Information

Waters DD- 115 - History


Waters

(Destroyer No. 115: dp. 1,154, 1. 314'4"; b. 30'11 1/2" (wl.); dr. 9'101/4 " (f.) (aft), s. 35.2 k. (tl.); cpl.122, a. 4 4", 2 3", 12 21" tt., 2 .30-car. mg., 2 dct.,1 Y-gun; cl. Wickes)

Waters (Destroyer No. 115) was laid down on 26 July 1917 at Philadelphia, Pa., by William Cramp & Sons; launched on 3 March 1918, sponsored by Miss Mary Borland Thayer; and commissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 8 August 1918, Lt. Comdr. Charles F. Russell in command.

Though her active service began late in World War I, Waters still managed to get in two round-trip voyages to the British Isles and one to the Azores before the armistice in November 1918. On 11 August, she joined a convoy at Tompkinsville, N.Y., and put to sea for England. She escorted her charges safely into Davenport on 23 August and stood out again four days later in the screen for four ships headed home.

The destroyer delivered the small convoy at New York on 6 September and, following a three-day layover, departed once again—this time bound for Ireland. Eleven days later, she entered the port at Buncrana. She remained there for eight days before again putting to sea. On 8 October, Waters arrived in New York and, but for a run to Newport, R.I., on 31 October and 1 November, remained there until she put to sea with a convoy again on 4 November. This one was made up of 11 merchantmen bound for the Azores. Waters and her convoy were still three days steaming time from Ponta Delgada on 11 November 1918, when the armistice brought hostilities in Europe to a close. She entered the Portuguese island port with the convoy on the 14th. Eight days later, Waters headed west again and arrived at New York on the 28th.

The destroyer remained there under repairs until mid-January 1919. On the 15th, she put to sea for another voyage to the Azores. Waters stayed in Ponta Delgada from her arrival on 21 January until 17 February when she headed back to the United States. She reached Boston on 25 February and moved to Philadelphia early in March for another series of repairs. On 3 April, she got underway for a brief run, via New York, to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

The destroyer returned to New York on the 14th and remained there through the end of the month. On 1 May, she stood out of port—in company with destroyers Craven, Dent, Hopewell, Philip Roper, and Stockton- to take up station as part of the picket of destroyers dotting the path of the transatlantic flight to be conducted by Navy flying boats. After an overnight stop at Trepassey Bay, Newfoundland, on 4 and 5 May, Waters dropped anchor off Santa Cruz in the Azores on the 10th.

On the 17th, she got underway at 0643 and arrived at her station, located between the islands of Corvo and Flores, at 0750. There, she lay to await the passage of the three seaplanes attempting the flight. Finally, at about 1112, her crew heard the drone of the engines of a single seaplane as NC-4, the only one of the three seaplanes to successfully complete the flight, passed overhead.

That afternoon, the warship left her station to search for NC-1 which had made a forced landing at sea. During the search, she received word that the third plane, NC-3, was also lost in the fog. Just after noon the following day, she received word that NC-1 had been found and its crew rescued by SS lonia. Accordingly, Waters returned to her anchorage off Santa Cruz that night.

Early the next morning, she weighed anchor to participate in the search for NC-3, however, she soon learned that NC-3 had been sighted off Ponta Delgada, navigating on the surface, and heading for that port under its own power. That same day, 19 May, the warship departed the Azores and shaped a course for Newport, R.I., where she arrived on 23 May.

The destroyer operated out of Newport and New York until mid-July. She was among the destroyers which escorted Pennsylvania (Battleship No. 38) out to sea on 8 July when Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels embarked in the battleship to meet George Washington off New York harbor and to welcome President Woodrow Wilson as he returned home from the peace negotiations in Europe.

On 14 July Waters sailed from New York, via Hampton Roals and the Panama Canal, to the west coast. She pulled into San Diego on 5 August and, after six weeks of operations which included a voyage to the Hawaiian Islands, was placed in reserve at San Diego on 21 September 1919.

On 24 February 1920, Waters came out of reserve and moved to Bremerton, Wash., where she began a nine-month overhaul preparatory to her return to active service. While the destroyer was at Puget Sound the Navy adopted the alphanumeric system of hull designations, and Waters became DD-115 on or about 17 July 1920. She completed her reconditioning on 30 November and returned to San Diego at the end of the first week in December.

During the first few months of 1921, she operated as a unit of Division X, a special organizational unit —to which Dorsey (DD-117) and Dent (DD-116) were also attached—pending the reconstitution of Division 14 in its entirety. In January and February, she made a cruise to Central and South America. She stopped in the Canal Zone on her way south and visited Valparaiso and Mejillones Bay in Chile during the first two weeks of February and then returned to Panama for nine days of battle practice with the Fleet. On 23 February, she headed home and, after visits to Costa Rica and Salvador, reached San Diego on 11 March.

Waters remained there until 21 June when she got underway north and, following brief stops at San Pedro and Mare Island, entered Bremerton, Wash. on 27 June to prepare at the Puget Sound Navy Yarl for duty in the Far East. Almost a month later, she returned south to San Francisco, whence she sailed for the Far East on 21 July. After stops at Pearl Harbor, Midway, and Guam, Waters steamed into Manila Bay on 24 August and reported for duty with the Asiatic Fleet at the Cavite Navy Yard.

The destroyer remained in the vicinity of Luzon through most of her tour of duty in the Orient. She visited Olongapo and Manila frequently and conducted combat training and torpedo exercises off the northwestern shores of the island in Lingayen Gulf. On 3 June 1922, she departed the Philippines and headed north for the Asiatic Fleet's usual summer cruise to Chinese waters. She arrived at Shanghai three days later and, for the remaining seven weeks of her tour in the Orient, visited Chinese ports such as Chefoo and Chinwangtao.

On 25 August, the warship weighed anchor at Chefoo to return to the United States. She stopped at Nagasaki in Japan, Midway Island, and Pearl Harbor en route to San Francisco, where she finally arrived on 3 October. After a week of repairs at Mare Island Navy Yard, Waters steamed south and, upon her arrival at San Diego on 23 October, immediately began preparations for inactivation. On 28 December 1922, Waters was decommissioned there and was laid up at the destroyer base.

On 4 June 1930, following more than seven years of inactivity Waters was recommissioned at San Diego, Lt. comdr. Conrad Ridgely in command. After a month of refurbishing, she began operations along the west coast on 18 July and continued that routine for the next 18 months.

On 1 February 1932, she departed the west coast for the first time since her return from the Far East in 1922. She arrived in Lahaina Roads in the Hawaiian Islands on 12 February and took part in a landing exercise as a unit of the antisubmarine screen. The destroyer spent most of her time in Lahaina Roads but managed brief visits to Oahu and Hilo.

Waters returned to San Diego on 21 March and resumed normal operations until late January 1933. On the 24th, the warship arrived at Mare Island where she was placed in Rotating Reserve Squadron 20. She passed the next six months idly, moored to pierside at Mare Island with a severely reduced crew on board.

Early in July 1933, Waters returned to active service as a unit of Destroyer Division (DesDiv) 5, Destroyer Squadron (DesRon) 2, Battle Force Destroyers. She left Mare Island on 10 July, arrived at San Diego two days later, and resumed operations along the west coast. After more than eight months of such activity, the warship put to sea from San Diego on 9 April 1934 for an extended voyage to the Atlantic.

Watere reached Balboa in the Canal Zone on the 22d, transited the canal three days later, and was moored at Cristobal for a fortnight. On 5 May, she sailed for the gunnery range at Culebra Island near Puerto Rico. For the next three weeks, Waters participated in maneuvers in conjunction with Fleet Problem XV, a three-phased exercise which encompassed an attack upon and defense of the Panama Canal, the capture of advanced bases, and a major fleet engagement. On 25 May, the destroyer shaped a course north to Rhode Island. After a stop at New York City, she stood into Newport on 6 July and conducted tactical exercises out of Newport for two months.

On 7 September, she embarked upon a leisurely voyage back to San Diego. Along the way, she stopped at Hampton Roads, Tampa, Fla.; and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Consequently, the warship did not transit the canal until 25 October. She reached San Diego on 8 November and went back into the Rotating Reserve on 19 December.

The warship returned to active duty in May 1935 and resumed operations along the west coast as a unit of DesDiv 19. Late in April 1936, she steamed south to the Panama Canal where she again joined in the maneuvers associated with the annual fleet concentrations which were conducted on the Pacific side of the isthmus. She returned to San Diego at the end of the first week in June and conducted normal operations for a month before leaving the west coast on 6 July.

Her voyage to Hawaii came as a result of DesDiv 19's assignment to the Submarine Force in conjunction with sonar tests. Sometime during the first half of the year, Waters and her sisters in the division had received the latest sound gear—high frequency directional sonar which allowed a destroyer to locate a submarine more accurately. Previously, sonar could at best indicate the presence of a submarine somewhere near the destroyer. The new equipment enabled submarine hunters to estimate the interloper's bearing and distance and therefore increased the probability of success of the destroyer's depth charge attacks. From July 1936 until late June 1939, Waters and her division mates cooperated with units of the Submarine Force in experiments to develop the techniques which translated the theoretical potential of the new technological developments into efflcient antisubmarine warfare doctrine. Waters departed Hawaii for the west coast on 20 June 1939. She reached San Diego 10 days later and was assigned to the Underwater Sound Training School. Between that time and America's entry into World War II, the destroyer continued to develop the Navy's antisubmarine warfare capability by teaching techniques which she had developed to sonar operators and officers assigned to the Fleet.

When the Japanese launched their surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Waters was in port at San Diego and still operating with the Sound School. She received word of the hostilities at 1125 and immediately began preparations to put to sea. That afternoon, the destroyer made a three-hour antisubmarine sweep of the approaches to San Diego. On 8 December, she departed San Diego in the screen of Hawaii-bound Saratoga (CV -3). Six days later, the carrier and her screen, DesDiv 50, entered Pearl Harbor. During her 10 days at Oahu, Waters periodically conducted patrols of the sea approaches to the harbor. Two days before Christmas, she got underway homeward with a task unit built around St. Louis (CL-49), Helena (CL-50), and Raleigh (CL-7). She escorted the cruisers into San Francisco on the 29th and returned to San Diego on the 30th.

After a month patrolling the California coast, Watere slipped her moorings at San Diego on 31 January 1942 and headed north for duty with the defense forces of the 13th Naval District. She arrived at Bremerton, Wash., on 5 February and, six days later, continued north to Alaska. For the next 10 months, the destroyer escorted supply ships from Seattle, Wash., to and between the bases along the Alaskan coast and through the Aleutians chain. She was later assigned to the forces of the Northwestern Sea Frontier as a unit of Task Force 8, the Alaskan defense force. Her mission, however, remained the same as she plied the cold waters of the northeastern Pacific between such ports as Kodiak, Dutch Harbor, Chernofski, Adak, and Sitka—returning periodically to Seattle.

The exigencies of the campaign for Guadalcanal— where neither side enjoyed the overwhelming local naval and air supremacy which insured victory in every other amphibious operation of the war—necessitated an increase in the number of high-speed transports. These hybrid warships combined the functions of transports and of destroyers into one. The concept of the high-speed transport embodied sufflcient armament for the ship to defend herself against smaller warships and to support the troops she carried with sufficient speed to enable her to outrun more heavily armed ships. Overage flushdeck destroyers such as Watera were the first ships to be so converted to fill this role.

Waters entered the Puget Sound Navy Yard on 19 December 1942 to begin conversion and later that month was redesignated APD-8. During the modifications, her forward boilers were removed to make room for the troops she would carry while her torpedo tubes came off to accommodate landing craft and their davits. Though the ship retained her four-gun main battery configuration, she swapped her obsolete singlepurpose 4-inch guns for more up-to-date dual-purpose 3-inch guns. Her antiaircraft defenses were further augmented by the addition of several single 20-millimeter mounts. She completed conversion in February and returned to San Diego on the 10th.

