reputation in both war and peacetime for its reliability and accuracy.

The post First World War replacement for the bolt-action M1903 was a semiautomatic rifle that began entering service with the U.S. Army in 1937, but initially in very small numbers. With the lead up to America’s official entry into the Second World War the Ordnance Department was forced to resume production of the bolt-action M1903 until production of the new semi-automatic rifle could be ramped up to sufficient levels to meet all its needs.

As the original government-owned facilities that had built the M1903 were busy with other projects prior to America’s official entry into the Second World War, the Ordnance Department contracted with the Remington Arms Company to begin production of an identical copy of the First World War era M1903. To speed up the number of rifles built by Remington, the Ordnance Department, together with engineers from the firm, simplified the weapon design, resulting in a new model designated the Rifle, Caliber .30, M1903 (Modified).

Not long after the M1903 (Modified) came about, Remington engineers made some additional modifications to the weapon’s design to further speed up the production of the rifle. This resulted in the final version of the weapon designated the Rifle, Caliber .30, Model M1903A3.

To increase the number of M1903A3 rifles being built, the Ordnance Department contracted with the Smith-Corona Typewriter Company to build the weapon. Production of the M1903A3 was canceled in early 1944 by the Ordnance Department as a sufficient number of the new semi-automatic rifles were now in service.

M1903 Sniper Rifles

There was a dedicated sniper version of the M1903A3 labeled the Rifle, Caliber .30, M1903A4 (Sniper’s). The U.S. Army’s table of organization (TO&E), during the Second World War, called for one sniper rifle per platoon, although their popularity sometimes found them at the squad level, as seen in this passage from a U.S. Army publication labeled Combat Lessons No. 5: ‘We had one Springfield 03 Sniper’s rifle with scope with each squad. It is absolutely accurate. All the fellows want one. It is not too bulky and can be carried just as easily with as without scope.’

Not happy with the Rifle, Caliber .30, M1903A4 (Sniper’s), the U.S. Marine Corps modified some of its pre-Second World War M1903A1 rifles into makeshift sniper rifles during the conflict. The M1903A1 had been standardized in 1926 and differed from the M1903, as it had a pistol grip type stock. The M1903A1s would be fitted with scopes designed and built by the civilian firm of the John Unertl Company and issued in 1942 and 1943.

Pulled from Storage

In addition to the various models of the M1903 brought back into service during the Second World War, the Ordnance Department reached back into its storage warehouses before America’s official entry into the conflict and pulled out another First World War era bolt-action rifle labeled the Rifle, Caliber .30, Model of 1917 (Enfield). It was an American-built copy of the British designed and built bolt-action rifle designated as the Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Rifle No. 1, Mark III.

The American model of the Enfield differed from the British Army model, as it fired a .30-06 cartridge rather than the British Army .303 cartridge. Other than a brief appearance with U.S. Army units fighting in North Africa in November 1942, the American version of the Enfield was reserved strictly for stateside training duties and was often the first weapon American soldiers trained on during the early years of the conflict.

Semi-Automatic Rifles

The eventual replacement for the M1903 rifle for the U.S. Army was the Rifle, Caliber .30, M1, a semi-automatic weapon that had originally been contracted for by the Ordnance Department in January 1936, with the first small run of pre-production test examples leaving the Springfield Armory assembly line early the following year.

The first production units of the Rifle, Caliber .30, M1 came out of the Springfield Armory in late 1937, but were built only in small numbers up through 1939, due to production bottlenecks. The Ordnance Department therefore turned to civilian industry and called for bids in the summer of 1939 to build the weapon. Winchester submitted the lowest bid and won the contract.

The Rifle, Caliber .30, M1 was most commonly referred to as the ‘M1 rifle’ in documents or just ‘M1’. Today it is more commonly referred to as the ‘Garand’, after its designer, John C. Garand, who was the chief civilian Ordnance Department engineer at the Springfield Armory. U.S. Army General George S. Patton called the M1 rifle: ‘the greatest battle implement ever devised’.

There had been some minor problems with the early production M1 rifles, which the Ordnance Department considered normal in the development of any new weapon. Unfortunately, these problems attracted the attention of the National Rifle Association (NRA) and the United States Congress, who almost had the production contracts for the rifle canceled in the early part of 1940 over the weapon’s perceived shortcomings.

The squabble over the M1 rifle’s performance would not end until late 1940, when the U.S. Marine Corps decided to conduct a series of tests to compare the M1 rifle to competing semi-automatic rifles. The M1 rifle proved superior to the other semiautomatic rifles submitted, and was adopted by the U.S. Marine Corps in late 1941. This decision effectively ended the NRA and Congressional criticism of the weapon.

Due to the late adoption of the M1 rifle by the U.S. Marine Corps, when the American military invaded the Japanese-occupied island of Guadalcanal in August 1942, the Marines involved in the operation were still armed with the M1903 bolt-action rifle, whereas the U.S. Army soldiers who took part in the invasion had been equipped with the semi-automatic M1 rifle.

The marines were very impressed with the M1 rifle in the hands of the soldiers fighting on Guadalcanal, as can be seen in this quote by U.S. Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel L.B. Fuller, which appeared in a joint U.S. Marine Corps/U.S. Army report dated 12 December 1942 and titled Notes on Jungle Warfare: ‘I wish I had the M1 rifle, and when we get relieved form Guadalcanal, I am going to make every effort to get one.’

A U.S. Army wartime publication for frontline soldiers, labeled Combat Lessons No. 1, contains this extract regarding infantry weapons employed in jungle warfare during the fighting in New Georgia by the 43rd Infantry Division:

The M1 rifle is doubtless the best all-around weapon possessed by our troops. Its serviceability under existing campaign conditions is excellent. Ammunition supply was adequate, since the rifle was normally fired only at observed targets. The Japs possessed a number of our M1 rifles, apparently considering them a superior weapon to their own.

By the close of the Second World War, the Springfield Armory, in conjunction with the civilian firm of Winchester, managed to build over 4 million M1 rifles. Approximately 8,000 were modified into a sniper rifle designated the M1C, some of which saw use in the Pacific during the last year of the war.


WW2 Weapons

World War 2 required a massive outpouring of manufacturing capabilities, giving rise to one of the world's largest industrial producers in the United States of America. The war, and its global reach, challenged many-a-nation to rise up and fight the Axis spread, which was led by German leader Adolph Hitler in Europe, and the empirical reach of Japan across Asia and the Pacific. With its roots planted firmly in The Great War, World War 2 was more or less an extension of the preceding conflict, seeing the growing fusion of man and machine into a more terrifying fighting force. The war was one of very defined heroes (the Allies) and villains (the Axis powers), each supporting their respective freedoms and tyranny while others played the game as it evolved (the Soviet Union of instance). In any case, the war set the stage for the regional conflicts we now witness in our 21st Century and have had a lasting impact on current and upcoming history.

Note: Weapons in development during the war (such as certain jet/rocket aircraft and some heavy tanks) are included in this listing though they may have not reached serial production nor operational service before the end of the conflict.


US Infantry Weapons of the Second World War

US Infantry Weapons of the Second World War, Michael Green (pub. 2015)
Pen & Sword

Rats! In my To-Do boxes, I have about 40 undercoated US infantry, a Bolt Action project that barely got started then got shunted into the ‘someday’ file. I had not given them much thought that is until I opened Michael Green’s US Infantry Weapons of the Second World War from Pen & Sword’s Images of War series.

