Information

What is the Truth behind Lord Macaulay speech ?(another version)


The question is regarding the speech by Lord Macaulay(?). I have asked this question earlier in here, but the speech was different from this one.

From the answers of mentioned previous question,it can be easily concluded that, the speech asked there was not delivered by Macaulay, reasons supporting this conclusion are quite convincing by TED's answer and also the ngrams by Felix also pointed the same.

As I got another controversial version of the speech from the answers by T.E.D for that question. I thought of doing ngram searches on this version too. (I had updated my earlier question , but now I want to ask about this in separate question as suggested by my friend MosterTruck)

The other version of the speech got from the previous answers is:

I accept catholic beyond the across and across of India and I accept not apparent one getting who is a beggar, who is a thief. Such abundance I accept apparent in this country, such top moral values, humans of such caliber, that I do not anticipate we would anytime beat this country, unless we breach the actual courage of this nation, which is her airy and cultural heritage, and, therefore, I adduce that we alter her old and age-old apprenticeship system, her culture, for if the Indians anticipate that all that is adopted and English is acceptable and greater than their own, they will lose their self-esteem, their built-in self-culture and they will become what we ambition them, a absolutely bedeviled nation.

It is claimed that the speech is delivered in 1830's - 40's. The ngram results are interesting. Those 1830s and 1840s are really confusing and now I wonder about the source of this version of the same speech.

Even if ngrams are not the ultimate evidence, how these words are match with these years? Also What is the real reason behind controversies of this speech? Who benefits by making these kind of versions, if it is also a fake one, else what benefits are there for the people opposing the same if it is a real one?


That quote appears a whopping 9 times on Google, one of the times being this question. It tends to be followed by the statement that this is

Available in the archives to genuine researchers. Not for followers of the "If it cannot be Googled it did not happen" doctrine.

It's quite obvious that this is the same quote as the first quote, but avoiding these modern terms that made the first quote such an obvious fake.

However, this new quote may use language that fits better with the times, but it uses them in an incorrect way and with almost incomprehensible grammar.

I accept not apparent one getting

What's that's supposed to mean? It only becomes comprehensible once you realize that this is an attempt to remake the earlier quote in a more older language.

The thing is of course the Macaulay didn't make a speech in 1935, and his Minute on education does not contain the quote. It's quite obviously an attempt to render the original fake quote in an older language, but it's a very bad attempt. And even if it would have been a good attempt, it still begs the question why the quote first floated around the internet is a more modern version.


BOOKS.