On 17 February, Waters stood out of San Diego, bound for the South Pacific. After a five-day stop at Pearl Harbor, she resumed her voyage and reported for duty with the South Pacific Amphibious Force at Noumea, New Caledonia, on 21 March. Five days later, she got underway for Espiritu Santo where she arrived the following day. For the next three weeks the high-speed transpOrt conducted amphibious training at Espiritu Santo with units of the 4th Marine Raider Battalion. On 18 April, Waters headed for the Fiji Islands. She arrived at Suva two days later, embarked men and equipment of Carrier Air Group 11, and proceeded via Espiritu Santo to the Solomons. She arrived off Guadalcanal on 25 April, disembarked her passengers, unloaded cargo, and departed the same day.

During the next nine days, she made a circuitous voyage that took her first to Efate, thence to the Fijis and from there back to Espiritu Santo where she arrived on 4 May. Eleven days later, the warship exited Segond Channel and set a course for Pago Pago in American Samoa where she stopped from 19 to 23 May. The next stop on her itinerary was Auckland, New Zealand, where she laid over from 29 May to 5 June while her crew enjoyed their last real shore leave for quite some time. Waters returned to Noumea on 8 June and got underway the following day with a convoy bound for the southern Solomons. She and her charges arrived off Guadalcanal on 14 June, and the high-speed transport began patrolling the anchorage off Koli Point.

With her arrival in the Solomons, Waters began almost a year engaged in the type of operations for which ships of her type were ideally suited. The battered remnants of the Japanese defense forces had evacuated Guadalcanal over three months before; and the American Navy, Marine Corps, and Army possessed relatively secure bases—at that island and across Ironbottom Sound at Florida Island—from which to begin the climb up the Solomons staircase toward the Bismarcks and Rabaul. Operating from Purvis Bay at Florida Island, Waters shuttled troops and supplies north to the invasions of various central and northern Solomon islands—New Georgia, Vella Lavella, Bougainville, Treasury Island, and the Green Islands subgroup. After the move toward the Bismarcks began in earnest, she supported both initial invasions and consolidation operations.

New Georgia, the center island of a cluster which with Vella Lavella, made up the southern branch of the Solomon Archipelago, constituted the second rung on the ladder to Rabaul. While Waters waited for the assault on that island, scheduled for the end of June, she patrolled the anchorages between Guadalcanal and Florida Island. On 16 June, she fought her first action when attacking Japanese planes dropped a stick of bombs close aboard. She returned the compliment more accurately than her adversaries, as her antiaircraft battery splashed two of the offending bombers.

Four days later, she received orders to move to Guadalcanal to embark five officers and 187 men of the 4th Marine Raider Battalion, part of a force hastily collected to occupy Segi Point on the southern coast of New Georgia. The Japanese were then moving in on a coastwatcher named Kennedy who held the plantation on the point, and Rear Admiral Turner decided to advance the date of the opening of the Segi Point phase of the New Georgia operation in order to keep possession of the beachhead which for all intents and purposes was already established there and to protect Kennedy and his native guerrillas. Waters and Dent (APD-9) transited the Slot during the night of 20 and 21 June and, early the next morning, threaded their way through the uncharted shoal water between New Georgia and Vangunu to Segi Point. In less than two hours, the two former flushdeckers disembarked their passengers and stood out to sea again. After a daylight passage back down the Slot, Waters and her sister ship returned to Guadalcanal late that afternoon and thence moved to Port Purvis without incident.

On 25 June, Waters moved to Guadalcanal to embark more troops, this time the "Barracudas" scout troops of the Army's 172d Infantry. Until the 29th, she practiced amphibious landings at Purvis Bay; then headed north for the landings on Rendova, a small island south of New Georgia and directly opposite Munda, the main objective of the operation. The troops she carried were to have led the assault on Rendova and to have secured a beachhead for the main invasion force. However, heavy weather obscured the beacon fires which were to have guided them ashore, and the "Barracudas" landed some 10 miles down the coast from their objective. By the time they reembarked and moved up the coast, the troops were able to land unopposed across a beachhead already established by units of the main invasion force. Watere completed disembarkation and unloading operations without further incident and by 0855, stood down Blanche Channel in company with Derzt to return to Purvis Bay, where she anchored that afternoon.

Rendova had been taken primarily as a stepping-stone to the main objective—Munda—as well as its airstrip— and to provide locations for supporting heavy artillery and its observation posts. By the time troops began shullting from Rendova to Zanana—located to the east of Munda Point—for the planned occupation, Waters had picked up more troops at Guadalcanal and had landed them on the opposite coast of New Georgia. She departed Guadalcanal on Independence Day and, the following morning, sent them ashore at Rice Anchorage on the northern coast of the island. The force she landed, a mixture of Marine Corps and Army units, succeeded in isolating and reducing the Japanese garrisons at Bairoko and on Enogai Inlet while the troops in the south concentrated upon the seizure of Munda without fear of interference from the north.

During the next 10 days, she made two more runs to New Georgia carrying reinforcements and supplies to Rendova and returning to Guadalcanal with casualties. On the morning of 13 July, in the aftermath of the naval battles of Kula Gulf and Kolombangara, she escorted the damaged cruisers Honolubb (CL-48) and St. Lou~s into Purvis Bay. Two days later, she received orders to head for Vella Lavella—located northwest of New Georgia—to pick up survivors from Helena which had been sunk during the Battle of Kula Gulf. She embarked three war correspondents at Koli Point and cleared Guadalcanal at 1325 on the 15th. At 2258 that night, she hauled in sight of her destination and began searching for the Helena sailors. At 0159 on the 16th she lowered her boats to enter Paraso Bay. Later, she moved to Lambu Lambu cove, where her boats picked up 40 officers and men from the sunken cruiser. She completed rescue operations at 0450 and departed Vella Lavella for Guadalcanal. She disembarked the 40 survivors at Tulagi just after 1300 and anchored in Purvis Bay an hour later.

For the next month, Waters transported supplies, reinforcements, and garrison troops from Guadalcanal to Rendova and New Georgia and evacuated casualties in support of the mopping up of New Georgia and the capture of the remainder of the smaller islands of the group. During these operations, she served both as a transport and as escort for the slower and less wellarmed LST's and LCI's which were used so extensively for transportation throughout the campaigns in the southwestern Pacific.

In mid-August, while the troops she had ferried to New Georgia over the previous seven weeks continued to mop up that island and the smaller ones surrounding it, Waters trained her sights on a new objective. Though Kolombangara, the big round island just to the northwest of New Georgia, appeared to be the next step in the ascent to Rabaul, American commanders had become intrigued with the possibility of by passing, or "leapfrogging," its strong garrison and isolating it by occupying Vella Lavella, the next island above it on the southern arm of the Solomons chain.

Accordingly, Waters and six other fast transports loaded troops and equipment at Guadalcanal on 13 and 14 August. Two other transport groups, both composed of slower ships—LST's and LCI's—departed ahead of her and her sisters who cleared Guadalcanal just before 1600 on the 14th. On the way up the Slot, the faster transports took over the lead from the tank landing ships and landing craft and arrived off Vella Lavella at 0529 the following morning. Since there was no organized Japanese garrison on the island, troops from Waters and the other fast transports established and consolidated their beachhead quickly. By 0730, she was steaming back down the Slot toward Guadalcanal and Purvis Bay. During the first hour of the passage, planes from the enemy air raids which halfheartedly contested the Vella Lavella landings attacked the transports. Waters' antiaircraft battery engaged the attackers, but neither side scored. The remainder of the trip proved uneventful, and Watere dropped anchor in Purvis Bay at 2133 that night.

Over the next two months, Waters transported replacement troops, reinforcements, and supplies to New Georgia and Vella Lavella. On the return trips, she evacuated casualties and later, after both islands had been secured and garrison forces had moved in, began evacuating the combat-weary veterans of the campaign. These operations signaled the close of the central Solomons phase of the campaign to isolate Rabaul. Future operations centered upon Bougainville, the northernmost major island in the Solomons. In preparation for the invasion of that island, Waters participated in simulated amphibious landings at Kukum Beach on Guadalcanal on 26 October. Later that day, she embarked New Zealand troops and laid a course up the Slot to the Treasury Islands, a small pair located not far south of Bougainville and ideally suited as a staging base for small craft and PT boat patrols. The warship landed her portion of the Treasuries assault force expeditiously on the 27th and returned south to Purvis Bay on the 28th.

Waters remained at Purvis Bay for the remainder of October and into the first week of November. Consequently, she missed the 1 November landings on Bougainville at Cape Torokina. However, she moved to Guadalcanal on the 4th, loaded elements of the second echelon, and stood out toward Bougainville. She entered Empress Augusta Bay at 0609 on 6 November and disembarked her passengers by 0733. She then stood out of the bay and took up patrol position outside and helped to screen the entrance to the bay until the following day when she steamed back toward Purvis Bay.

For the following two weeks, Waters shuttled troops and equipment back and forth between Guadalcanal and Bougainville. All but the last of those trips were relatively peaceful affairs which began with troop embarkation at Guadalcanal, disembarkation at Empress Augusta Bay after passage up the Slot and a return voyage with casualties bound for Guaialcanal. During the last voyage, however, enemy dive bombers attacked her convoy just as it arrived off Cape Torokina at 0755 on the 17th. The warship's antiaircraft batteries quickly engaged the intruders and scored a kill on a Japanese "Val." During a lull in the attacks, Waters disembarked her troops, but another air raid at 0615 delayed the embarkation of wounded, and she did not complete the operation until 0845. She lay to off Cape Torokina until 1819 when she formed up with a south-bound convoy and headed back to Guadalcanal. On 19 November she disembarked the casualties at Kukum Beach anl returned to Purvis Bay at about 1330.

After 11 days in port at Purvis Bay, Waters departed the Solomons for the first time since her arrival the previous June. On 1 December, she stood out of Purvis Bay for Noumea, where she arrived on the 3d. Two days later, she weighed anchor again to escort merchantmen SS Amy Lowell and SS Juan Cabrillo as far as Lady Elliott Island and then continued independently to Australia. She reached Sydney on 10 December and began nine days of shore leave and repairs

On the morning of 20 December, she sailed for New Caledonia. On the 23d, she received orders to rendezvous with another merchantman, SS Walter Colton, and to escort that ship into Noumea. The warship reached the rendezvous point on Christmas Eve Day and began a fruitless two-day search for SS Walter Colton. Early in the evening of Christmas Day, she gave up the search and entered Noumea alone.

Four days later, Waters returned to sea and, on 30 December 1943, joined the screen of a Guadalcanalbound convoy. En route back to the Solomons, Waters received orders detaching her from the convoy and instructions to rendezvous with SS Sea Barb and see that ship safely to Auckland, New Zealand. She made the rendezvous that same day, 5 January 1944, escorted her to her destination, and came about to return to Noumea. Waters arrived in Noumea on 9 January and, a week later, entered drydock for three days. On 20 January, the day after she left the dock the fast transport headed back to the Solomons and two days later, arrived in Purvis Bay.

After a brief excursion as target ship for TF 38 on 24 and 25 January, she moved to Guadalcanal on the 28th and embarked a reconnaissance party for the initial raid on the Green Islands, a small pair north of Buka and Bougainville. She departed Guadalcanal the same day and headed up the Slot. En route, she stopped at Vella Lavella on the 29th to embark a further 112 officers and men, all members of the 30th Battalion, New Zealand Commando Force. That evening, the fast transport and the embarked raiders rehearsed the landing at Vella Lavella. The next morning, she started out on the last leg of the journey. The landing force reached the Green Islands around 2400 that night, and the commandos landed, unopposed, on Nissan, the larger of the two islands. At 0120 on the 31st, Waters received word that the landing had succeeded. Late that evening, she moved in toward the Nissan transport area to recover the reconnaissance party which had completed its mission. She completed reembarkation before dawn on 1 February and steamed back down the Slot. Later that day, she and Hudson parted company with the rest of the task group to return the New Zealanders to Vella Lavella. Afterward, she continued on toward Guadalcanal, where she arrived on 2 February.