Green opens his book with a brief overview of US Infantry organization, though that has little to do with what is to follow other than provide some context. He moves quickly on to individual infantry weapons before accounting for crew-served weapons and support weapons. Each section is sub-divided to describe a weapon, with some history and technical specifications. To stop his descriptions from becoming completely dry and dusty, however, Green adds some insightful analysis on a weapon’s effectiveness drawn from US Combat Lessons reports and other sources. After each chapter come the photographs, many of which were taken in combat or in combat situations, while some feature reenactors. It follows that most of the pictures are in black and white, though some are in colour, but that does not detract from them in any way. Green covers all the US infantry weapons, from bayonets to tanks with pistols, rifles, grenades, machine-guns and artillery all thrown in for good measure.

US Infantry Weapons of the Second World War does exactly what it says on the cover, and maybe a bit more. The result is quite impressive. There is enough material here to inform without getting bogged down in detail – there is an internet for that – and it is all neatly arranged. I also enjoyed the selection of photos, and surely a scenario model-maker will take much inspiration from them. All in all, rules-writers and collectors will get good use out of this book, as will any wargamer interested in the US army of World War Two. As for me and my undercoated figures, I have dug them out, put on a Glen Miller CD, and am now looking for the Olive Drab.


Weapons in second world war

BM-13 was the famous and the most massive Soviet war machine (BM) of this class. See the 10 Strange Military Vehicles of World War II. 8. Avro Lancaster. Avro Lancaster was a British heavy bomber used during the Second World War and was in service with the Royal Air Force The V-weapons campaign failed to change Germany's disastrous strategic situation. The offensive ended in March 1945 when the last launch sites were overrun by Allied troops. The V2 rocket in this photograph, which was taken on 10 April 1945, is marked with the words 'nach England' ('to England') and had been loaded onto a railway truck at Leese. The Zeppelin, also known as blimp, was an airship that was used during the early part of the war in bombing raids by the Germans. They carried machine guns and bombs. However, they were abandoned because they were easy to shoot out of the sky. WW1 Weapons: Tan Britain and nuclear weapons - The Second World War to the 21st century The UK was the third nation to develop nuclear weapons in 1952, after the United States and the Soviet Union. The first five powers to join the atomic club also happen to be the United Nation Security Council's permanent members with veto power

Index for articles on the Weapons of the Second World War, organised by country. Weapons of the Second World War . Home - Book Shop - Wars - Battles - Biographies - Timeline - Weapons - Blog - Full Index - Subjects - Concepts - Country - Documents - Pictures & Maps . Follow @DrJohnRickard Tweet. Wars. The Second World War was the greatest, bloodiest conflict in human history. Millions were killed, empires rose and fell, and no corner of the planet was spared the destruction, fire, and death it left in its wake. Although it is often remembered as the first technological war, many of the battles of WWII were fought by nothing more advanced than men and their weapons Like many of the infantry weapons made available to US servicemen in the Second World War, the M1919 shared the common history of having been developed - or having stemmed from a development - originally conceived of or produced in the First World War. The M1919 was no exception as it appeared in a water-cooled form as the M1917 Infantry weapons underwent a massive change in the late 19th century, as repeating rifles entered widespread use. The World War I infantryman could produce a volume of fire that dwarfed that of his mid-19th-century predecessors The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was hands down the most lethal fighter of the Second World War. Designed by legendary aircraft designer Willy Messerschmitt in the mid-1930s, it replaced a grab bag of..

Index of weapons and tactics used in the Second World War The Second World War witnessed the introduction of hundreds of cutting-edge and often bizarre weapons, many of which became quite famous. But there were plenty of others that never got the same.

The rifles, sub machine guns, pistols, and other weapons of World War 2 soldiers. Even with tanks and aircraft, the foot soldiers remain an essential element of modern armies, both because there are tasks they do best, and because even the richest nations can't afford to equip millions of soldiers with tanks German Secret Weapons of the Second World War: The Missiles, Rockets, Weapons, and New Technology of the Third Reich Hardcover - November 1, 1998 by Ian V. Hogg (Author) 2.4 out of 5 stars 5 ratings. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Price New from Used from Hardcover Please retry $11.00 Silbervogel Bomber Silbervogel Bomber. This rocket bomber was created by German in World War II and claimed as one of top deadliest weapons in World War 2 in human history back in 40's. In June 1935 and February 1936, a scientist named Dr. Eugen Sänger published an article about plane with rocket machine in Flug, an Austrian magazine.This made him called by German High Command to build an. Assorted 1/72 / 20mm scale hard plastic WW2 world war ii (2) soviet weapons. on offer is a copy of the pan/ballantine illustrated history of world war 2 'infantry weapons'. 1/72 20mm plastic WW2 British Some wear but nothing serious or too noticable

. Most recently North Korea conducted nuclear weapons tests in 2006, 2009 and 2013 Any talk of weapons that won World War II begins and ends with the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945. The two bombs killed an estimated 200,000 people—many. The Third World War is generally considered a successor to the Second World War and is often suggested to become a nuclear war at some point during said Third World War, devastating in nature and likely much more violent than both the First and Second World Wars in 1947, Albert Einstein commented that I know not with what weapons World War.

Weapons used in World War II - The Finer Time

World War II, conflict that involved virtually every part of the world during 1939-45. The main combatants were the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) and the Allies (France, Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and China). It was the bloodiest conflict, as well as the largest war, in history The U.S. Navy was just one of a number of foreign buyers of this Swedish-made 9mm submachine gun. First produced in the closing months of the Second World War and influenced heavily by weapons like the British Sten and the German MP-40, American SEAL teams valued the weapon for its reliability, particularly after being fully immersed in water World War II saw rapid technological innovation in response to the needs of the various combatants. Many different weapons systems evolved as a result. Note: This list does not consist of all weapons used by all countries in World War II World War 2 Weapons. Russian self-propelled rocket launcher. The 75mm gun was used to maximum proficiency as a field gun when mounted on a tank. However, its armor piercing projectile met its match IN 1944 in Normandy when matched against the new and more heavily armored German Tiger and Panther tanks Second World War, overview of the course of the 'Blitzkriege' (lightning wars) from 1939 to 1940 (Part I).Polish campaign, Stalin's territorial claims, Western campaign and Battle of Britain.. The highlight of the German Blitzkrieg was the capture of Paris

The magazine Weapons of WWII has exhibited some of Hitler's secret Nazi weapons in its Autumn 2015 issue. Fritz X air-to-ship wireless guided gliding bomb used by the Nazis led to the invention of.. Both weapons were the standard artillery weapon for their respective armies. The US gun was linked to a much better fire control system but the Soviets had a LOT of 122 mm howitzers which they would use in mass bombardments. Artillery accounted for over 50% of all infantry casualties in WWI

Silbervogel (Silver Bird) Bomber This was probably one of the strangest and most radical weapons Germany proposed during the Second World War. It was a candidate for the 'Amerika Bomber' initiative, which attempted to develop a bomber which had the range to attack mainland America An exhibition has been set up in St. Petersburg to display weapons of the Second World War, the Voice of Russia reports. The staff of the War History Museum of Artillery, Engineer Troops and Army Signal Corps has timed it for a memorable date. - The Red Flag was hoisted over the Reichstag on May 1st 1945 as the symbol of victory in the most. . Today, it is known everywhere that if a nuclear war is waged, it could mean the destruction of our world as we know it. Nuclear weapons were used to end World War II, and they could very well be used if WWIII occurred, it may end also using nuclear weapons, which could destroy us World War Keywords 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 battleship britain fighter-bomber france germany heavy bomber heavy tank hitler italy japan kriegsmarine luftwaffe medium tank messerschmitt mg norway pistol raf red air force red army rifle russia single-seat fighter smg ss strategic bomber subs supremacy 1914 uk usa usaaf war thunder wehrmach