Annn what, considering the nature of the undertaking, we must pronounce to be a not unreasonable delay, Lady Trevelyan has at length balled her task of giving to the public so much of the fifth volume of Lord Macaulay's History of En#liza as could be recovered from the mass of papers which lie left behind him at his death. That portion of the MS-. which had undergone revision, and had been brought into the form which its author intended it finally to assume, comprises two complete chapters, and the best part of a third, which carry us on without a break from December 3, 1697, immediately after the conclusion, of the Treaty of Ryswick, to the prorogation of parliament on April 11, 1700, immediately after the termination of one of the most memorable straggles between the Lords and Com- mons that is recorded. in parliamentary history. After the latter period, there is an interval- of-about sixteen months, of which the present volume contains no record and then we have a few addi- tional pas, giving an account of the death of James IL, and of the storm of indignation which was aroused in England by Louis XTV.'s inconsiderate compliance with the wishes of Madame de Maintenon that he should acknowledge the son of the exiled monarch as the lawful successor to the English throne. In the midst of this de- scription the revised portion of the MS. comes to an abrupt close.. Lord Dfacaulayrs posthumous volume, therefore, carries on his history- to a point rather more than two years in advance of that reached at the close of the last volume published during his lifetime. This brief period, though not signalized by any such stirring events as had marked the earlier years of the reign of William 1-1I. was one of no small moment as regards the internal history of England. The King was now about to experience the necessary reaction from the popularity, always rather political than personal, which he had hitherto enjoyed. The parliament, which met on the day follo the rejoicings which celebrated the Treaty of Ryswick, showed itself inclined to offer a jealous resistance, rather than to yield a ready ac- quiescence, to. his wishes. Their first measure was to reduce the military establishment, which William, was very anxious to maintain on a war footing, to what it had been in the year 1680 and the highest sum which they could be induced to grant for the mainte- nance of the army was barely sufficient to keep up a force of 10,000 men. Lord: Macaulay, whose sympathies are, of course, entirely on the king's side throughout the whole of the struggle with his re- calcitrant commons, states the arguments by which the Court party vainly endeavoured' to overcome the prevailing jealousy of a perma- nent military force, with all the cogency of which they are suscep- tible. Not even Lord Macaulay himself, however, could have pre- vailed over the then temper of the House of Commons. The Country party next directed their attention to the large grants of Crown lands which had been bestowed by William principally upon his own countrymen and leave was asked to bring in a bill vacating all such grants which had been made since the Revolution. The ministers cleverly chided this attack by proposing to extend the measure to all the grants made by James u. and Charles II. an ex- tension which could not possibly be objected to, but which would have been so exceedingly inconvenient to many members of the opposition, that they thought it better to.let their own bill fall quietly through. Although William had no special reason to be grateful to this parliament for the manner in which it had dealt with him, never- theless, on its dissolution in July., 1698, he took leave of it in very complimentary terms observing in his speech from the throne that the services which it had rendered to the country would" give it a lasting reputation, and be a subject of emulation to parliaments which shall come after." Judging by the event, we might almost be in- duced to believe that these words were spoken ironically. In its steady and determined opposition to the royal wishes, the new par- liament, which met on December 6 left its predecessor far behind. Lord Macaulay points out that the meeting of this parliament was a very important epoch, in the history of the English Constitution. The experiment of confiding the government of the country to a snit& body of statesmen who, on all important questions, agreed with each other, and with the majority of the representatives of the people, had been forced npon William. by the capricious conduct of the House of Commons during the years immediately following the Re- volution and from 1695- to 1698 it was found, on the whole, to work reasonably well. But the result of the general election in the latter year had been to leave the ministers in a very considerable minority. When such a state of things occurs, as it not unfrevently does, at the present day, the only consequence is that the ministry resigns, and the opposition succeeds to office. In the infancy of ministerial government, however, so simple a method of solving the difficulty had not yet been thought of. The ministers saw no necessary con- nexion between the tenure of office and the support of a majority of the House, and persisted in endeavouring to carry on the go- vernment in the face of an overwhelmimg opposition. The evils necessarily resulting from this state of discord, which lasted till 1705, are dwelt upon by Lord Macaulay With extraordinary ability and power. The first act of the new parliament was to reduce the army from ten to seven thousand men, all of whom were to be natural-born English subjects. The King, whose convictions on this point had undergone no alteration, was exceedingly offended by the passing of this measure but he was even more deeply wounded by its final Clause, the effect of which was to compel him to part with the regi- . roe History of England from the Accession of Lames 111 By Lord Macaulay. Volume V. Edited by his Sister, Ladyrrevelyan. Longman and Co. 'ment of Blue Dutch Foot Guards,.to which he was, naturally, most. warmly attached. So bitterly did, he resent what he regarded as at once an act of suicidal folly and a personal insult to himself, that he actually came to the resolution of retiring from the government of' England and though. he was induced by the solicitations of Lord Chan- color Somers, aided by his own cooler reflections, to abandon that determination, he could not resist the temptation of making one more fruitless effort to obtain permission to retain his favourite regiment., as a personal favour-to himself. The Commons then returned to the charge on the subject of the royal grants of Crown lands and, on sending up the Land-tax bill to the Lords, appended to it a clause empowering seven commissioners to inquire into the disposition of the property forfeited in Ireland during the late troubles. The Lords did not withhold their assent, though they protested against the for- cible manner in which it had been wrung fronr them, and the lin was passed the King observing, in one of his private letters, " thisi commission will give us plenty of trouble this winter." William: then prorogued the parliament on May 4, 1699, in a speech which contained no word either of- thanks or praise, and concluded with' the wish "that no mischief might happen in the mean time." The Houses met again on November 18. The Commons. opened the session with a fruitless attempt to deprive Somers of the Chancellor-. ship, and Burnet of the office of preceptor to the Duke of Glen.- cester and then turned their attention to the report of the com- mission on Irish forfeitures. This report, which was signed by four out of the seven commissioners, censured the manner in which. WU- Ham had disposed of the forfeited lands, and recommended not only the resumption, of all his grads, but also a considerable extension of. the original confiscations. A. special clause was appended to it, calling attention to a grant which had been made by. William to 'Elizabeth Villiers, his old. mistress an act of liberality for which Lord Ma- caulay with more zeal than discretion,, ventures to offer a faint de- fence. The Commons immediately introduced and passed a bill adopting the recommendations of the commissioners on every point. and, knowing that if it were sent up alone the Lords would refuse to pass it, they had recourse to their old expedient of tacking it on to a money-bill. On this occasion, however, the Lords made a stand., and returned the bill to the Commons after having introduced several amendments into the appended clauses. The Commons steadily refused to yield, and sent back the bill to the Lords, who persisted in. adhering to their amendments. The intense excitement which pre- vailed during the next three or four days is described by Lord' Macaulay in a passage which will almost bear comparison with his. celebrated account of the trial of the Seven Bishops. The majority in the Lords was said to be mainly composed of prelates, illegitimate, sons of Charles IL, and needy and greedy courtiers and the cry in all places of public resort was that the nation would be ruined by the three B's—Bishops, Bastards, and Beggars. At length the Lora. gave way, and the 'bill was passed and,, on the very next day, April 11, 1700, the parliament was prorogued by the royal command. In the foregoing sketch,, we have confined ourselves exclusively to the struggle between the King and the House of Commons.. Although this is unquestionably the main feature of the period whose history is contained in the present volume, there are, of course, many other events, the- narration of which gives, full scope to Lord Ma- caulay's' unrivalled powers. The account of the Treaty of Partition arranged between England and France for the purpose of settling the impending question of the succession, to the throne of Spain, affords. him an opportunity of introducing a brilliant description of the con., dition of the Spanish empire and court, and, of the state of the wretched monarch whose death was koked forward to with such anxious expectation by the whole of Europe. The portrait of Charles IL of Spain is admirably executed, and we wish that we had space to transfer it to our columns but we- must content ourselves with that of his minister, Cardinal Portocarrero, whom Louis my.. had succeeded in gaining over to his interests.