After debarking her remaining passengers at Guadalcanal, Waters returned to Purvis Bay for an 11-day stay. On the 13th and 14th, the fast transport retraced her steps of two weeks before. On the 13th, she embarked troops at Guadalcanal and steamed northwest up the Slot. The following day, she stopped at Vella Lavella and took on additional troops, mostly members of the 207th Battalion, 3d New Zealand Division, before continuing on to the Green Islands for the actual occupation. At 0625 on 15 February, the task force arrived off Nissan and began landing the occupation force. The miniscule enemy garrison did not oppose the landing and Watere completed her part of the mission and cleared the area by 0846. She returned to Florida Island on the 16th. Between 18 and 21 February, the warship made another round-trip voyage to the Green Islands to ferry a mixed bag of Navy, Army, and New Zealand forces before reentering Purvis Bay for the remainder of the month.

During the first half of March, she made two more voyages to the Green Islands—via Bougainville—before returning to Purvis Bay on the 16th to prepare for the occupation of Emirau Island. At 0630 on St. Patrick's Day, she shifted from Florida Island to Guadalcanal, where she embarked units of the newly reconstituted 4th Marines. At 1800, she passed through Indispensible Strait with the Emirau invasion force and laid in a course to the northwest of the Solomons and New Ireland. At 0615, she arrived in the St. Matthias Islands and began disembarking troops for the invasion of Emirau, the southernmost island of the group. Once again, Waters' troops made their landing unopposed. The fast transport completed unloading by 1030 and took up station to patrol the transport area against enemy submarines. Finally, at 1930 that evening, she formed up with the other ships of the force and headed back to the southern Solomons. On the evening of the 22d, the force retransited Indispensible Strait and, the next morning, broke up off Savo Island to return to their various anchorages. Waters reentered Purvis Bay at 1130 and let go her anchor.

The fast transport remained in Purvis Bay for the remainder of March and the first week in April. On the 8th, she stood out of the anchorage, picked up passengers at Guadalcanal, and took departure for Pearl Harbor in company with Stringham (APD-6) She made a brief stop at Funafuti, in the Ellice Islands on 11 April and moored at the DE docks in Peari Harbor on the 18th. The warship completed repairs by 1 May and began amphibious training at Kauai to prepare for the Marianas operation.

On 21 May while Waters was in Pearl Harbor, an LST moored near her exploded. The resulting fire quickly spread to ships moored nearby. Though Waters was unable to get underway immediately and clear the area, her crew responded quickly by manning the firefighting equipment and wetting down the decks. Further explosions occurred during the afternoon, showering her with debris and injuring one of her crewmen, but the warship sustained relatively minor damage—a few sprung doors, cut cables, some sprung bulkheads, a bent yardarm brace, and a slightly damaged hull frame Later, her crew responded to the emergency by launch ing the ship's boats and rescuing 75 survivors from the oil and fire-covered waters surrounding the stricken LST's. The fires smoldered for two days after the incident, and fire-fighting parties were called away intermittently. However, Waters soon completed repairs of the damage caused on the 21st and resumed amphibious exercises in preparation for Operation "Forager."

On 28 May, Waters stood out of Pearl Harbor for Kawaihae Bay, where she embarked marines the following day. That same day she joined TF 51 and departed the Hawaiian Isiands en route to Eniwetok Atoll, the staging point for the invasion of Saipan. She entered Eniwetok Lagoon at 0900 on 8 June and remained at anchor there for three days. On the 11th TF 52—the Northern Attack Force—sortied from Eniwetok and headed for the Marianas. Waters served as flagship for both TransDiv 12 and TG 52.8, the Eastern Landing Group, administrative and operational organizations, respectively, the same six fast transports made up both organizations.

As she led her task group on the approach to Saipan late in the evening of 14 June, Waters made sonar contact with a submarine. She attacked with depth charges around 2200 and was unable to reestablish the contact after the barrage. Though the evidence did not support crediting her with a confirmed kill, her crew observed an oil slick which suggested that she had at least damaged an enemy submarine. She resumed her place in formation just before 2300 and continued to close Saipan, the northernmost of the Marianas islands.

At 0510, she went to general quarters in anticipation of the landing and moved into the transport area off the lower portion of Saipan's western coast. She received orders to patrol 2,000 yards to seaward of the transport area, and she led TransDiv 12 to that station at around 0715. The assault force hit the beaches at about 0845, but Waters' complement of marines remained embarked throughout the day and the night of 15 and 16 June while she screened the transport area. She closed the transports once—at 1835—to help repel an air attack and, later, screened them during night retirement.

A little after 0800 on the 16th, Waters and the other APD's of TransDiv 12 closed the Charon Kanoa beaches and disembarked their troops—members of the 1st Battalion, 2d Marine Regiment—originally intended for a secondary landing on the eastern coast at Magicienne Bay but landed at the main beachhead because of unexpectedly stiff resistance ashore and an impending battle at sea. She completed debarking marines by 0858 and formed her division in column to take up sereening station for the transports. The fast transport reached her assigned position at 1330 and relieved Baglev (DD-386).

She remained off Saipan until late June, shepherding the transports of TF 51. During that time, she helped repel several air attacks but did not actually participate in the great air battle of the Philippine Sea fought on 19 and 20 June 1944. Before departing the Marianas on 2 July, the warship also made two unsuccessful
attacks on enemy submarines and bombarded Japanese positions on Tinian.

On 2 July, the fast transport cleared the Marianas to escort TG 51.4 to Eniwetok. She reached her destination two days later and, after a 48-hour layover, exited the lagoon to return to the Marianas. Waters resumed patrols of the transport area off Saipan upon her arrival there on the 12th. That night, she delivered night illumination and harrassment fire on Tinian near Tinian Town, probably to discourage any attempt by the Japanese on that island to reinforce their comrades in the Saipan garrison. She resumed antisubmarine patrols on the 13th; and, on the 14th, she departed the Marianas once more—this time to escort Patuxent (AO-44) and SS Sea Cat to Eniwetok. After reaching Eniwetok on 17 July, the warship spent the next 11 days undergoing repairs and then stood out of the lagoon on the 28th to screen another task unit on its voyage to Saipan. She arrived in the Marianas two days later, parted company with the task unit, and entered the anchorage off Guam, which American forces had invaded while the fast transport was at Eniwetok.

Following three days of screening transports in Agat Bay, she joined a task unit built around battleships Colorudo (BB-45) and Pennsylvania (BB-38). Waters reached Eniwetok on the 6th, remained overnight, and then steamed out of the lagoon to escort Colorado to Pearl Harbor.

Waters arrived in Pearl Harbor on 12 August but departed again six days later. On the 22d, she entered San Francisco. After six weeks of repairs and modifications, the fast transport left San Francisco on 7 October to return to Hawaii. Upon arrival in Pearl Harbor on the 14th, she began additional repairs in preparation for training with underwater demolition teams (UDT) which she began at the end of October. She completed that training by the beginning of January 1945 and, on the 10th, departed Pearl Harbor with TG 52.11, built around Texas (BB-35) and Nevada (BB-36). The task group reached Ulithi Atoll on the 23d, and Waters remained until 10 February when she got underway to join in the assault on Iwo Jima. She arrived in the Marianas on the 12th, conducted rehearsals at Saipan and Tinian, and continued on to the Bonin Volcano group on the 14th.

She arrived off Iwo Jima on the morning of 16 February as part of the screen for the fire support group. During the three days before the actual invasion, Waters protected the bombardment battleships from enemy submarines and supported the UDT's in their preinvasion reconnaissance of Iwo Jima's beaches. On the day of the assault, she joined the transports and screened them during the landings. The warship remained in the vicinity of Iwo Jima until the first week in March, supporting UDT operations and patrolling against Japanese submarines. On 5 March, the high-speed transport cleared the area with TransDiv 33 and a four-ship screen and headed for Guam. She remained at Guam for a day and a night, arriving there early on the 8th and departing again on the 9th. She entered Ulithi again on the 11th and began preparations for the last campaign of World War II—Operation "Iceberg," the assault on Okinawa.

Following 10 days in Ulithi lagoon, Waters steamed out of the atoll on 21 March and joined TG 54.2, part of Rear Admiral M. L. Deyo's Gunfire and Covering Force, for the voyage to the Ryukyus. During the approach for the preinvasion bombardment on 26 March, Waters fired upon a Japanese "Val" dive bomber which tried to crash into Gilmer (APD-11). Though she claimed no kill, Waters' antiaircraft battery was probably instrumental in deflecting that kamikaze's aim and causing him to miss his target by a mere 75 yards. Over the four days before the landings, she screened the "old" battleships while they softened up Okinawa's defenses and supported UDT reconnaissance missions and demonstrations along the Okinawa coastline. Late on the 31st, she joined Tractor Group "Fox" to cover its approach to the beaches on the following morning.

During the first week of the assault, she conducted patrols off those same beaches. On 6 April, she teamed up with Morris (DD-417) to splash a "Betty" twinengine bomber. Early that evening, a suicide plane crashed Morris, and Waters rushed to her assistance helping to control the fires that blazed on board the destroyer for two hours. Two days later, Waters entered Kerama Retto for fuel and to await reassignment. The following day, she received orders to screen Mine Squadron (MinRon) 3 and, for the remainder of the month, supported minesweeping operations. On 3 May, she took up famiilar duty protecting the transport area from submarines, but that assignment proved to be a brief one.

The following day, she joined the escort of a Ulithibound convoy. On 6 May, she and Herbert (APD-22) were diverted to Leyte Gulf, where they arrived on the 8th. There, they picked up a convoy of LST's and shepherded them back to Okinawa, arriving on the 15th. After four days at Okinawa—punctuated by frequent Japanese air attacks, she departed once again in the escort of a convoy bound for Saipan. The fast transport reached her destination on the 24th, underwent repairs, and shifted to Guam on 5 June to unload her UDT equipment. From Guam, she moved to Ulithi for another week of repairs from 6 to 13 June. On the 17th, the warship returned to Okinawa with another convoy and, after two days at Kerama Retto, cleared the Ryukyus for the last time.

During this voyage, which ultimately took her home she fired her last shot in anger on 24 June when she dropped a barrage of depth charges on an underwater sound contact. Following the attack, she lost contact and continued on her way. After stops at Saipan, Eniwetok, and Pearl Harbor, the warship finally hauled into San Pedro, Calif., on 21 July. Soon after her arrival, she began an extensive overhaul at the Western Steel & Pipe Co. On 2 August, she resumed her former classification as a destroyer and became DD-115 once again. The war ended on 14 August while she was still in the yard, and, in September, she was moved to Terminal Island, and the overhaul became preinactivation preparations. On 12 October 1945, the veteran of two world wars was decommissioned at Terminal Island Her name was struck from the Navy list on 24 October 1945, and she was sold for scrapping on 10 May 1946.

Waters received seven battle stars for service during World War II.


Northwest Passage

The Northwest Passage is a famed sea route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean through a group of sparsely populated Canadian islands known as the Arctic Archipelago. European explorers first began to search for the Northwest Passage in the fifteenth century, but treacherous conditions and sea ice cover made the route impassible, foiling many expeditions. Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen became the first to successfully navigate the Northwest Passage in 1906. Climate change has caused Arctic ice cover to thin in recent years, opening the passage to marine shipping. In summer 2007, the route was entirely ice-free for the first time in recorded history.


USS Mobile (LKA 115)

USS MOBILE was the third CHARLESTON - class amphibious cargo ship and the fourth ship in the Navy named after the city in Alabama. Initially laid down as AKA 115, the MOBILE was redesignated as LKA 115 on January 1, 1969. Decommissioned on February 4, 1994, the MOBILE is now berthed at the Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility at Philadelphia, where she is held in reserve to make her available in the case of a military emergency.