The participation of Romanian army in World War II. Description of battles, weapons, organization, also documents and photo gallery All major combatants stockpiled chemical weapons during the Second World War, but the only reports of its use in the conflict were the Japanese use of relatively small amounts of mustard gas and lewisite in China, Italy's use of gas in Ethiopia (in what is more often considered to be the Second Italo-Ethiopian War), and very rare occurrences in Europe (for example some mustard gas bombs were dropped on Warsaw on 3 September 1939, which Germany acknowledged in 1942 but indicated had been. World War II was the worst warhead in the history of mankind. When we think about the weapons used during World War II today, there is a lot of difference in perception. Though the war was quite long back, many creepy weapons were used to defend and target the opponents. Additionally, a huge amount of [ Crossword Clue The crossword clue Second World War weapons with 5 letters was last seen on the May 18, 2020.We think the likely answer to this clue is STENS.Below are all possible answers to this clue ordered by its rank. You can easily improve your search by specifying the number of letters in the answer World War II was the most destructive enterprise in human history. It is sobering to consider that more resources, mate- rial, and human lives (approximately 50 million dead) were expended on the war than on any other human activity. Indeed, this conflict was so all-encompassing that very few side wars took place simultaneously, the 1939-194

WW2 Weapons (1939-1945) - Military Factor

Tokyo's biological weapons killed hundreds of thousands of Chinese. And their murders still matter today. It's true that other nations—including Germany, America and Britain—maintained their own.. Even though poison and poisoned weapons were banned by the Hague Declaration of 1899 and the Hague Convention of 1907, poison gas was used by all belligerents of World War I. While poison gas was first used by the Germans against the French in October 1914, it was first deployed on a mass scale during the Second Battle of Ypres in spring of 1915 The outbreak of the Second World War on September 1, 1939 brought into immediate action a large number of tanks, as all six regular and one provisional panzer divisions as well as four light divisions took part in the German invasion of Poland. Between them these 11 formations had 2,682 tanks1 out of the 2,980

By World War Two machine guns were more mobile and adaptable weapons, whilst sub-machine guns gave infantrymen far greater potency at close quarters. They were also fitted to tanks and aircraft, although became less effective in these roles as armour plating improved Order your Secret Weapons of the Second World War Set today for just £39.95!. When we think about the events of the Second World War there are some events that really stand out and stick in our minds. For the last 75 years, historians and enthusiasts have delved into the past to explore out the strategic planning and preparation behind some of the greatest missions in history that ultimately. The Second World War saw the use of more mobile light machine-guns that could move with the infantry in the attack, thus increasing the rifleman's organic fire-power. A machine-gun's rapid rate of fire causes the barrel to heat up and wear out very quickly, and solutions to this fundamental problem included air- and water-cooled weapons. . The M1 and M1A1 were used primarily in the Pacific theatre for attacking pillboxes and other fortifications. It also saw use in Europe, most notably during the D-Day assault, where 150 were issued

Special weapons of the Second World War - The Fiel

  1. The atomic bomb, and nuclear bombs, are powerful weapons that use nuclear reactions as their source of explosive energy. Scientists first developed nuclear weapons technology during World War II.
  2. Buy German Infantry Weapons of the Second World War: The War Machines: 2 by Christopher, John (ISBN: 9781445642208) from Amazon's Book Store. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders
  3. ent being the standard rifle and the machine gun which made up the majority of the weapons available to German infantry with submachine guns and anti-tank weapons supplementing them. S84/98 III bayone
  4. The use of poison gas in World War Two was a very real fear. Poison gas had been used in World War One and many expected that it would be used in World War Two. As a result people in Britain were issued with gas masks and gas mask drills became a routine. The gases used in World War 1 were crude but effective
  5. Mortars in World War II, John Norris.Looks at one of the most important infantry support weapons of the Second World War. Contains a great deal of material, looking at each area of conflict from Poland in 1939 to the final fighting in 1945, the way mortars were used by each army and the type of mortars in use
  6. Police allege the weapons had been unsafely stored. The homeowner, who had received the weapons from a family member, was charged. And on Aug. 28, two Second World War-era torpedos were found by four young people in a field north-east of Maple

Chemical weapons - World War I also introduced chemical weapons to warfare. Germany first used chlorine gas to poison unsuspecting Allied troops. Later, the more dangerous mustard gas was developed and used by both sides. By the end of the war, troops were equipped with gas masks and the weapon was less effective Sep 2, 2016 - Weapons of the Second World War 1939-1945. See more ideas about weapons, gun gear, guns The use of chemical weapons had been prohibited before the Second Sino-Japanese War under the 1907 Hague Convention on land warfare, which Japan also ratified. From our archive Conversation

Video: The Weapons Invented During WW II Synony

8 Of The Biggest Guns Of Destruction Used During The

  1. Around 36,600 tons of phosgene were manufactured during the war, out of a total of 190,000 tons for all chemical weapons, making it second only to chlorine (93,800 tons) in the quantity manufactured: Germany 18,100 tons France 15,700 tons United Kingdom 1,400 tons (although they also used French stocks
  2. From Pearl Harbor to Hiroshima : the Second World War in Asia and the Pacific, 1941-1945 (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994), 191-214.. For more on these developments, see Asada, The Shock of the Atomic Bomb and Japan's Decision to Surrender: A Reconsideration, 486-488
  3. It explores the struggle to achieve full prosecution of the war effort on the home front, and the efforts made by the government to prepare the military front for a long and arduous war. Organised in ten chapters, this book provides a history of recycling in Britain from the First World War up to the end of the Second World War
  4. ost famous of the German secret weapons of World War II - and by far the most effective were the surface-to-surface missiles used to bombard the United Kingdom and targets on the mainland of.
  5. As the war progressed, armies used a wider variety of weapons to better equip their troops for trench fighting and attacks across No Man's Land, including grenades, rifle grenades, mortars, and several types of machine-guns. Small units, of eight to 30 soldiers, came to rely on a balance of rifles, machine-guns, and other weapons
  6. World War II, also referred to as the Second World War and regularly shortened to WW2 or WWII, was the massive conflict that saw the first usage of nuclear weapons in war by a superpower, and the formation of the United Nations. 1 WWII-era technology 2 Appearances 2.1 Fallout and Fallout 2 2.2 Fallout 3 2.3 Fallout: New Vegas 2.4 Fallout 4 2.5 Fallout Tactics Several examples of World War II.

The Second World War or World War IIwas a major armed conflict that began in 1946, when the Soviet Union begun a campaign of aggression to realise Joseph Stalin's dream: a Communist Union stretching from the coast of Atlantic Ocean to the coast of the Pacific. Opposing them were the Allied Forces, a military alliance established to resist Soviet aggression against any first world powers and. Originally intended to be a private personal addon, I had had decided to publish it onto the workshop. A collection of Day of Defeat and Day of Defeat: Source and other World War 2 firearms made usable for VJ Base SNPCs, perfect for expanding the arsenal of your SNPCs or if you just simply want the weapons to be consistent with the artstyle of classic GMod/2006 Valve games

Second World War Weapons That Failed Imperial War Museum

Medium German weapons of WWII: heavy machine guns, mortars, light anti-tank : Ckm wz.30. MG 34 : MG 42 : MG 08 HMG: Panzerschreck: Granatwerfer Mortar

World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945) were two of the most important events in world history. Almost all the continents were involved in the wars, and they led to a massive destruction all over the world. Millions lost their lives 'Waste into Weapons is a timely and insightful addition to the growing literature on waste and recycling. Thorsheim's meticulous research has amply demonstrated the paradox of the Second World War - that Britons were encouraged and ordered to conserve and recycle in order that the war effort could destroy A lively reassessment of British science and industry during the second world war is let down by academic point-scoring Ben Shephard Sat 26 Mar 2011 20.05 EDT First published on Sat 26 Mar 2011 20. For years debate has raged over whether the US was right to drop two atomic bombs on Japan during the final weeks of the Second World War. The first bomb, dropped on the city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945, resulted in a total death toll of around 140,000. The second, which hit Nagasaki on 9 August, killed around 50,000 people World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries

World War II was no different as each side worked tirelessly to develop more advanced and powerful weapons. During the course of the fighting, the Axis and Allies created increasingly more advanced aircraft which culminated in the world's first jet fighter, the Messerschmitt Me262. On the ground, highly effective tanks such as the Panther and T-34. . By. Daniel Johnson - 12 February 2020. 110. 0. Facebook. Twitter. Pinterest. WhatsApp. 12/02/20 weapons are the worst weapons of the Second world war. Relatedly, Japan was the only country to use chemical weapons, such as mustard gas, during the Second World War. 4. Fukuryi Suicide Attack Suits These special dive suits were designed for the.. Find the perfect weapons of the second world war stock photo. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. No need to register, buy now Best Answer for Second World War Weapons Crossword Clue. The word that solves this crossword puzzle is 5 letters long and begins with

The cache of weapons consisted of three Sten submachine guns, three pistols, more than a dozen grenades and over a thousand rounds of ammunition. Two of the Stens are engraved with names, one is Pepette and the other is Alice. Members of the French Resistance in Corsica during World War II, circa 1942 As part of a second large tranche after the Six Day War, several thousand PPSh-41s were sent, but this was the end of the road for WWII-era gear. The rest of this deal was post-WWII SKS and AK-47 rifles, missiles, and MiG-17 jet fighters World War 2, also known as the Second World War was the largest and most violent armed conflict in history which lasted for more than six years from 1939 to 1945, which produced approximately 50 million deaths. This war involved the most countries compared to any other war and introduced many weapons and ended with the first use of nuclear weapons Mills Bombs and Jam Pots: both forms of grenades. Machine Guns. How the German Army saw its potential before 1914. Pistols. The officer's weapon. Poison Gas. First used by the French and popularised by the Germans. Rifles. Still the infantry's greatest asset

The MG 08 variant was used throughout the war and even during the Second World War. The firing rate of the weapon depended on the lock assembly used and averaged 500 rounds per minute for the Schloss 08 and 600 rounds per minute for the Schloss 16. The gun used 250-round fabric belts of 7.92×57mm ammunition The Second World War was a conflict that saw a great deal of scientific and technical innovation. The war was a battle of scientific minds as well as of bullets and bombs and the wartime research programs came up with many important developments to help give the Allies an advantage in the struggle The weapons that are the most famous for being operated as of today, such as the StG 44, M2 Browning or Lee-Enfield, have already been mentionned there, but I feel like there are some other WWII guns that can still make it into the list and yet have not been mentionned. MAS 36 bolt-action rifle

10 Most Powerful Machines of World War II - WondersLis

There were two sides in this war. One was the Allied Powers and the other one was the Axis Powers. The Allied Powers consisted of the U.S, Soviet Union, British Empire, China, France, Poland, Belgium, Netherlands, Norway, Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia and some other co-belligerents List of various weapons and vehicles used by major combatants during World War III. List of World War III weapons. Edit. Classic editor History Comments (3) Second generation military space platform Avenger-class Drop Carrier: 2051-2053 : United States Rifles like the M1 Garand, Lee-Enfield, and German Karabiner 98, along with the famous Tommy Gun, Sten Gun and MP44 are familiar from countless war movies and documentaries. These weapons changed the nature of combat, allowing soldiers to lay down constant fire, and produced in gigantic quantities

But according to James Holland, author of the three-volume history The War in the West, when it came to the operational level of World War II—the nuts and bolts of producing weapons. Green covers all the US infantry weapons, from bayonets to tanks with pistols, rifles, grenades, machine-guns and artillery all thrown in for good measure. US Infantry Weapons of the Second World War does exactly what it says on the cover, and maybe a bit more. The result is quite impressive The First World War (WWI) was fought from 1914 to 1918 and the Second World War (or WWII) was fought from 1939 to 1945. They were the largest military conflicts in human history. Both wars involved military alliances between different groups of countries. World War I (a.k.a the First World War, the Great War, the War To End All Wars) was centered on Europe. The world warring nations were. Developments in chemical warfare were to see new weapons - or more sophisticated weapons - by the end of the war in 1945. The use of chemicals led to more deadly weaponry being available to the infantry soldier - the most famous being the phosphorous grenade/bomb and the use of napalm

The Terrifying German 'Revenge Weapons' Of The Second

second world war weapons. intl. foundation that is dedicated to war reporting, war art and war memory (abbr.) Standard colour of US military vehicles and GI uniforms in the Second World War. second world war battleground in 43-across No nuclear weapons have ever been used in an act of war besides the two dropped on Japan during the Second World War. The United States and Russia both produced enormous amounts of nuclear weapons. 10 Insane Secret Weapons In The World Subscribe: https://goo.gl/vHN6qBFor copyright matters please contact us at: [email protected] techno.. United States - United States - World War II: After World War I most Americans concluded that participating in international affairs had been a mistake. They sought peace through isolation and throughout the 1920s advocated a policy of disarmament and nonintervention. As a result, relations with Latin-American nations improved substantially under Hoover, an anti-imperialist

World War One - Weapons - Histor

Many World War II weapons are available for civilian sales due to their limited firing capabilities. The Mosin Nagant, Short Magazine Lee Enfield, the Kar98, and the M1 Garand are the three main rifles of World War II and all are highly collectible. The M1911 pistol, the Russian Nagant revolver, and the Walther P08 are the three main handguns. World War II had a profound impact on Finland. Approximately 86,000 Finns died in the war-about three times the losses suffered during the civil war. In addition, about 57,000 Finns were permanently disabled, and the vast majority of the dead and the disabled were young men in their most productive years Britain's War Machine: Weapons, Resources and Experts in the Second World War David Edgerton London, Allen Lane, 2011, ISBN: 9780713999181 445pp.Price: £25.0

Britain and nuclear weapons - The Second World War to the

The Cold War nuclear weapons race was primarily a contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, though other countries developed nuclear weapons during this time. A replica of an early atom bomb. After World War II, the struggle for world power erupted and the United States and the Soviet Union took the lead Robert Crowcroft, Britain's War Machine: Weapons, Resources and Experts in the Second World War. By David Edgerton., Twentieth Century British History, Volume 24, Issue 1, the established narratives of the Second World War have proven so resilient that it is only now that new perspectives are being advanced. There remains much work to be done During the Second World War, the United Kingdom faced severe shortages of essential raw materials. To keep its armaments factories running, the British government enlisted millions of people in efforts to recycle a wide range of materials for use in munitions production. Recycling not only supplied British munitions factories with much-needed raw materials - it also played a key role in the. With fewer and bigger ones, barriers to entry have risen. The club will long remain the world's most exclusive one. We need not fear that the spread of nuclear weapons will turn the world into a multipolar one. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons . Nuclear weapons have been the second force working for peace in the post-war world

Weapons of the Second World War

Photo about Soviet weapons of the second world war, the exhibition. Image of russian, armored, engine - 15508419 APA citation style: Ferrell, J., photographer. (1942) Washington, D.C. Old German field gun from the First World War collected in the scrap metal salvage rally in Griffith Stadium.To be made into new steel for weapons in the Second World War.District of Columbia United States Washington D.C. Washington D.C, 1942 The Japanese were guilty of many war crimes during World War II. This includes the killing of up to 20 million Chinese people. They had a policy called Kill All, Burn All, and Loot All. They used biological weapons and tortured prisoners of war. As a result, many Japanese leaders were executed after the war including Prime Minister Hideki Tojo The second had been destroyed at the end of the war. After World War II, Dr. Zippermayr remained in Austria where he continued his research, choosing to remain in Europe rather than going to work for either the Americans or the Soviets, like many of his contemporaries. 3 The Sun Gu The Unwomanly Face of War by Svetlana Alexievich (1985) War is seldom told from a woman's point of view. And yet, a million women fought for the Red Army during the Second World War. The Unwomanly Face of War tells their stories, in their words. Snipers, pilots, gunners, mothers and wives: Alexievich spoke to hundreds of former Soviet female.