" Portocarrero was one of a men of men of whom we, happily for ns, have

seen very little, but whose influe oe nlheclrseolo iti?he countlie.iewas,IkeSixtushe Fourth andAexaierthe Sixth, a politician made out of an impious priest. Such politicians are generally worse than the worst of the laity, more merciless than any ruffian that can be found in camps, more dishonest than any pettifogger who haunts the tribunals. The sanctity of their profession has an unsanctifying influence on them. The lessons of the nursery, the habits of boyhood and of early youth, leave in the minds of the great majority of avowed infidels some traces of religion, which, in seasons of mourning and of sickness, become plainly discernible. But it is scarcely possible that any such trace should remain in the mind of the hypocrite who, during many years, is constantly going through what he considers as the mummery of preaching, saying mass, baptizing, shriving. When an ecclesiastic of this sort mixes in the contests of men of the world, he is indeed much to be dreaded as an enemy, but still more to be dreaded as an ally. From the pulpit where he daily employs his eloquence to embellish what he regards as fables, from the altar whence he deny looks down with secret scorn on the prostrate dupes who believe that he can turn a drop of wine into blood, from the confessional where he daily studies with cold and scientific attention the morbid anatomy of guilty consciences, he brings to courts some talents which may move the envy of the more cunning and un- scrupulous of lay courtiers, a rare skill in reading characters and. in managing tempers, a rare art of dissimulation, a rare dexterity in insinuating. what it is not safe to affirm or to propose in explicit terms. There are two feelings which often prevent an unprincipled layman from becoming utterly depraved and de- spicable—domestic feeling, and chivalrous feeling. His heart may be softened by the endearments of a family. His pride may revolt from the thought. of doing what does not become a gentleman. But neither with the domestic feeling. nor with the chivalrous feeling has the wicked priest any sympathy. His gown excludes him from the closest and most tender of human relations, and at the same time dispenses him from the observation of the fashionable code of honour."