General Characteristics: Awarded: June 11, 1965
Keel laid: January 15, 1968
Launched: October 19, 1968
Commissioned: September 29, 1969
Decommissioned: February 4, 1994
Builder: Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Va.
Propulsion system: two boilers, one geared turbine, one propeller shaft, 22,000 shaft horsepower
Propellers: one
Length: 575.5 feet (175.4 meters)
Beam: 82 feet (25 meters)
Draft: 25.6 feet (7.8 meters)
Displacement: approx. 18,700 tons full load
Speed: 20+ knots
Aircraft: helicopter platform only
Boats: 4 LCM-8, 4 LCM-6, 2 LCVP and 2 LCP
Armament: two 20mm Phalanx CIWS
Crew: Ship: 22 officers and 334 enlisted USMC: 15 officers and 211 enlisted

This section contains the names of sailors who served aboard USS MOBILE. It is no official listing but contains the names of sailors who submitted their information.

The photos below were taken by me on November 7, 2008, and show the MOBILE laid up at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard.

The photos below were taken by me on October 26, 2010, and show the MOBILE still laid up at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard.


Contents

1942 Edit

Following shakedown, Beatty escorted the Norwegian tanker Britainsea and Barstowe from the Isles of Shoals to Portland, Maine, on 8 August before she was detached for patrol duty and antisubmarine warfare (ASW) training. She next steamed to Boston to embark Admiral Royal E. Ingersoll, Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet, on 12 August. In company with Quick, the destroyer transported her high-ranking passenger to Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Argentia, Newfoundland, before disembarking him at Portland on 22 August. The destroyer then escorted Vixen, with Admiral Ingersoll aboard, from Portland to New London, Connecticut where she arrived on 23 August.

Beatty took part in exercises out of New London with friendly submarines until 25 August and then sailed south to Charleston, South Carolina, for voyage repairs. After that, she steamed to the West Indies and the Gulf of Mexico, reaching Cristobal in the Panama Canal Zone on 10 September. There, she joined Convoy NC-5, four Army transports which got underway for the British West Indies on 11 September. The warship shepherded her charges to Trinidad, and made port on 15 September.

Clearing Trinidad shortly before noon on 16 September, Beatty joined Davis and Eberle in an antisubmarine sweep near Tobago Island. At 1858, Eberle reported a submarine contact and carried out an attack, without achieving any definitive results. Beatty then rendezvoused with a convoy on 17 September, escorting it to a dispersal point off Georgetown, British Guiana, and then heading back to Trinidad. After shifting to San Juan, where she made port on the 23rd, Beatty sailed with Convoy NC-5, via Kingston, Jamaica, and Belize, Honduras, to New Orleans. Sailing for the east coast on 6 October, she reached the Charleston Navy Yard on 8 October to prepare for her next operation.

Underway again on 16 October 1942, Beatty sailed for Hampton Roads and there joined Task Group 34.10 (TG 34.10) – the Southern Attack Group assembling there for Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa. This group was slated to assault Safi, French Morocco. Arriving off the North African shore on 7 November, TG 34.10 began preparations for landing early the following morning. Beatty joined the transport area's antisubmarine screen at midnight and patrolled south of Bernadou and Cole as they circled slowly, waiting for the order to land their troops at Safi.

Enjoying the element of surprise, Beatty proceeded toward the beach, staying on Bernadou ' s starboard quarter as she and Cole began their movement shoreward. At 0415, Beatty took her station along with other ships of the fire support group, and, at 0430, heard the prearranged code words "Play Ball." Uncertain as to the position of the assault groups, Beatty checked fire momentarily until intercepting a radio transmission that told of the assault wave's arrival at the line of departure. Assured that no friendly troops had yet landed in that sector, Beatty opened fire at 0431, continuing for ten minutes before checking fire to await instructions for fire support.

Beatty lost communication with the Army troops on shore, and by 0520 maneuvered seaward toward the transport area, to take station in a screen before sunrise. At 0640, she observed enemy fire from batteries at Point de la Tour, and saw some splashes close aboard and in the vicinity of the boat lane to the "Red" and "Blue" beaches. A minute later, Beatty fired at these guns, silenced them in 20 minutes. For the remainder of her participation in "Torch," Beatty served in the screen. She returned to the United States late in November and entered the New York Navy Yard for voyage repairs and alterations.

1943 Edit

For the next four months, Beatty covered convoys plying the Atlantic. During this period, she made three round-trip cycles. Ending the third cycle upon her arrival at New York on 28 April, Beatty underwent the usual voyage repairs and conducted type training before getting underway for Hampton Roads on 13 May. Reaching Norfolk the following day, she escorted Vixen, with Admiral Ingersoll embarked, to New York, arriving on 15 May. Further type training in the Chesapeake Bay area followed, before she stood out of Hampton Roads on 8 June, as part of the escort for fast Convoy UGF-9, bound for Algeria. She arrived at Mers-el-Kébir on 25 June 1943.

Patrolling, escorting, and training followed Beatty ' s arrival in the Mediterranean basin. On 5 July, the destroyer sailed for Sicily, assigned to the "Cent" attack force for the invasion of Sicily. Arriving off the transport area on 9 July, she observed antiaircraft fire in the skies over Sicily at 2240. The fire grew in intensity over Gela, Biscari, Vittoria, and Santa Croce Camerina. She observed several planes crashing around 2325, and a large fire burning to south of Biscari. Beatty screened the southeastern flank of the transport area until they anchored offshore in their assigned zone, and then took her station in her fire support area.

Led by PC-557 and Speed (AM-116) , the first landing craft from Neville began nosing shoreward around 0342. Cowie lay on Speed ' s port beam, with Beatty 500 yards (460 m) off Cowie ' s port beam. At about 0407, Speed requested the destroyers to open fire. Beatty promptly complied, beginning with rapid fire and then slowing to eight rounds per gun per minute. Having observed no return fire, she ceased fire at 0416.

After the neutralization of the landing zone, Beatty returned to the transport area to take up screening duties and to await contact with her shore fire control party (SFCP). At 0830, SFCP-7A, attached to the 2nd Battalion of the Army's 180th Regimental Combat Team, informed Beatty that the landing had been successful.

During the forenoon, Beatty observed enemy planes appearing low and fast out of the Valle Forte, over Lagi di Biviere, and from the valley just west of the Fiume Acati, strafing ground troops, bombing the beaches and seemingly disappearing almost as soon as they were seen. The enemy planes "maintained their nuisance value the entire period of daylight," enjoying what almost amounted to immunity because "ships could not fire on them also without danger to (our) own forces." The enemy aircraft proved devastating to Allied spotting planes. Beatty observed four Reggiane Re.2001s gang up on and shoot down a SOC Seagull at 1021. At 1315, a Focke-Wulf Fw 190 downed another Seagull to the southeast of Scoglitti.

Beatty claimed some solid hits on one of the Re.2001s that had downed the first Seagull, observing it disappear over a nearby section of high ground. At 1046, a plane roared out of the "favorite valley" toward the ships. Beatty opened fire, pumping out 26 rounds from her Bofors 40 mm guns and 60 from her Oerlikon 20 mm cannons before the plane was seen to be a P-51 Mustang.

For the remainder of 10 July, Beatty remained off the invasion beaches. Shell fragments hit Beatty ' s main deck and port side when tank landing craft (LCTs) nearby fired on "friendly" planes at 1847. The threat of further air attacks prompted the destroyer to help lay a smoke screen over the LCTs.

The harassment continued after sunset. A heavy bomb landed about 500 yards astern of the ship, shaking her "considerably," while she observed a nearby dogfight. One of the antagonists shot the other down. The latter crashed in flames, starting a brush fire where it fell. Meanwhile, considerable gunfire from the beach and the ships offshore criss-crossed the night skies.

Enemy bombing raids ushered in the next day, 11 July, and Beatty fired at a Messerschmitt Bf 110 at 0651, after it had bombed Allied positions on "Dime" beach. At 0735, SFCP-7A requested Beatty to "stand by for target designation." After receiving the target coordinates, Beatty set to work at 0738, blasting a railroad and highway junction until 0811. Her shore party later informed her that the targets had been "tanks and bridges." In just over three hours, Beatty hurled 799 rounds at targets designated by her spotters, inflicting what she suspected was a considerable amount of damage on the enemy positions. When she left the beaches only 192 rounds remained.

When she was relieved by Laub at 1100, her crew had been at battle stations since 2024 on 9 July. Nevertheless, Beatty took station in the antisubmarine screen at 1140, and sent her men to general quarters several times during the afternoon due to air attacks on transport and beach areas. Near 1900, Beatty moved southeast of a minefield to await the formation of a convoy she had been directed to escort, and took up screening patrol south of Scoglitti, crossing the waters between Point della Camerina and Point Braccetto. At 2224, the enemy began dropping flares and bombs near Scoglitti. The flares cast their light over the ships offshore, marking them as targets.

About 2230, eight flares lit up the waters south of Point Braccetto, followed by two heavy bombs. Beatty stood towards the transport area around 2246 and detected the sound of an approaching aircraft. The plane made an unusual amount of noise as it approached the beaches at Scoglitti the crew could hear it, but not see it. At almost the same time, Beatty suffered hits on her starboard side by what were believed to be machine gun bullets. Beatty ' s men suddenly noticed the plane pass across the ship's bow at about 40 feet (12 m), "missing the forecastle by a few feet", and turned down the port side of the ship, landing in the water next to the number two stack, about 50 feet (15 m) away. Beatty ' s 20 mm guns fired two bursts before the plane came to a stop in the swells alongside.

At that point, Beatty ' s sailors could see that the plane was a United States Army Air Forces C-47 Skytrain troop transport. Beatty ceased fire as six flares lit up the area. The destroyer then rang up flank speed as she pulled away from the sinking Skytrain.

Beatty ' s executive officer, Lieutenant Commander William Outerson, marked the charts with the American plane's position. After the flares had burned out, Beatty returned to the spot and found a rubber boat with all four members of the Skytrain's crew. The plane, attached to the 15th Troop Carrier Squadron, had endured quite an evening since leaving Malta with paratroops on board. She had been hit by gunfire from both friend and foe alike. The plane had disgorged her paratroops before she crash-landed at sea her pilot, First Lieutenant P. J. Paccassi, USAAF, earned praise from Beatty ' s commanding officer for the skill with which he had landed his badly damaged aircraft. The large amount of noise Beatty ' s sailors had heard had been caused by one of the Skytrain's engines disintegrating.

Beatty remained on antisubmarine patrol until 2100 on 12 July, when she departed the Scoglitti area in the screen for a group of transports returning to Algeria. The warship arrived at Oran on 15 July. Underway for the United States on 21 July, Beatty escorted a convoy to New York where she arrived on 3 August. Following voyage repairs at the New York Navy Yard, she again sailed for the Mediterranean on 21 August.

Action soon followed her return to the Mediterranean. On 2 September, while part of the antisubmarine screen of Section II of Convoy UGF-10, bound for Bizerte, Tunisia, Beatty went to general quarters upon the report of enemy aircraft in the vicinity. None came near enough for Beatty to take them under fire, but one managed to torpedo Kendrick at around 2117. Almost immediately, Beatty closed the damaged destroyer and stood guard until relieved by Davison later that night.

While anchored off Bizerte four days later, Beatty received a red alert at 2030 and again went to general quarters. Intense antiaircraft fire commenced at 2050, directed toward what later evaluation considered to have been Junkers Ju 88s. Clearing Bizerte on 7 September, the destroyer joined up with a fast US bound convoy, GUF-10, the next day. Outside a submarine contact one day out, upon which Beatty dropped depth charges, the voyage homeward proved uneventful. She reached the New York Navy Yard on 21 September for voyage repairs.

Fate Edit

Post availability trials and further antisubmarine training were completed by 7 October when Beatty embarked upon her last transatlantic crossing. She screened a convoy to Bangor, Northern Ireland, from 7 to 17 October, and then joined the screen for Convoy KMF-25A, en route to the Mediterranean. Making rendezvous on schedule, the destroyer took her station and proceeded into the Mediterranean. Convoy KMF-25A sailed deployed in three columns, with the escorts steaming in a protective circle around the troopships and merchantmen. Beatty was steaming in the rear of the formation at 1800 on 6 November 1943.