The familiar image of the British in the Second World War is that of the plucky underdog taking on German might. David Edgerton's bold, compelling new history shows the conflict in a new light, with Britain as a very wealthy country, formidable in arms, ruthless in pursuit of its interests, and in command of a global production system. Rather than belittled by a Nazi behemoth, Britain arguably. History of Switzerland Switzerland's Role in World War II. Adolf Hitler's National Socialist Party was a German and Austrian movement. An overwhelming majority of the Swiss population was strongly opposed to Nazism from the 1930's. This clear public opinion was not only relevant for the morale of the Swiss Army during the Second world war, it did most probably also have a direct effect of. In September 1939, Britain entered into what would become the world's most devastating war to date. Learn all about the events that changed the lives of millions in our World War 2 facts. World War 2 facts. 1. World War 2 was a battle between two groups of countries - the Allies and the Axis. The major Allied Powers were. The Second World War was a defining event in Canadian history, transforming a quiet country on the fringes of global affairs into a critical player in the 20th century's most important struggle. Whereas in the First World War Canadian production had largely been limited to shells (no weapons were made except the Ross Rifle), now a great. Photo about German heavy howitzer, breech, close-up. Weapons of the second world war, historical reconstruction. Image of great, historical, breech - 16968671


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German Secret Weapons of the Second World War: The Missiles, Rockets, Weapons and New Technology of the Third Reich

This is an interesting piece on German&aposs secret technology development in WW2, exposing some of the crazy, ambitious and highly successful projects undertaken in the Third Reich during the war. The book sections are as follows: ballistic weapons, aircraft, rockets and guided missiles, artillery, and finally, NBC weapons.

Not bad, but the book is very uneven. There&aposs a lot of focus given to V-X weapons, probably because the author is British, so there&aposs Average book. Rich on information, a bit dry.

This is an interesting piece on German's secret technology development in WW2, exposing some of the crazy, ambitious and highly successful projects undertaken in the Third Reich during the war. The book sections are as follows: ballistic weapons, aircraft, rockets and guided missiles, artillery, and finally, NBC weapons.

Not bad, but the book is very uneven. There's a lot of focus given to V-X weapons, probably because the author is British, so there's obvious bias and depth of knowledge, but then, there's hardly any mention of the jet and rocket powered fighters. We get detailed explanations into the thickness of steel plates, welding, flanges, and nozzles, but not enough on the political scheming, the technical difficulties, and the raw performance data, where it is available. For instance, no mention of V-2's range or terminal speed. No mention of the Me-262 armament or air kills. No mention of the actual combat use of some of the pieces, like the Dora cannon. Yes, it was used in the siege of Sevastopol, but it missed the critical piece where the Soviets kept their ammunition under 7 meters of concrete, and that a huge armor-piercing round was needed to try to pierce this slab. And so forth.

The book is probably more interesting to those who like mechanical detail than those interested in the story and the facts. Also, the author is an ex-artillery guy, so he may just not have been comfortable enough talking about other domains, as it's not his expertise. He also sometimes sidelines and argues with other historians, following up a feud that does not belong in the book, nor does it interest or concern the reader. A less combatative approach would work just as well.

Now, it's not bad, and there's a lot of good stuff. It's just not as exciting as I expected, and I wish it gave more focus to the listed weaponry, maybe even a simple fact sheet for each, and definitely some of the saucier detail. The fact something is made from stainless steel this that is less fun than how and when it was used, how accurate, fast, lethal, successful, or stupid it was, and of course, the human intrigue. This does get some mention, especially the very rigid structure of the German scientific community, and the political ping-pong as to what gets most spotlight with the Reich's leadership. Again, not enough.

Recommended, but I wish it explored this Area 51 topic with more flair, color and COOL facts.

In January 1941 staff officers of the U.S., British, and Canadian militaries met in Washington D.C.. Though the United States was still a year from declaring war, planning was already underway in anticipation of that prospect, and the decisions they reached shaped much of the war that followed. Among the most important of these was that Germany was the primary opponent in any war involving the Axis powers. While there were several excellent reasons for this, one of them was that the Germans poss In January 1941 staff officers of the U.S., British, and Canadian militaries met in Washington D.C.. Though the United States was still a year from declaring war, planning was already underway in anticipation of that prospect, and the decisions they reached shaped much of the war that followed. Among the most important of these was that Germany was the primary opponent in any war involving the Axis powers. While there were several excellent reasons for this, one of them was that the Germans possessed the greatest capacity for developing weapons which might radically transform the war, and thus needed to be defeated before they did.

Ian Hogg's book provides evidence of the wisdom of this decision. In it he provides an overview of the major weapons research bring undertaken by the Third Reich before and during the war. Diving his examination into categories, he summarizes the major projects to design new aircraft and air-launched weapons, air defense weapons, naval weapons, and the Wunderwaffen and nuclear and chemical weapons programs. His focus throughout is on their development, providing technical details and accounts of the decisions whether to undertake or abandon them and avoiding more than a brief mention of their deployment in the cases where the weapons were introduced. As befits a former artilleryman in the Royal Army, his section discussing the "big guns" is the best, but he provides interesting details throughout about the technical and bureaucratic challenges that slowed or stopped the development of weapons that might have changed the course of the war. The result is a work that is an excellent introduction to Germany's secret weapons programs, one best suited for the reader familiar with military technology but an informative read for anyone interested in an overview of the topic. . more


Images of War: US Infantry Weapons of the Second World War, Michael Green - History

During the arduous campaigns in theaters of war from the Pacific to North West Europe, American infantry weapons played a key role in the eventual victory over the Axis forces. In so doing they earned a special reputation for ruggedness and reliability. In addition to being used by US ground forces they were widely adopted by other Allied nations.

Expert author Michael Green puts the full range of small arms, be they rifles, submachine guns, shotguns, pistols, machine guns as well as mortars, anti-tank weapons and close infantry support artillery under the microscope.

Many names such as the Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) and the incomparable semiautomatic Garand will be well known whereas others (the Johnson Rifle and Reising SMG) are not. The typically informative text completes the wide range of photographic images.

About The Author

Michael Green is the author of numerous acclaimed books in the Images of War series. He lives in California.

REVIEWS

"The book looks at everything from pistols to flame throwers and from rifles to anti-tank guns. There is an additional section at the end looking at the bigger kit rounded up in the infantry support weapon category and all in all the package offers a lot of bang for your buck. I think you knew I might say that! This is another well-executed history from a consistently trustworthy author. I have no hesitation in pressing the &lsquolike&rsquo button with this one."

- War History Online

Hitler's regime was notorious for its many experiments and its various secret ploys, weapons, and technological developments. But typically, the term "secret German weapons" only turns up images of the V-1 and V-2 missiles that played a part in bombing London in 1944. But truth be told, there were many more unheard of weapons behind the Third Reich. Many of these weapons have been unknown to the general public.


Here, one of the world's leading experts on weaponry, reveals the sheer magnitude of Hitler's secret weapon projects, from the V-3 and the V-4 missiles, to the Schmetterling, to the German nuclear bomb, and more. This detailed account of the myths surrounding secret German weapons examines the various fields the Germans concentrated on during their weapon development process and discusses difficulties that arrived in the process and how, in many cases, the ideas were exploited by other nations.

German Secret Weapons of the Second World War draws comparisons between similar Allied projects and narrates the deeper purpose behind many of these projects. Many of these developments were not completed before the end of the war, but have created a solid foundation for many of today's great military developments.