At general quarters, Beatty observed machine gun fire on the port side of the convoy at 1803. Many small pips appeared on her radar screen in the direction of Tillman, stationed on that side of the convoy. A minute after observing the gunfire, Beatty noted a large bomb explode close aboard her colleague, a glider bomb which had missed its target. Beatty ' s radar picked up five incoming aircraft, two of which passed the port side of the convoy, inside the screen.

At 1805, Beatty ' s radar picked up two more incoming planes that showed American IFF (Identification, Friend or Foe) signals. Lieutenant Commander Outerson passed the word to his main battery control to pick them up and open fire if they came within range. Control identified one as a Ju 88, but a smoke screen obscured the view over the next few moments, and radar alternatively picked up and lost contacts in the heavy haze.

While Beatty strove to fight her assailants, one German plane managed to close to about 500 yards and dropped a torpedo which struck the ship near frame 124 at about 1813, only ten minutes after the start of action. The blast jammed mounts 51 and 54 in train, hurled a K-gun and a depth charge stowage rack overboard, bent the starboard propeller shaft, flooded the after engine room, cut off all electrical power, flooded a magazine and put the ship in a 12-degree list to port. A quick muster showed 11 men missing, one officer and six men injured, and a man at the battle searchlight platform fatally burned by steam. One sailor at the starboard K-gun was blown overboard, and was picked up the next morning by Boyle.

The torpedo explosion in Beatty ' s vitals broke her back at about frame 124. It left the port side of the main deck awash from the break of the forecastle to about mount 54 and only 30 inches of freeboard on the starboard side. As a result, the ship slowly settled aft. While a bucket brigade valiantly attempted to bail out the flooding compartments, Beatty ' s sailors jettisoned practically everything from ready ammunition to her searchlight and smoke generator. Through a mistake of haste, even the towing cable went overboard as well.

Hopes of saving the ship flickered for the next four hours, as Beatty battled for her life. More and more stations were secured to release men for damage control tasks until only a bridge detail and crews on two 20 mm guns remained at battle stations. Around 1900, her sailors placed her boats and rafts in the water. Forty minutes later, Beatty transferred her wounded to Parker. As the list increased, her crew continued abandoning her until around 2230, when the last group left the ship and reached the rescue vessel, Laub. After breaking in two, Beatty sank at 2305 on 6 November 1943.

An estimated 25 German aircraft, many equipped with glider-bombs, took part in the raid, and sank two merchantmen in addition to Beatty.


Contents

Cole sailed from New York 30 June 1919, to join U.S. Naval Forces in Turkish waters. For the next year they aided in the evacuation of refugees fleeing turmoil and war in the Middle East and showed the flag in the eastern Mediterranean and Black Seas, returning to New York City on 4 June 1920. It cruised in East Coast and Caribbean waters until decommissioned at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard on 10 July 1922.

Recommissioned on 1 May 1930, Cole joined the Scouting Fleet in the Atlantic. Once again it cruised along the east coast and in the Caribbean and took part in training exercises. From 22 October 1932 to 24 March 1933, Cole was in reduced commission at Norfolk Naval Shipyard as part of a rotating reserve squadron. On 4 April 1933, the destroyer participated in the fruitless search for survivors of the wreck of the airship Akron. From 3 February to 14 August 1934, the ship was again reduced to the rotating reserve squadron.

On 15 August 1934, Cole was assigned to the Scouting Force in the Pacific, and following maneuvers in the Caribbean reached its new base at San Diego, California on 9 November. It remained in the Pacific until 24 May 1936, and then reported to New York as a Naval Reserve training ship. She arrived at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard on 25 September and was decommissioned there on 7 January 1937.

Recommissioned 16 October 1939, Cole joined the Neutrality Patrol in the Atlantic. From 10 June 1941, she escorted convoys to Newfoundland and Iceland making five such voyages by 28 January 1942. From 14 March to 28 September, the destroyer patrolled and escorted convoys along the east coast, making one convoy run to the Virgin Islands. She put to sea from Norfolk, Virginia on 24 October for the invasion of North Africa on 8 November during which she landed 175 men of the 47th Infantry under fire on a pier at Safi, Morocco. Cole received the Presidential Unit Citation for her performance in this mission. Returning to Boston on 1 December, she resumed convoy duty and between 18 December 1942 and 16 February 1943, she operated between the east coast, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia, then made a voyage to Gibraltar in March. The destroyer returned to the Mediterranean, reaching Mers El Kébir, Algeria on 23 May.

Along with patrol and escort duties in the Western Mediterranean, Cole took part in the Allied Invasion of Sicily on 10 July 1943, acting with a British submarine as a beach identification group, and later guarded transports during the assault on Salerno on 9 September. She returned to Charleston, South Carolina for overhaul on 24 December, after which she resumed convoy escort duty along the east coast and in the Caribbean, making one voyage to Casablanca in March 1944. On 3 December 1944, she began duty as a plane guard for aircraft carriers conducting air operations out of Quonset Point, Rhode Island, which continued until 31 August 1945. She was reclassified AG-116 on 30 June 1945. Cole was decommissioned on 1 November 1945, and sold 6 October 1947.

In addition to the Presidential Unit Citation, Cole received three battle stars for World War II service.


How can I tell if someone was in Vietnam from their DD214?

We are in the process of adding names to our Vietnam Veterans Memorial in our city and we need to verify that the names we add are those of veterans who were IN Vietnam.  Some of them have on them that they were in Vietnam and others I can't find anything that tells me they were ever there, but they swear they were in country.  Is there another way for me to verify this information?

Re: How can I tell if someone was in Vietnam from their DD214?
Rebecca Collier 14.06.2018 10:03 (в ответ на Dianne Secord)

Thank you for posting your request on History Hub!

On the DD 214, check the following sections for verification:

For Army, this may not help verify service in Vietnam since it may be a replacement unit or one stationed in another area such as USAREUR (US Army, Europe)
For Navy ships listed, if the ship is listed on this list prepared by the VA -- https://www.benefits.va.gov/compensation/docs/shiplist.docx , the veteran can claim Vietnam service.
For Marine Corps units, check the Marine Corps Command Chronologies at https://www.archives.gov/research/military/marine-corps/command-chronology for units that were stationed in Vietnam.
For Air Force units, please check the listing at http://www.afhistory.af.mil/FAQs/Fact-Sheets/Article/639594/usaf-units-serving-in-south-vietnam-1965-1973/

  • 24 -- Medals or decorations may include Vietnam in the title such as Vietnam Service Medal or Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal
  • 25 -- Education & Training may include the acronyms RVN (Republic of Vietnam) or USARPAC (US Army, Pacific)
  • 30 -- Remarks may include dates served in USARPAC Vietnam

Also, NARA has various databases for Vietnam that can be used to verify service at https://aad.archives.gov/aad/series-list.jsp?cat=WR28 . They are mostly casualty lists but there are ones such as the Navy Awards database that can be narrowed down by geographical area where award was earned.

There is more information available via NARA’s Vietnam Portal at https://www.archives.gov/research/vietnam-war/in-country

We hope this information is helpful.  Best of luck with your research!

Re: How can I tell if someone was in Vietnam from their DD214?

Also, look at the medals section about 3/4 down on the form. If the person was entitled to the Vietnam Medal they were in Viet Nam, in the nearby waters, or in the air over Viet Nam.

Re: How can I tell if someone was in Vietnam from their DD214?

In most cases it will be listed on he DD214 in Box 26, "Decorations, Medals, Badges, Commendations, Citations and Campaign Ribbons Awarded or Authorized."

It can also be found in the OMPF (Official Military Personnel File) - aka Service Jacket - on the page "History of Assignments" or something similar.

The person of interest was involved in SPECOPS or other classified operations.  I know of Navy personnel who were stationed in Vietnam (TAD from Okinawa to Phu Bhi) who have no mention of this in their OMPF or DD214.  But there is another file - that is classified - which might contain records of detatched duty assignments and other sensitive operations.

The reason I know of the existence of this other file is that my classified records along with my OMPF are languishing at McDill AFB with the VA representative who is reviewing my case.

Re: How can I tell if someone was in Vietnam from their DD214?

USAF Air Cargo Spec 71-73, 63 MAC.     I am not an expert on military records but my full records were pulled and much is missing.     If you were assigned to a base anywhere in the world, its in your records.    For example I was assigned to Norton AFB California and thats in my records.   My job involved Cargo Planes.    The military may temporarily send you anywhere in the world.    You get TDY orders = Temporary Duty assignment.   If I was sent TDY to Cam Ranh Bay Vietnam there is no proving that.   A TDY Vietnam trip would not show up unless you were crew (pilot, navigator, flight engineer, loadmaster)..    If your TDY, not based in Vietnam, and not aircrew you do not get a Vietnam campaign medal as far as I can tell.   The problem I ran into was the USAF did not keep TDY records so there is nothing in my file except assigned bases.    I cannot prove my TDY flights unless I can find someone that happened to be  on the same flight 50 years ago and remembered me enough to validate me.     Not gonna happen.   I suspect someone just threw out the TDY papers as a bookkeeping issue deemed not important.   Remember its the 60 and 70s all manual papers then no computerized files like we have today.

Re: How can I tell if someone was in Vietnam from their DD214?

The flight logs of the aircraft would show the places.  I bet the USAF has those logs by tail number. 

Re: How can I tell if someone was in Vietnam from their DD214?

Some USAF units served in Vietnam before the Vietnam Service Medal existed,  the time from 1961-1965.  In the early years service members in Vietnam were awarded the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, which will show up on the DD-214.  Service members could elect to exchange the AFEM for the  Vietnam Service Medal later.


Contents

Fibromyalgia is classed as a disorder of pain processing due to abnormalities in how pain signals are processed in the central nervous system. [19] The American College of Rheumatology classifies fibromyalgia as being a functional somatic syndrome. [16] The expert committee of the European League Against Rheumatism classifies fibromyalgia as a neurobiological disorder and, as a result, exclusively gives pharmacotherapy their highest level of support. [16] The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) lists fibromyalgia as a diagnosable disease under "Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue," under the code M79-7, and states that fibromyalgia syndrome should be classified as a functional somatic syndrome rather than a mental disorder. Although mental disorders and some physical disorders are commonly co-morbid with fibromyalgia – especially anxiety, depression, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome – the ICD states that these should be diagnosed separately. [16]

Differences in psychological and autonomic nervous system profiles among affected individuals may indicate the existence of fibromyalgia subtypes. A 2007 review divides individuals with fibromyalgia into four groups as well as "mixed types": [20]

  1. "extreme sensitivity to pain but no associated psychiatric conditions" (may respond to medications that block the 5-HT3 receptor)
  2. "fibromyalgia and comorbid, pain-related depression" (may respond to antidepressants)
  3. "depression with concomitant fibromyalgia syndrome" (may respond to antidepressants)
  4. "fibromyalgia due to somatization" (may respond to psychotherapy)

The defining symptoms of fibromyalgia are chronic widespread pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and heightened pain in response to tactile pressure (allodynia). Other symptoms may include tingling of the skin (paresthesias), prolonged muscle spasms, weakness in the limbs, nerve pain, muscle twitching, palpitations and functional bowel disturbances. [21] [22]

Many people experience cognitive problems [23] (known as "fibrofog"), which may be characterized by impaired concentration, [24] problems with short- [24] [25] and long-term memory, short-term memory consolidation, [25] impaired speed of performance, [24] [25] inability to multi-task, cognitive overload, [24] [25] and diminished attention span. Fibromyalgia is often associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms. [25]

Other symptoms often attributed to fibromyalgia that may be due to a comorbid disorder include myofascial pain syndrome, also referred to as chronic myofascial pain, diffuse non-dermatomal paresthesias, functional bowel disturbances and irritable bowel syndrome, genitourinary symptoms and interstitial cystitis, dermatological disorders, headaches, myoclonic twitches, and symptomatic low blood sugar. Although fibromyalgia is classified based on the presence of chronic widespread pain, pain may also be localized in areas such as the shoulders, neck, low back, hips, or other areas. Many sufferers also experience varying degrees of myofascial pain and have high rates of comorbid temporomandibular joint dysfunction. 20–30% of people with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus may also have fibromyalgia. [26] According to the NHS, widespread pain is one major symptom, which could feel like: an ache, a burning sensation, or a sharp, stabbing pain. [27]

The cause of fibromyalgia is unknown. However, several hypotheses have been developed including "central sensitization". This theory proposes that people with fibromyalgia have a lower threshold for pain because of increased reactivity of pain-sensitive nerve cells in the spinal cord or brain. [3] Neuropathic pain and major depressive disorder often co-occur with fibromyalgia – the reason for this comorbidity appears to be due to shared genetic abnormalities, which leads to impairments in monoaminergic, glutamatergic, neurotrophic, opioid and proinflammatory cytokine signaling. In these vulnerable individuals, psychological stress or illness can cause abnormalities in inflammatory and stress pathways that regulate mood and pain. Eventually, a sensitization and kindling effect occurs in certain neurons leading to the establishment of fibromyalgia and sometimes a mood disorder. [28] The evidence suggests that the pain in fibromyalgia results primarily from pain-processing pathways functioning abnormally. In simple terms, it can be described as the volume of the neurons being set too high and this hyper-excitability of pain-processing pathways and under-activity of inhibitory pain pathways in the brain results in the affected individual experiencing pain. Some neurochemical abnormalities that occur in fibromyalgia also regulate mood, sleep, and energy, thus explaining why mood, sleep, and fatigue problems are commonly co-morbid with fibromyalgia. [19]

Genetics Edit

A mode of inheritance is currently unknown, but it is most probably polygenic. [9] Research has also demonstrated that fibromyalgia is potentially associated with polymorphisms of genes in the serotoninergic, [29] dopaminergic [30] and catecholaminergic systems. [31] However, these polymorphisms are not specific for fibromyalgia and are associated with a variety of allied disorders (e.g. chronic fatigue syndrome, [32] irritable bowel syndrome [33] ) and with depression. [34] Individuals with the 5-HT2A receptor 102T/C polymorphism have been found to be at increased risk of developing fibromyalgia. [35]

Lifestyle and trauma Edit

Stress may be an important precipitating factor in the development of fibromyalgia. [36] Fibromyalgia is frequently comorbid with stress-related disorders such as chronic fatigue syndrome, posttraumatic stress disorder, irritable bowel syndrome and depression. [37] A systematic review found significant association between fibromyalgia and physical and sexual abuse in both childhood and adulthood, although the quality of studies was poor. [38] Poor lifestyles including being a smoker, obesity and inactivity may increase the risk of an individual developing fibromyalgia. [39] A meta-analysis found psychological trauma to be associated with fibromyalgia, although not as strongly as in chronic fatigue syndrome. [40]

Some authors have proposed that, because exposure to stressful conditions can alter the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the development of fibromyalgia may stem from stress-induced disruption of the HPA axis. [41]

Sleep disturbances Edit

Impaired sleep is a risk factor for fibromyalgia. [4] In 1975, Moldofsky and colleagues reported the presence of anomalous alpha wave activity (typically associated with arousal states) measured by electroencephalogram (EEG) during non-rapid eye movement sleep of "fibrositis syndrome". [22] By disrupting stage IV sleep consistently in young, healthy subjects, the researchers reproduced a significant increase in muscle tenderness similar to that experienced in "neurasthenic musculoskeletal pain syndrome" but which resolved when the subjects were able to resume their normal sleep patterns. [42] Mork and Nielsen used prospective data and identified a dose-dependent association between sleep problems and risk of fibromyalgia. [43]

Psychological factors Edit

There is strong evidence that major depression is associated with fibromyalgia as with other chronic pain conditions (1999), [44] although the direction of the causal relationship is unclear. [45] A comprehensive review into the relationship between fibromyalgia and major depressive disorder (MDD) found substantial similarities in neuroendocrine abnormalities, psychological characteristics, physical symptoms and treatments between fibromyalgia and MDD, but currently available findings do not support the assumption that MDD and fibromyalgia refer to the same underlying construct or can be seen as subsidiaries of one disease concept. [46] Indeed, the sensation of pain has at least two dimensions: a sensory dimension which processes the magnitude and location of the pain, and an affective-motivational dimension which processes the unpleasantness. Accordingly, a study that employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate brain responses to experimental pain among people with fibromyalgia found that depressive symptoms were associated with the magnitude of clinically induced pain response specifically in areas of the brain that participate in affective pain processing, but not in areas involved in sensory processing which indicates that the amplification of the sensory dimension of pain in fibromyalgia occurs independently of mood or emotional processes. [47] Fibromyalgia has also been linked with bipolar disorder, particularly the hypomania component. [48]

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity Edit

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) may be an underlying cause of fibromyalgia symptoms but further research is needed. [49] [50]

Other risk markers Edit

Other risk markers for fibromyalgia include premature birth, female sex, cognitive influences, primary pain disorders, multiregional pain, infectious illness, hypermobility of joints, iron deficiency and small-fiber polyneuropathy. [51]

Gadolinium Edit

There is speculation that Gadolinium, a toxic heavy metal used for contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging may cause fibromyalgia. [52]

Pain processing abnormalities Edit

Abnormalities in the ascending and descending pathways involved in processing pain have been observed in fibromyalgia. Fifty percent less stimulus is needed to evoke pain in those with fibromyalgia. [53] A proposed mechanism for chronic pain is sensitization of secondary pain neurons mediated by increased release of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide by glial cells. [54] Inconsistent reports of decreased serum and CSF values of serotonin have been observed. There is also some data that suggests altered dopaminergic and noradrenergic signaling in fibromyalgia. [55] Supporting the monoamine related theories is the efficacy of monoaminergic antidepressants in fibromyalgia. [56] [57]

Neuroendocrine system Edit

Studies on the neuroendocrine system and HPA axis in fibromyalgia have been inconsistent. One study found fibromyalgia patients exhibited higher plasma cortisol, more extreme peaks and troughs, and higher rates of dexamethasone non-suppression. However, other studies have only found correlations between a higher cortisol awakening response and pain, and not any other abnormalities in cortisol. [53] Increased baseline ACTH and increase in response to stress have been observed, hypothesized to be a result of decreased negative feedback. [55]

Autonomic nervous system Edit

Autonomic nervous system abnormalities have been observed in fibromyalgia, including decreased vasoconstriction response, increased drop in blood pressure, and worsening of symptoms in response to tilt table test, and decreased heart rate variability. Heart rate variabilities observed were different in males and females. [53]

Sleep Edit

Disrupted sleep, insomnia, and poor-quality sleep occur frequently in fibromyalgia, and may contribute to pain by decreased release of IGF-1 and human growth hormone, leading to decreased tissue repair. Restorative sleep was correlated with improvement in pain-related symptoms. [53]

Neuroimaging Edit

Neuroimaging studies have observed decreased levels of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) in the hippocampus of people with fibromyalgia, indicating decreased neuron functionality in this region. Altered connectivity and decreased grey matter of the default mode network, [58] the insula, and executive attention network have been found in fibromyalgia. Increased levels of glutamate and glutamine have been observed in the amygdala, parts of the prefrontal cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex, and the insula, correlating with pain levels in FM. Decreased GABA has been observed in the anterior insular in fibromyalgia. However, neuroimaging studies, in particular neurochemical imaging studies, are limited by methodology and interpretation. [59] Increased cerebral blood flow in response to pain was found in one fMRI study. [54] Findings of decreased blood flow in the thalamus and other regions of the basal ganglia correlating with treatment have been relatively consistent over three studies. Decreased binding of μ-opioid receptor have been observed however, it is unknown if this is a result of increased endogenous binding in response to pain, or down regulation. [55]

Immune system Edit

Overlaps have been drawn between chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. One study found increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in fibromyalgia, which may increase sensitivity to pain, and contribute to mood problems. [60] Increased levels of IL-1RA, Interleukin 6 and Interleukin 8 have been found. [61] Neurogenic inflammation has been proposed as a contributing factor to fibromyalgia. [62] A systematic review found most cytokines levels were similar in patients and controls, except for IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6 and IL-8. [63]

There is no single pathological feature, laboratory finding, or biomarker that can diagnose fibromyalgia and there is debate over what should be considered diagnostic criteria and whether an objective diagnosis is possible. [51] In most cases, people with fibromyalgia symptoms may have laboratory test results that appear normal and many of their symptoms may mimic those of other rheumatic conditions such as arthritis or osteoporosis. The most widely accepted set of classification criteria for research purposes was elaborated in 1990 by the Multicenter Criteria Committee of the American College of Rheumatology. These criteria, which are known informally as "the ACR 1990", define fibromyalgia according to the presence of the following criteria:

  • A history of widespread pain lasting more than three months – affecting all four quadrants of the body, i.e., both sides, and above and below the waist.
  • Tender points – there are 18 designated possible tender points (although a person with the disorder may feel pain in other areas as well). Diagnosis is no longer based on the number of tender points. [64][65]

The ACR criteria for the classification of patients were originally established as inclusion criteria for research purposes and were not intended for clinical diagnosis but have now become the de facto diagnostic criteria in the clinical setting. The number of tender points that may be active at any one time may vary with time and circumstance. A controversial study was done by a legal team looking to prove their client's disability based primarily on tender points and their widespread presence in non-litigious communities prompted the lead author of the ACR criteria to question now the useful validity of tender points in diagnosis. [66] Use of control points has been used to cast doubt on whether a person has fibromyalgia, and to claim the person is malingering however, no research has been done for the use of control points to diagnose fibromyalgia, and such diagnostic tests have been advised against, and people complaining of pain all over should still have fibromyalgia considered as a diagnosis. [16]

2010 provisional criteria Edit

In 2010, the American College of Rheumatology approved provisional revised diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia that eliminated the 1990 criteria's reliance on tender point testing. [67] The revised criteria use a widespread pain index (WPI) and symptom severity scale (SS) in place of tender point testing under the 1990 criteria. The WPI counts up to 19 general body areas [a] in which the person has experienced pain in the preceding two weeks. The SS rates the severity of the person's fatigue, unrefreshed waking, cognitive symptoms, and general somatic symptoms, [b] each on a scale from 0 to 3, for a composite score ranging from 0 to 12. The revised criteria for diagnosis are:

  • WPI ≥ 7 and SS ≥ 5 OR WPI 3–6 and SS ≥ 9,
  • Symptoms have been present at a similar level for at least three months, and
  • No other diagnosable disorder otherwise explains the pain. [67] : 607

Multidimensional assessment Edit

Some research has suggested not to categorise fibromyalgia as a somatic disease or a mental disorder, but to use a multidimensional approach taking into consideration somatic symptoms, psychological factors, psychosocial stressors and subjective belief regarding fibromyalgia. [17] A review has looked at self-report questionnaires assessing fibromyalgia on multiple dimensions, including: [17]

  • Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire[68]
  • Widespread Pain Index[67]
  • Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
  • Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire[69]
  • Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory
  • Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale

Differential diagnosis Edit

As many as two out of every three people who are told that they have fibromyalgia by a rheumatologist may have some other medical condition instead. [70] Certain systemic, inflammatory, endocrine, rheumatic, infectious, and neurologic disorders may cause fibromyalgia-like symptoms, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, hypothyroidism, ankylosing spondylitis, polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic-related polyenthesitis, hepatitis C, peripheral neuropathies, a nerve compression syndrome (such as carpal tunnel syndrome), multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis. The differential diagnosis is made during the evaluation on the basis of the person's medical history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. [49] [70] [71] [72]

As with many other medically unexplained syndromes, there is no universally accepted treatment or cure for fibromyalgia, and treatment typically consists of symptom management. Developments in the understanding of the pathophysiology of the disorder have led to improvements in treatment, which include prescription medication, behavioral intervention, and exercise. Indeed, integrated treatment plans that incorporate medication, patient education, aerobic exercise, and cognitive-behavioral therapy are effective in alleviating pain and other fibromyalgia-related symptoms. [73]

There are some medical clinics that specialize in treatment such as Colorado Fibromyalgia Center, which combines medication management, physical rehab, chiropractic, physical therapy, and mental health resources to help patients manage symptoms.