Skyhorse Publishing, as well as our Arcade imprint, are proud to publish a broad range of books for readers interested in history--books about World War II, the Third Reich, Hitler and his henchmen, the JFK assassination, conspiracies, the American Civil War, the American Revolution, gladiators, Vikings, ancient Rome, medieval times, the old West, and much more. While not every title we publish becomes a New York Times bestseller or a national bestseller, we are committed to books on subjects that are sometimes overlooked and to authors whose work might not otherwise find a home.
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Weapons of the Second World. Small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery

After the light anti-tank guns that started the war, we propose to look through the eyes of a modern man at the light anti-aircraft artillery of the Second World War.

Talking about the relevance of small-caliber anti-aircraft installations today is not necessary. If there is an assault aviationthat means, anti-aircraft artillery is also needed, capable of fighting it. If you look at modern air defense systems, it becomes clear that even a huge number of missile weapons of the most diverse classes of cannon weapons does not cancel.

Aviation in World War I proved its own, if not efficiency, then consistency. And at the beginning of the 30-s began its rapid development. Increased speed and range, there were all-metal aircraft and aviation reservation. In general, the airplane, so clumsy and frankly ridiculous, suddenly turned into a combat aircraft. Very serious weapon.

These circumstances demanded urgent solutions from the designers of anti-aircraft weapons. What the armed forces of the First World War were armed with was already hopelessly outdated. The use of rifle-caliber anti-aircraft machine guns sharply limited the area of ​​destruction of the aircraft in terms of range, as well as by the effect of the attack. The plane received a huge number of hits, but returned to the airfield and after a short repair was again ready to perform combat missions.

The tasks assigned to the designers could solve small-caliber automatic anti-aircraft guns (from 20 to 50 mm) or large-caliber machine guns. It was these installations and anti-aircraft guns that later became the main opponents of attack aircraft.

Paradoxically, a story about light anti-aircraft automatic guns must be started from an instrument that was released by a country not officially participating in a war, but nevertheless used by all warring countries.

1. 20-mm automatic anti-aircraft gun "Oerlikon". Switzerland

The gun was born in 1927 year. Manufacturer - Swiss concern "Oerlikon". But to talk about the development of this particular concern of the gun will not be correct. "Oerlikon" implemented in the metal design development company SEMAG.

The designer of this tool is a talented German design engineer Reinhold Becker. And the gun itself was developed in the years of the First World War. In his own factory, Becker even fired this cannon in 1914. The gun was used cartridge caliber 20 × 70 mm, the rate of fire reached 300 shots per minute. Subsequently, this instrument was given the name "Oerlikon F".

The new gun has been used as an aviation and anti-aircraft modification, but the novelty did not have any noticeable impact on the course of hostilities. In Switzerland, the gun turned out to be because of the Versailles Treaty. Officially, the Germans simply could not modify the cannon.

SEMAG (Seebach Maschinenbau Aktien Gesellschaft), using Becker’s work, modernized the gun. In the year 1924 released a version for a more powerful cartridge 20 × 100 mm with a slightly increased rate of fire, which now reaches 350 rounds per minute. This gun was offered as an anti-tank or light infantry support weapon. But the gun did not win success, but in stories remained as "Oerlikon L".

Well, the third attempt to create a gun, made already by engineers "Oerlikon", "Oerlikon S". The cartridge has again become stouter, 20 × 110 mm, had a higher initial projectile speed (830 m / s), which was accompanied by an increase in the mass of the structure and a decrease in the rate of fire to 280 rounds per minute.

Today it sounds rather strange, but the S model was really a serious anti-tank weapon at that time. She could hit any existing at that time (1927 year) tank. In this case, the model was used, like the previous ones, in aviation and air defense.

All guns "Oerlikon" their "descendants" have the same principle of operation and a similar device. This tool is different in that the mechanism of production of a shot helps a large annular spring around the barrel. Between themselves, the guns differ only in minor changes in the design, the initial velocity of the projectile and the rate of fire.

The Oerlikon can be called the progenitor of all small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery (MZA) and the most massive weapon of this type. According to some experts in the world of these tools, including modifications, it was released from 500 to 800 thousands of units

Advantages:
1. Versatility and ease of use.
2. Reliability design.
3. The presence of a huge range for such a caliber ammunition.
4. Ease.
5. The possibility of modernization for any use.

Disadvantages:
1. Difficulty in production.
2. Too small caliber, which does not provide guaranteed defeat of the aircraft.
3. The range of fire did not provide the necessary efficiency when working with bomber aircraft. The guns were already firing at the spent aircraft.

2. 20-mm Flak 30 automatic anti-aircraft gun, model 1930, Germany

Developed by Rheinmetall. For the first time she fought in Spain as part of the Condor Legion. As an anti-aircraft gun, the gun worked from the platform, but was also used as a field gun. In this case, the shooting was carried out from the wheels.

The gun was used not only as an anti-aircraft gun, but also as a field one, using a special high-explosive fragmentation projectile. It was on these tools that the target position prediction systems were used for the first time. True, they were quickly abandoned because of the complexity of the application. But even without this, the guns were quite normal until the end of the war.

For its time, the gun was good. However, by the 1940 year, aviation overtook the guidance system. Increasing the speed of the aircraft created problems with aiming. There was another serious problem. Ammunition was supplied in 20-charging stores, in which shells were often delayed.

Advantages:
1. Versatility, the ability to use as an anti-tank gun.
2. Shooting stability.
3. It became the basis for the production of tank guns KwK 30.

Disadvantages:
1. Low rate of fire.
2. Difficulty in production and operation.
3. Mass delays in the submission of shells.

3. 37 mm Flak 36 anti-aircraft gun. Germany

Also the development of "Rheinmetall", but somewhat later, in 1936 year This gun already belongs to the medium anti-aircraft guns.

The history of the development is very interesting. Rheinmetall developed the Flak 18 anti-aircraft gun in Switzerland at the start of the 30s. The development of tools was carried out by order of the USSR. We even made 44 guns (index 2K) according to German drawings at the plant in Podlipkah.

And Flak 36 is a further upgrade to Flak 18. A hydraulic brake was introduced into the mast design, the two-axle wagon was replaced with a single-axle, a new sight was installed. The gun actually became more versatile, although it had the same combat characteristics as the Flak 18. Ammunition for anti-aircraft guns were fed in 6-shell clips.

The gun was produced until the end of the war. It was the main means of destruction of low-flying aircraft. Used on different chassis, installed on ships, including submarines. The main drawback of the system was the tendency of the turning mechanism to jamming. Therefore, the calculation should have had enough power to work on this gun.

Advantages:
1. Sufficiently large effective ceiling.
2. Versatility.
3. Can be used on different chassis.
4. The effectiveness of shells.

Disadvantages:
1. Difficult to produce.
2. Large settlement (7 people).
3. Low rate of fire.

4. 20-mm anti-aircraft gun Flak 38. Germany

Most researchers view this weapon as an upgrade to the Flak 30 already mentioned by us. However, this is still another gun, despite the external similarity.

Speaking of Flak 30, we mentioned the fact that by the year 1940 the Germans realized that it was not effective against high-speed aircraft 30-I. It was necessary to increase the rate of fire of the gun. The company "Rheinmetall" at that time was engaged in other tools, so the solution to the problem was transferred to the company "Mauser".

With the external similarity of guns, Flak 38 inside was completely new. "Mauser" solved the problem of jamming the feed mechanism of shells and increased the rate of fire of the gun. At the same time left unchanged bed and aiming system. 38-I had a rate of fire at 420-480 per minute. The gun was produced in huge quantities (more than 100 thousand units) and had twin and quad modifications.