Medications Edit

Approved medications Edit

Health Canada and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have approved pregabalin [77] and duloxetine for the management of fibromyalgia. The FDA also approved milnacipran, but the European Medicines Agency refused marketing authority. [78]

Antidepressants Edit

The goal of using antidepressants to treat fibromyalgia should be based on reducing symptoms and if used long term, their effectivenes should be evaluated against side effects. There is some evidence that treatment with antidepressants may be effective at reducing pain levels, improving the person's health-related quality of life, decreasing symptoms of depression, and reducing disturbances in sleep. [79] [ needs update ]

For most people with fibromyalgia, the potential benefits of treatment with the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) duloxetine and milnacipran and the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), such as amitriptyline are outweighed by significant adverse effects (more adverse effects than benefits), however, a small number of people may experience relief from symptoms with these medications. [80] [81] [82] In addition, while amitriptyline has been used as a first line treatment, the quality of evidence to support this use and compairson between different medications is poor. [83] [82] Very weak evidence indicates that a very small number of people may benefit from treatment with the tetracyclic antidepressant mirtazapine, however, for most, the potential benefits are not great and the risk of adverse effects and potential harm outweighs any potential for benefit. [84]

The length of time that antidepressant medications take to be effective at reducing symptoms can vary. Any potential benefits from the antidepressant amitriptyline may take up to three months to take effect and it may take between three and six months for duloxetine, milnacipran, and pregabalin to be effective at improving symptoms. [ citation needed ] Some medications have the potential to cause withdrawal symptoms when stopping so gradual discontinuation may be warranted particularly for antidepressants and pregabalin. [16]

There is tentative evidence that the benefits and harms of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) appear to be similar. [85] SSRIs may be used to treat depression in people diagnosed with fibromyalgia. [86]

Tentative evidence suggests that monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) such as pirlindole and moclobemide are moderately effective for reducing pain. [87] Very low-quality evidence suggests pirlindole as more effective at treating pain than moclobemide. [87] Side effects of MAOIs may include nausea and vomiting. [87]

Anti-seizure medication Edit

The anti-convulsant medications gabapentin and pregabalin may be used to reduce pain. [7] [88] There is tentative evidence that gabapentin may be of benefit for pain in about 18% of people with fibromyalgia. [7] It is not possible to predict who will benefit, and a short trial may be recommended to test the effectiveness of this type of medication. Approximately 6/10 people who take gabapentin to treat pain related to fibromyalgia experience unpleasant side effects such as dizziness, abnormal walking, or swelling from fluid accumulation. [89] Pregabalin demonstrates a benefit in about 9% of people. [90] Pregabalin reduced time off work by 0.2 days per week. [91]

Opioids Edit

The use of opioids is controversial. As of 2015, no opioid is approved for use in this condition by the FDA. [92] The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) in 2014 stated that there was a lack of evidence for opioids for most people. [5] The Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany in 2012 made no recommendation either for or against the use of weak opioids because of the limited amount of scientific research addressing their use in the treatment of FM. They strongly advise against using strong opioids. [74] The Canadian Pain Society in 2012 said that opioids, starting with a weak opioid like tramadol, can be tried but only for people with moderate to severe pain that is not well-controlled by non-opioid painkillers. They discourage the use of strong opioids and only recommend using them while they continue to provide improved pain and functioning. Healthcare providers should monitor people on opioids for ongoing effectiveness, side effects, and possible unwanted drug behaviors. [76]

The European League Against Rheumatism in 2008 recommends tramadol and other weak opioids may be used for pain but not strong opioids. [75] A 2015 review found fair evidence to support tramadol use if other medications do not work. [92] A 2018 review found little evidence to support the combination of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and tramadol over a single medication. [93] Goldenberg et al suggest that tramadol works via its serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition, rather than via its action as a weak opioid receptor agonist. [14]

A large study of US people with fibromyalgia found that between 2005 and 2007 37.4% were prescribed short-acting opioids and 8.3% were prescribed long-acting opioids, [3] with around 10% of those prescribed short-acting opioids using tramadol [94] and a 2011 Canadian study of 457 people with FM found 32% used opioids and two-thirds of those used strong opioids. [76]

Others Edit

A 2007 review concluded that a period of nine months of growth hormone was required to reduce fibromyalgia symptoms and normalize IGF-1. [95] A 2014 study also found some evidence supporting its use. [96] Sodium oxybate increases growth hormone production levels through increased slow-wave sleep patterns. However, this medication was not approved by the FDA for the indication for use in people with fibromyalgia due to the concern for abuse. [97]

The muscle relaxants cyclobenzaprine, carisoprodol with acetaminophen and caffeine, and tizanidine are sometimes used to treat fibromyalgia however, as of 2015 they are not approved for this use in the United States. [98] [99] The use of NSAIDs is not recommended as first line therapy. [100] Moreover, NSAIDs cannot be considered as useful in the management of fibromyalgia. [101]

Dopamine agonists (e.g. pramipexole and ropinirole) resulted in some improvement in a minority of people, [102] but side effects, including the onset of impulse control disorders like compulsive gambling and shopping, might be a concern for some people. [103]

There is some evidence that 5HT3 antagonists may be beneficial. [104] Preliminary clinical data finds that low-dose naltrexone (LDN) may provide symptomatic improvement. [105]

Very low-quality evidence suggests quetiapine may be effective in fibromyalgia. [106]

No high-quality evidence exists that suggests synthetic THC (nabilone) helps with fibromyalgia. [107]

Intravenous Iloprost may be effective in reducing frequency and severity of attacks for people with fibromyalgia secondary to scleroderma. [108]

A small double-blinded trial found the combination of famciclovir and celecoxib may be effective in reducing fibromyalgia related pain, relative to placebo. [109] Neither therapy has been tested on its own.

Therapy Edit

Due to the uncertainty about the pathogenesis of FM, current treatment approaches focus on management of symptoms to improve quality of life, [110] using integrated pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. [4] There is no single intervention shown to be effective for all patients. [111] In a 2020 Cochrane review cognitive behavior therapy was found to have a small but beneficial effect for reducing pain and distress but adverse events were not well evaluated. [112]

Non-pharmacological components include cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), exercise, and psychoeducation (specifically, sleep hygiene). [113] [114] [111] [115] CBT and related psychological and behavioural therapies have a small to moderate effect in reducing symptoms of fibromyalgia. [116] [114] Effect sizes tend to be small when CBT is used as a stand-alone treatment for FM patients, but these improve significantly when CBT is part of a wider multidisciplinary treatment program. [114] The greatest benefit occurs when CBT is used along with exercise. [73] [117]

A 2010 systematic review of 14 studies reported that CBT improves self-efficacy or coping with pain and reduces the number of physician visits at post-treatment, but has no significant effect on pain, fatigue, sleep, or health-related quality of life at post-treatment or follow-up. Depressed mood was also improved but this could not be distinguished from some risks of bias. [118]

Mind-body therapy Edit

Mind-body therapies focus on interactions among the brain, mind, body, and behaviour. The National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine defines the treatments under the holistic principle that mind-body are interconnected and through treatment, there is improvement in psychological and physical well-being, and allow patient to have an active role in their treatment. [119] There are several therapies such as mindfulness, movement therapy (yoga, tai chi), psychological (including CBT), and biofeedback (use of technology to give audio/visual feedback on physiological processes like heart rate). There is only weak evidence that psychological intervention is effective in the treatment of fibromyalgia and no good evidence for the benefit of other mind-body therapies. [119]

Exercise Edit

There is strong evidence indicating that exercise improves fitness and sleep and may reduce pain and fatigue in some people with fibromyalgia. [120] [121] In particular, there is strong evidence that cardiovascular exercise is effective for some people. [122] Low-quality evidence suggests that high-intensity resistance training may improve pain and strength in women. [123] Studies of different forms of aerobic exercise for adults with fibromyalgia indicate that aerobic exercise improves quality of life, decreases pain, slightly improves physical function and makes no difference in fatigue and stiffness. [124] Long-term effects are uncertain. [124] Combinations of different exercises such as flexibility and aerobic training may improve stiffness. [125] However, the evidence is of low-quality. [125] It is not clear if flexibilty training alone compared to aerobic training is effective at reducing symptoms or has any adverse effects. [126]

Tentative evidence suggests aquatic training can improve symptoms and wellness but, further research is required. [127] A recommended approach to a graded exercise program begins with small, frequent exercise periods and builds up from there. [128] In children, fibromyalgia is often treated with an intense physical and occupational therapy program for musculoskeletal pain syndromes. These programs also employ counseling, art therapy, and music therapy. These programs are evidence-based and report long-term total pain resolution rates as high as 88%. [129] Limited evidence suggests vibration training in combination with exercise may improve pain, fatigue, and stiffness. [130]

Although in itself neither degenerative nor fatal, the chronic pain of fibromyalgia is pervasive and persistent. Most people with fibromyalgia report that their symptoms do not improve over time. An evaluation of 332 consecutive new people with fibromyalgia found that disease-related factors such as pain and psychological factors such as work status, helplessness, education, and coping ability had an independent and significant relationship to FM symptom severity and function. [131]

Fibromyalgia is estimated to affect 2–8% of the population. [4] [132] Females are affected about twice as often as males based on criteria as of 2014. [4]

Fibromyalgia may not be diagnosed in up to 75% of affected people. [19]

Chronic widespread pain had already been described in the literature in the 19th century but the term fibromyalgia was not used until 1976 when Dr P.K. Hench used it to describe these symptoms. [16] Many names, including "muscular rheumatism", "fibrositis", "psychogenic rheumatism", and "neurasthenia" were applied historically to symptoms resembling those of fibromyalgia. [133] The term fibromyalgia was coined by researcher Mohammed Yunus as a synonym for fibrositis and was first used in a scientific publication in 1981. [134] Fibromyalgia is from the Latin fibra (fiber) [135] and the Greek words myo (muscle) [136] and algos (pain). [137]

Historical perspectives on the development of the fibromyalgia concept note the "central importance" of a 1977 paper by Smythe and Moldofsky on fibrositis. [138] [139] The first clinical, controlled study of the characteristics of fibromyalgia syndrome was published in 1981, [140] providing support for symptom associations. In 1984, an interconnection between fibromyalgia syndrome and other similar conditions was proposed, [141] and in 1986, trials of the first proposed medications for fibromyalgia were published. [141]

A 1987 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association used the term "fibromyalgia syndrome" while saying it was a "controversial condition". [142] The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) published its first classification criteria for fibromyalgia in 1990, [143] although these are not strictly diagnostic criteria. [20]

Economics Edit

People with fibromyalgia generally have higher healthcare costs and utilization rates. A study of almost 20,000 Humana members enrolled in Medicare Advantage and commercial plans compared costs and medical utilizations and found that people with fibromyalgia used twice as much pain-related medication as those without fibromyalgia. Furthermore, the use of medications and medical necessities increased markedly across many measures once a diagnosis was made. [144]

Controversies Edit

Fibromyalgia was defined relatively recently. It continues to be a disputed diagnosis. Frederick Wolfe, lead author of the 1990 paper that first defined the diagnostic guidelines for fibromyalgia, stated in 2008 that he believed it "clearly" not to be a disease but instead a physical response to depression and stress. [145] In 2013 Wolfe added that its causes "are controversial in a sense" and "there are many factors that produce these symptoms – some are psychological and some are physical and it does exist on a continuum". [146]

Some members of the medical community do not consider fibromyalgia a disease because of a lack of abnormalities on physical examination and the absence of objective diagnostic tests. [138] [147]

Neurologists and pain specialists tend to view fibromyalgia as a pathology due to dysfunction of muscles and connective tissue as well as functional abnormalities in the central nervous system. Rheumatologists define the syndrome in the context of "central sensitization" – heightened brain response to normal stimuli in the absence of disorders of the muscles, joints, or connective tissues. On the other hand, psychiatrists often view fibromyalgia as a type of affective disorder, whereas specialists in psychosomatic medicine tend to view fibromyalgia as being a somatic symptom disorder. These controversies do not engage healthcare specialists alone some patients object to fibromyalgia being described in purely somatic terms. There is extensive research evidence to support the view that the central symptom of fibromyalgia, namely pain, has a neurogenic origin, though this is consistent in both views. [16] [19]

The validity of fibromyalgia as a unique clinical entity is a matter of contention because "no discrete boundary separates syndromes such as FMS, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, or chronic muscular headaches". [122] [148] Because of this symptomatic overlap, some researchers have proposed that fibromyalgia and other analogous syndromes be classified together as functional somatic syndromes for some purposes. [149]

Investigational medications include cannabinoids and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron. [150] Low-quality evidence found an improvement in symptoms with a gluten free diet among those without celiac disease. [151] A controlled study of guaifenesin failed to demonstrate any benefits from this treatment. [152] [153]

A small 2018 study found some neuroinflammation in people with fibromyalgia. [154]


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USS Duncan (DD 874)

USS DUNCAN was one of the GEARING - class destroyers and the third ship in the Navy to bear the name. Reclassified DDR 874 in 1949, the ship became DD 874 again in January 1969. Decommissioned on January 15, 1971, and stricken from the Navy list on September 1, 1973, the DUNCAN was sunk as a target off southern California on July 31, 1980.