Advantages:
1. High rate of fire.
2. Versatility.
3. The possibility of easy disassembly and assembly for transportation, for example, on horseback.

Disadvantages:
1. The use of old systems of supply of ammunition and bed.
2. Weak projectile.

5. 20 mm / 65 Breda Mod. 1935. Italy

As the name implies, the creator of the 20 / 65 cannon-Mitraliera anti-aircraft gun, model 35, was the Breda company from the city of Brescia.

If the Italians wanted to create a universal weapon, it must be admitted, they succeeded. The gun was originally intended for firing at both ground and air targets. In "Breda" created a weapon that could move on almost everything that drove, floated or walked.

The cannon was placed on a biaxial trolley and was easily transported even by a light truck. In combat, the calculation (3 man) rolled the gun on the positions without much effort on their own. Even the carriage of guns on horseback was provided. In addition, like all Italian, the gun is quite normal to disassemble the 4 node and transported on breeches or hands.

The ammunition was located in the 12-shell tray, which were fed by loaders. And the gun fired not only high-explosive, but also armor-piercing shells. For anti-aircraft high-explosive shells used a sensitive fuse, which guaranteed the rupture of ammunition even with light contact with the aircraft. In case of miss, the projectile was equipped with a self-liquidator.

The gun was loved by soldiers of several armies at once: Italian, German, American, British, French . Many armies gladly used captured guns for installation on armored vehicles. And the coast of Italy was guarded by modernized guns of the 35 model, which are better known as the 39 model. The 39 model was distinguished by a stationary pedestal.

Advantages:
1. Universal (VET and air defense).
2. Small weight, convenience when moving and transporting.
3. The possibility of disassembling the nodes for manual or pack transport.
4. Reinforced projectiles for both air defense and anti-tank guns.

Disadvantages:
We believe that they are not.

6. 20-mm gun "Type 98". Japan

When a normal European sees the 1938-mm “Type 20” cannon adopted in 98, he has a feeling of unreality of what he saw. On the one hand, the archaic on wooden wheels, strange for a normal gun bed, a strange "machine-gun" magazine on top of the barrel. And on the other hand? Excellent combat performance, versatility and ability to work in almost any conditions.

The gun was originally designed as a universal. Designers laid in the system a lot of opportunities. Even the wooden wheels of the cart had their meaning. The gun could be carried on horse-drawn carts, not to mention light trucks or passenger cars. In addition, the possibility of disassembling the instrument into parts for the carriage of carrying a calculation or carriage on horses was also provided for.

Understanding that the main drawback of this gun is the low rate of fire, the Japanese created an anti-aircraft gun for this model. But their number was not great.

Ammunition, reinforced projectiles, with large for this caliber armor penetration, were located in the shop for 20 pieces. The store was located on top of the gun barrel. Calculation, depending on the tasks performed, 2-3 person.

Advantages:
1. Easily transported by any tractor or horse.
2. Could change position in battle without the use of traction forces calculation.
3. The possibility of firing both from the wheels and from the platform.
4. Versatility (VET and air defense).
5. Large ceiling effective fire due to a powerful projectile.
6. Easy to disassemble the nodes and was going to calculation.

Disadvantages:
1. Outdated carriage.
2. Low rate of fire.

7. 25-mm Hotchkiss Mle 1938 automatic gun. France

The French were all sad. It is difficult to say on the basis of what, but the French military department decided that all the tasks of the air defense system could be solved by large-caliber machine guns 13,2-mm and 75-mm guns of the 1897 model.

Nevertheless, the company Hotchkiss nevertheless developed automatic anti-aircraft guns in 1932 year. True, they were exported. Only the war in Spain, more precisely, its results, pushed the French military to purchase anti-aircraft guns. In 1938, the gochkis began to enter the army.

25-mm Hotchkiss Mle 1938 automatic cannon (Mitrailleuse de 25-mm sur affutuniversel Hotchkiss Modele 1938) was installed and transported on a single-axis carriage. Hotchkiss Mle 1939, which is a heavier and more stable tool for use in stationary positions. Both samples had the same ballistic characteristics and fully complied with the requirements of the military.

The guns were versatile, i.e. could be used as anti-aircraft guns and as anti-tank. Accordingly, various ammunition was created: fragmentation, fragmentation, incendiary, armor-piercing and armor-piercing tracer. So an armor-piercing projectile (weight 0,28 kg, initial speed 870 m / s) normal pierced 30-mm armor at a distance of 300 meters. It was enough to solve any problems of pre-war time.

Here we just have to make a small digression. The fact is that many readers confuse Hotchkiss Mle 1938 and Hotchkiss SA34 / SA37 anti-tank gun. These are completely different guns using different ammunition. SA34 / SA37 use the much more powerful 25x194R projectile.

The gun was limited in practical rate of fire by using a carob shop on 15 shells. The magazine was mounted on top of the barrel.

In the 1940 year, the twin installation version Mle 1940J was released. But in general, France has missed time. At the time of the invasion of Germany in the 1940 year, the troops were 1103 guns of all modifications. To stop the German aviation, or even just really, such an air defense could not withstand it. Perhaps if there were more of these very good guns, the advantage of the Luftwaffe would have been leveled.

Advantages:
1. Lightweight with the ability to transport light trucks.
2. Universal (PTO and air defense).
3. Good ceiling.
4. The double-barreled version of the gun, quite significantly raising the combat characteristics.

Disadvantages:
1. Artificially limited rate of fire through the use of the store.
2. Short barrel length.

8. Colt-Browning М1А2. USA

To be historically fair, the forerunner of all automatic anti-aircraft guns automatic anti-aircraft guns was the American gunsmith John Moses Browning. After all, in fact, he developed the first anti-aircraft gun back in the 1924 year. The gun, manufactured by Colt's Patent Firearms Mfg Co (g. Harford), Browning even personally presented. This was the reason why, despite the resistance of the military, the gun was adopted in 1927 year (37-mm М1 on the carriage М3).

By the way, from here and some confusion in the name of the gun. 37-mm Browning М1А1, 37-mm Colt М1А1 and even 37-mm Colt-Browning М1А1 are called cannon in various sources.

This happened because after the death of Browning (1926 g) the gun was almost forgotten. And remembered only in 1938 year. It was then that the production was transferred to the company "Colt", which made some changes to the design.

The upgraded weapon received the index M1А2. And the predecessor in 1940 was already replaced by 40-mm Bofors М1.

So, what is the "Colt-Browning" M1A2.

Automation tools created "Colt" using the ideas of Browning. The barrel is movable with a vertical wedge gate. Ammunition from the cage (10 shells) continuous. Cooling the barrel water, using a special pump. With air cooling, the gun could do the maximum up to 100 shots.

Instrument guidance was carried out either manually or hydraulically. The hydraulic drive carried out automatic guidance according to the PUAZO data.

Since the gun was quite heavy, the cart had disc wheels with pneumatic tires. Transportation was carried out by a three-axle truck. It was possible to bring the weapon to the combat position in 2 minutes. However, instrument guidance required 12 minutes already.

The practical rate of fire of this gun 110-120 shots per minute. The gun went through the entire Second World War. By the way, it was precisely this weapon that was opposed by Japanese aviation in Pearl Harbor. 7200 units were released for 1938-42 years.

The advantages of weapons:
1. Versatility.
2. Good maximum ceiling.
3. Not a bad range.

Disadvantages:
1. Weak PF projectile.
2. Sophisticated manual guidance system.
2 Low rate of fire.

9. 20-mm gun "Polsten" model 44 Poland - Great Britain

We treat readers with another art-detective. We love this thing. The fact is that this anti-aircraft gun was created in Poland, but was put into service in the UK. It will be about the English (Polish) automatic anti-aircraft gun "Polsten".