General Characteristics: Awarded: 1942
Keel laid: May 22, 1944
Launched: October 27, 1944
Commissioned: February 25, 1945
Decommissioned: January 15, 1971
Builder: Consolidated Steel Corp., Orange, Tx.
FRAM II Conversion Shipyard: Long Beach Naval Shipyard, Long Beach, CA
FRAM II Conversion Period: October 1960 - June 1961
Propulsion system: four boilers, General Electric geared turbines 60,000 SHP
Propellers: two
Length: 391 feet (119.2 meters)
Beam: 41 feet (12.5 meters)
Draft: 18.7 feet (5.7 meters)
Displacement: approx. 3,400 tons full load
Speed: 34 knots
Aircraft after FRAM II: none
Armament after FRAM II: three 5-inch/38 caliber twin mounts, Mk-32 ASW torpedo tubes (two triple mounts), two Hedgehogs Mk-10
Crew after FRAM II: approx. 275

This section contains the names of sailors who served aboard USS DUNCAN. It is no official listing but contains the names of sailors who submitted their information.

USS DUNCAN was launched 27 October 1944 by Consolidated Steel Corp., Orange, Tex. sponsored by Mrs. D. C. Thayer and commissioned 25 February 1945, Commander P. D. Williams in command.

DUNCAN, converted to a radar picket destroyer during her postshakedown overhaul, sailed from Norfolk 2 June 1945 for the Pacific, and after touching at San Diego and Pearl Harbor, joined CABOT (CVL 28) for screening and plane guard duty during the strikes on Wake Island of 1 August. After calling at Eniwetok, she continued to Okinawa to join the 7th Fleet for patrol duty off the Chinese and Korean coasts during the landing of occupation troops at Tsingtao, Taku, and Jinsen. DUNCAN served in the Far East on occupation duty until 25 March 1946 when she sailed for the west coast, arriving at San Diego 28 April.

For the next year DUNCAN trained along the west coast, keeping high her operational skills and readiness. In May 1947 she departed San Diego for a 5-month cruise to the Far East, where she visited Okinawa, Japan, and China. On her return to the States, DUNCAN resumed coastal operations with both aircraft and submarines. On 1 March 1948 she suffered 2 killed and 14 injured in a magazine explosion on board. After repairs at Long Beach, Calif., the destroyer rejoined the fleet for training until January 1949, when she again sailed for the western Pacific, this time for 8 months. While deployed she was reclassified DDR 874 on 18 March 1949.

DUNCAN operated between San Diego and Pearl Harbor until November 1950 when she steamed into Korean waters to join the 7th Fleet in its unremitting projection of sea power against Communist aggression. DUNCAN served a total of three tours off Korea during the fighting in that ravaged land. She sailed as plane guard for carriers and as antisubmarine escort for battleships she fired shore bombardments in support of minesweepers and to interdict enemy communications she patrolled against North Korean minesweepers and fishing craft. Through all she added her significant contribution to the vast and indispensable sea-borne support of the United Nations troops ashore. During this time, DUNCAN earned seven battle stars and a Korean Presidential Unit Citation.

Following her return to the states in 1952, DUNCAN underwent a shipyard overhaul which included installation of heightfinder radar. From 1953 to 1960, DUNCAN continued the routine of WESTPAC duty and training exercises out of her home port in San Diego. In October 1960, she entered Long Beach Naval Shipyard to commence an extensive fleet rehabilitation and modernization overhaul (FRAM II), which extended DUNCAN's useful life 10 years.

In 1961, DUNCAN joined Destroyer Squadron Nine as flagship while the squadron was homeported in Yokosuka, Japan. DUNCAN returned to San Diego in 1964. During the remainder of 1964 and through the summer of 1965, DUNCAN operated as a school ship for FTC San Diego, as well as participating in major fleet exercises. In August 1965 as a unit of Destroyer Squadron Seventeen, DUNCAN once again sailed off to war for the 3rd time, this time to Vietnam. She saw action as a unit of Operation Sea Dragon in the fall of 1965 and spring of 1966. She returned to San Diego in June 1966, but by December was on her way back to Vietnam. She was once again assigned to Operation Sea Dragon and was credited with destruction of over 190 enemy logistics craft and the rescue of a downed aviator. DUNCAN was taken under fire by North Vietnamese shore batteries on several occasions but luckily was never hit. These actions earned her the Combat Action Ribbon and a COMSEVENTHFLT citation.

Following return to San Diego in 1967, DUNCAN conducted training exercises and surveillance operations before entering Long Beach Naval Shipyard in March 1968 for overhaul. In November 1968, DUNCAN deployed once again to the 7th Fleet. Thirty days later she was on the gunline off Vietnam delivering gunfire against Viet Cong targets. During the ensuing three months DUNCAN expended nearly 200 tons of ammunition at various targets in South Vietnam and the DMZ in support of U.S., Vietnamese, Korean and Australian forces. In March 1969, DUNCAN joined USS RANGER (CVA 61) for the remainder of the cruise conducting special operations in the Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea. Highlights of the cruise were returning to the states via Australia, crossing the equator, navigating aII four quadrants of the earth and sighting APOLLO 11's reentry near Pago Pago, American Samoa.

From June 1969 to March 1970 DUNCAN operated out of her home port of San Diego. March again saw DUNCAN cross the Pacific for duty with the 7th Fleet. DUNCAN performed Korean Patrol duties during the Iater part of March and first half of April until diverted to conduct surveillance of a Russian Task Force. May through August were months in which DUNCAN showed her true mettle hurling over 4000 rounds of five inch ammunition at the Viet Cong insurgent forces while firing in direct support of Allied Forces. DUNCAN fired missions from the DMZ to the Cambodian border, steaming into waters plyed previously only by the ''brown water Navy'' in the steamy Mekong Delta regions. During this period DUNCAN also performed screen commander duties for the USS AMERICA (CVA 66) in the Tonkin Gulf . DUNCAN returned to San Diego for the last time in September after traveling over 42,000 miles during her final six month deployment.


Service history [ edit | edit source ]

Dorsey sailed with a merchant convoy from Philadelphia 20 September 1918, escorted it to Ireland, and returned to New York 19 October. Between 28 October and 20 November, she voyaged on escort duty to the Azores, then operated locally out of New York until 13 January 1919 when she got underway for target practice and fleet maneuvers in Cuban waters, returning 2 March. Three days later she sailed to escort George Washington with President Woodrow Wilson embarked as far as the Azores, returning to Guantánamo Bay 21 March to join the Fleet for maneuvers.

Dorsey sailed from Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, 9 April 1919, and arrived at Valletta, Malta, 26 April to report to Commander, Adriatic Squadron, for duty in the execution of the terms of the armistice with Austria. She served in the Mediterranean until 9 July when she proceeded to New York arriving on the 21st.

Dorsey sailed from New York with her division 17 September 1919 for the west coast, arriving at San Diego 12 October. She joined in fleet maneuvers in the Panama Canal Zone and operated with seaplanes at Valparaíso, Chile, until clearing San Diego 25 June 1921 to join the Asiatic Fleet.

Dorsey arrived at Cavite, Philippine Islands, 24 August 1921, and served in experimental submarine practice and long-range battle and torpedo practice. On 3 June 1922, she sailed from Manila to call at Shanghai and Chefoo, China, Nagasaki, Japan, and Pearl Harbor on her passage to San Francisco where she arrived 2 October. She was placed out of commission at San Diego 9 March 1923.

Recommissioned 1 March 1930, Dorsey operated on the west coast, in the Canal Zone, and in the Hawaiian Islands acting as plane guard for carriers and participating in tactical maneuvers with the fleet. In reserve from 10 June to 29 June 1935, she then entered Mare Island Navy Yard for the installation of gear for her new assignment as a high-speed towing vessel.

Dorsey continued to operate from San Diego providing high-speed target towing for ships in training along the west coast, in the Canal Zone, and, between 29 December 1938 and 25 April 1939, in the Caribbean. From 3 July 1940 she was based at Pearl Harbor. She entered Pearl Harbor Navy Yard 6 November for conversion to a high-speed minesweeper and was reclassified DMS-1 on 19 November 1940.

World War II [ edit | edit source ]

When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941, Dorsey was at sea with TF 3 bound for Johnson Island. The force returned to its base on the 9th, and Dorsey was assigned to the Hawaiian Sea Frontier for patrol, local escort, and training duty. Except for overhaul at San Francisco from 1 January to 11 February 1943, she remained on this duty until 24 September 1943.

After scouting convoys to Efate, New Hebrides, and Noumea, New Caledonia, Dorsey sailed to the Solomon Islands for patrol and minesweeping operations. She swept and patrolled off Cape Torokina, Bougainville, and screened transports during the landings of 1 November, returning on 8 November and 13 November with reinforcement and supply convoys. She escorted from her base at Port Purvis to Neoumea until 29 March 1944, then screened transports between Port Purvis, Kwajalein, Manus, and New Georgia until arriving at Majuro 12 May for duty towing targets at high speed for ships in training. From 20 June to 9 July she guarded convoys between Kwajalein and Eniwetok, then escorted Makin Island to Pearl Harbor, and proceeded to San Francisco for overhaul.

Returning to Pearl Harbor 1 October 1944, Dorsey had towing duty and joined in minesweeping experiments until 9 November when she got underway as convoy escort for Port Purvis. On 1 December, she arrived at Manus for minesweeping operations until 23 December. Continuing to San Pedro Bay, Leyte, Dorsey sortied on 2 January 1945 for the invasion of Lingayen Gulf. During the preinvasion minesweeping she accounted for several attacking planes and rescued five survivors from stricken LCI(G)-70.

Dorsey arrived off Iwo Jima for preinvasion mine-sweeping 16 February 1945. She patrolled during the assault landings, and towed Gamble to safety 18 February. She sailed from Iwo Jima 1 March for Ulithi to prepare for the invasion of Okinawa, where she arrived 25 March to sweep mines. On the 27th she was struck a glancing blow by a kamikaze which killed three of her crew and wounded two. Dorsey remained on duty, screening assault shipping during the landings of 1 April and patrolling until the 4th when she departed for Pearl Harbor and battle damage repairs.

Returning to Okinawa 1 July 1945, Dorsey joined the minesweeping unit operating in conjunction with the 3rd Fleet raids on the Japanese home islands. She sailed on 14 September for minesweeping operations in the Van Diemen Straits, returning to Okinawa five days later. On 9 October, she was grounded by a severe typhoon. Decommissioned 8 December 1945, her battered hulk was destroyed 1 January 1946.


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