It makes no sense to describe the design of the instrument itself. This is already recognized and described above "Oerlikon". But the Oerlikon is so technologically advanced that it sometimes amazes even the designers of weapons. It is its manufacturability in production.

The history of this gun really began in Poland. The excellent gun "Oerlikon" was simply impossible to produce in Polish factories. The complexity of the design and the large number of necessary details prevented (Oerlikon consisted of 250 details). Therefore, the designers were given the task of making production possible.

The project was almost finished, but the occupation began. It is no secret that in such situations there are always people who can evacuate the right people, no matter what. In short, the developers of the instrument, along with the documentation, were in Britain. Where, by some lucky chance, they also met with Czech gunsmiths, who also miraculously found themselves on the shores of Albion. Moreover, the meeting took place in the office of the famous British arms firm Sten, known for its fairly good submachine gun.

This is an international team and finalized the Polish project. “Oerlikon” in a technological and inexpensive version became “Polsten”. To understand the amount of work done by designers, it is enough to say just one digit. The gun, while retaining all the advantages and combat characteristics of the Oerlikon, consisted of only 119 parts instead of 250!

Yes, about the name of the gun. Why "Polsten"? The answer is simple - Polish Wall.

The gun was launched in March 1944 series. Immediately after this, Britain stopped the release of the Erlikon. Many of the elements, especially the supports, were similar to the Erlikonov one. And the use of this gun is fully consistent with the "Oerlikon".

Visually, the Polsten is different from the Erlikon. Designers abandoned the drum shop. We have already mentioned the problems with loading this store and using it in battle. In the "Wall" designed a new store. Now the shells were in a vertical box magazine on 30 shells. And the shells in the store were placed in two piles.

Thus, the British army was armed with two guns of the same type - the Oerlikon and Polsten, which ended the war.

The advantages and disadvantages are almost the same as those of the Oerlikon, with the exception of the high manufacturability of the production process.

10. 40-mm Bofors L60. Sweden

Writing about this tool is quite difficult for two reasons. First, this gun fought in all armies, on both sides of the front. Secondly, the authors' personal love for this particular gun. Indeed, one of the greatest successes of the designers of that time was the 40-mm cannon of the Swedish concern Bofors.

The gun was ordered to the concern by the Swedish government in 1928 after the Pom-Pom guns purchased from the British Vickers. The Vickers cannons turned out to be quite picky and thin. And the shooting range did not suit the Swedes.

The first version of the Bofors L-60, presented by the concern in 1929, also did not strike with its characteristics. The problem was the bolt mechanism. Too heavy and not allowing to maintain a high rate of fire. But already in 1930, the designers solved this problem by dividing the mechanism into two. The first to extract the spent cartridges, the second to feed the next projectile.

The gun was "brought to mind" in the 1932 year. All customer requirements have been met. The gun was originally produced in two versions - sea, double-barreled, and land (for installation on the chassis), single-barreled.

Paradoxically, the first Bofors L60 installations were installed not on Swedish ships, but on light cruisers in the Netherlands (HNLMS "De Ruyter"). After the first batch (5 installations), the Dutch bought a few more. Thus began the triumphal march of these cannons in the armies of the world.

In 1935, the guns adopted the armies of the Belgian, Polish, Norwegian and Finnish armies. In the year 1936 - Sweden (after all). And there was a lack of production capacity in Sweden and the production was also organized in Poland.

In 1937, the British modernized Polish guns and adopted their own licensed version - QF 40-mm Mark I. This gun was made in the UK, Canada and Australia.

In the US, the gun also liked. However, it could not be put into service without a corresponding "refinement" there. The metric system and manual assembly interfered. American engineers have made many changes to the design of weapons and ammunition to adapt them to a truly mass production, and also replaced the air cooling scheme with water and added an electric drive to quickly turn the installation. The official designation of the American version of "Bofors" - 40-mm Automatic Gun.

You can endlessly write about this tool. It is enough that, for example, the American Lockheed AC-130 ground support aircraft, the destroyers and boats are still armed with L60 guns. Moreover, there is a tradition in the US Armed Forces - it is obligatory to report every plane that Bofors has shot down to the Chrysler Corporation with the serial number of the gun!

Why did Victor Hammar and Emanuel Jansson (designer of Bofors) like the military? First of all, automation. Automatic guns based on the use of recoil force according to the scheme with a short recoil of the barrel. By the way, a quick change of the trunk was provided in case of overheating.
L60 was equipped with a modern for those times aiming system. Horizontal and vertical gunners had reflex sights, the third member of the calculation was behind them and worked with a mechanical computing device. The sight was powered by a 6V battery.

The towing of the gun was made by an ordinary truck.

Finishing a cursory story about this gun, let us say, during the Second World War, the total number of various modifications produced by Bofors L60 cannon exceeded 100 000 units.

Advantages:
1. Excellent automation.
2. Reliability.
3. Damage done

Disadvantages:
Worth a search, probably .

11. 37-mm gun 61-K model 1939 year. the USSR

Continuing the theme of "Bofors". The Soviet 37-mm gun of the 1939 model of the year was developed using the technical base of the Swedish ZAP Bosphorus L60. The gun was created by the decision of the Red Army GAU by the designer M.N. Loginov. During the Great Patriotic War, it was this weapon that was the main one in the air defense system. In addition, especially in the first period of the war, 61-K was often used as an effective anti-tank weapon.

37-mm ZAP 61-K is a single-barrel, fully automatic small caliber gun. All processes are automated in the same way as the base model. Manually made only the filing of cartridges in the store, aiming and pointing guns. Automation works by moving the trunk.

The gun was transported using a truck or any other tractor at speeds up to 60 km / h. Calculate 7 man. Total released 22 600 guns.

The gun went through the whole war with honor and ended with her participation in the victory salute in Berlin. Soviet anti-aircraft gunners treated this weapon with great respect. A battle path gun 61K continued for a long time in the postwar period.

Dignity guns:
1. High rate of fire.
2. Good ceiling.
3. Ease of use.

Disadvantages:
1. Lack of contactless fuse from the projectile.

12. 25-mm gun 72-K model 1940 year. the USSR

The next USSR anti-aircraft gun can be called the grandson of the Bofors L60. It's about 25-mm 72-K guns or (second name) 25-mm automatic anti-aircraft gun model 1940 of the year.

Many researchers of anti-aircraft guns of the Second World War often criticize this weapon because of the use of a rather heavy laft and a rather late (in time) appearance. To be honest, I don’t even want to answer these charges. It is enough just to see the combat path of this gun and the time of service.

The need for this weapon arose because a “hole” appeared on the regimental level in the air defense of the Red Army. Heavy machine gun DShK - gun 61K. A smaller caliber gun was needed. She became 72-K. It was this gun that successfully landed low-flying and diving German aircraft.

Structurally, the new 25-mm gun was a reduced copy of the 37-mm 61-K. Modernization of this gun lasted almost constantly. What ultimately resulted in the creation of a fairly perfect sample.

A total of 4 860 units of this weapon were produced. Calculate 6 man. The gun was in service with the SA before the ZSU-23-2 (the first half of the 60-s) was adopted for service.

Advantages:
1. Good initial projectile speed.
2. Reliability and reliability.
3. High rate of fire.

Disadvantages:
1. Heavy carriage.

Small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery played a huge role during the Second World War. Already during the war guns were improved and modified in response to the emergence of new aircraft. Most of the samples created at that time, either in the original or in a modernized form, continue military service today.

If we consider the loss of aviation during World War II, it turns out a curious fact. Most of the aircraft of the warring countries were destroyed precisely by small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery! The gunners eventually (in our opinion) outplayed the aviators.

We are waiting for your opinion on which guns were the best. Yes, there is something to choose from.


Watch the video: Infantry Weapons of WWI (December 2021).