Many historians agree in regarding the Partition Treaty as one of the most impudent encroachments that tyranny and' injustice ever planned and it has not unfrequently been compared to that by which' the partition of Poland was finally arranged. Lord Macaulay.,

however, boldly undertakes its defence. The Spanish monarchy was, he says, merely an ill-governed empire' entirely destitute of any com- mon national character whatever. Its partition, therefore, resembled that which "is effected by setting loose a drove of slaves who had been fastened together with collars and handcuffs, and whose union has produced only pain, inconvenience, and mutual disgust." That of Poland, on the other hand, "was such a partition as is effected by hacking a living body limb from limb." He argues at some length that the consent of England to the arrangement involved no breach of faith with the House of Austria and then proceeds to assert the general policy and necessity of that consent in the following cogent and forcible terms : "If the whole Spanish monarchy should pass to the House of Bourbon, it was highly probable that in a few years England would cease to be great and free, and that Holland would be a mere province of France. Such a danger England and Holland might lawfully have averted by war and it would be absurd to say that a danger which may be lawfully averted by war cannot law- fully be averted by peaceable means. If nations are so deeply interested in a question that they would be justified in resorting to arms for the purpose of settling it, they must surely be sufficiently interested in it to be justified in resorting to amicable arrangements for the purpose of settling it. Yet, strange to say, a multitude of writers who have warmly praised the English and Dutch Governments for waging a long and bloody war in order to prevent the question of the Spanish succession from being settled in a manner prejudicial to them, have severely blamed those Governments for trying to attain the same end with- out the shedding:of a drop of blood, without the addition of a crown to the taxa- tion of any country in Christendom, and without a moment's interruption of the trade of the world by land or by sea."

Among the other events described by Lord Macaulay in the volume now before us, are the destruction of Whitehall by fire, caused by the carelessness of a laundress : "the patriotic journalists and pamphleteers of that time did not fail," he observes, "to note that she was a Dutchwoman " the embassy of the Duke of Portland to Paris and the visit of Peter the Great to England. The latter event, especially, is admirably narrated. Lord Macaulay dwells upon the striking contrast between the rude simplicity of the Czar's ap- pearance and habits, and the mixture of filth and splendour which ordinarily characterised the suite of the Russian ambassador, who used to "come to the state-balls, dropping pearls and vermin." But perhaps the most interesting episode in the whole volume is the ac- count of Paterson's ill-fated expedition to the Isthmus of Darien. Lord Macaulay gives a very minute history of this enterprise, going back some years in order to trace its origin and progress in full de- tail. The view which he takes of it is entirely unfavourable. He regards it as an utterly indefensible and irrational scheme, proposed by a man who was honest, indeed, but absolutely devoid of judgment and he entirely repudiates the idea that any wrong was done to Scot- land by the refusal of England to support an undertaking which could not fail to involve her in a war with Spain. The whole account of the affair is, in a literary point of view, equal to anything that has ever proceeded from Lord. Macaulay's pen. As a sample of its style we will quote the statement of the considerations which induced the Scotch people, ordinarily so cautious, to throw themselves with such warmth and eagerness into Paterson's design:

"Scotland was, indeed, not blessed with a mild elimate or a fertile soil. But the richest spots that had ever existed on the face of the earth had been spots quite as little favoured by nature. It was on a bare rock, surrounded by deep sea, that the streets of Tyre were piled up to a dizzy height. On that sterile crag were woven the robes of Persian satraps and Sicilian tyrants: there were fashioned silver bowls and chargers for the banquets of kings: and there Pome- ranian amber was set in Lydian gold to adorn the necks of queens. In the warehouses were collected the fine linen of Egypt and the odorous gums of Arabia the ivory of India, and the tin of Britain. In the port lay fleets of great ships which had weathered the storms of the Enable and the Atlantic. Powerful and wealthy colonies in distant parts of the world looked up with filial reverence to the little island and despots, who trampled on the laws and outraged the feelings of all the nations between the Hydaspes and the Egesn, condescended to court the population of that busy hive. At a later period, on a dreary bank formed by the soil which the Alpine streams swept down to the Adriatic, rose the palaces of Venice. Within a space which would not have been thought large enough for one of the parks of a rude northern baron were col- lected riches far exceeding those of a northern kingdom. In almost every one of the private dwellings which fringed the Great Canal were to be seen plate, mirrors, jewellery, tapestry, paintings, carving, such as might move the envy of the master of Holyrood. In the arsenal were munitions of war sufficient to maintain a contest against the whole power of the Ottoman Empire. And, before the grandeur of Venice had declined, another commonwealth, still less favoured, if possible, by nature, had rapidly risen to a power and opulence which the whole civilized world contemplated with envy and admiration. On a desolate marsh overhung by fogs and exhaling diseases, a marsh where there was neither wood nor stone, neither firm earth nor drinkable water, a marsh from which the ocean on one side and the Rhine on the other were with diffi- culty kept out by art, was to be found the most prosperous community in Europe. The wealth which was collected within five miles of the Stadthouse of Amsterdam would purchase the fee simple of Scotland. And why should this be? Was there any reason to believe that nature had bestowed on the Phce- nician, on the Venetian, or on the Hollander, a larger measure of activity, of ingenuity, of forethought, of self-command, than on the citizen of Edinburgh or Glasgow? The truth was that, in all those qualities which conduce to success in life, and especially in commercial life, the Scot had never been surpassed perhaps he had never been equalled. All that was necessary was that his energy should take a proper direction and a proper direction Paterson under- took to give."

But while we do full justice to the splendid powers of description so lavishly displayed throughout the whole of this episode, we are far from giving an unqualified assent to the conclusions at which Lord Macaulay arrives. To state the reasons for our dissent would require far more space than is at our disposal on the present occasion. But his is evidently an ex parts statement throughout. His sneers at "the nest of buccaneers, and "the squatters who had occupied Darien," are sufficient proofs of the animus with which he regards the whole enterprise. We recommend the reader to compare the account of the Darien expedition with that of the affair of Captain Kidd, which is given in the following chapter. It would be by no means difficult, by dwelling skilfully on its most unfavourable points, to obtain from anyone who was not previously familiar with the facts of the case a full assent to the interpretation which the enemies of Somers strove to put upon the latter transaction and yet there are few facts in history more firmly established than that the Chancellor was entirely blameless throughout the whole affair. In addition to the revised portion of Lord Macaulay's MS. the present volume contains a brief account of the death of William III, which Lady Trevelyan has deciphered, with some difficulty, from a rough sketch of the last two months of his reign, which she found among her brother's papers. This she has given precisely as it stood, without any attempt to connect it with the preceding chapters. Ira fact, throughout the whole volume, she has carefully abstained from making even the smallest addition to, or alteration in, the original manuscript. In this forbearance she has shown an entirely wise and commendable discretion. We quite agree with her in preferring "that the last thoughts of the great mind which has passed away from us should be preserved sacred from any touch but his own." That Lord Macaulay's History should never be completed was, in- deed, from the first, a necessary consequence of the magnitude of the scale on which it was commenced. But not even from the finished

work could we obtain a clearer idea of the i magnificence of its pro- portions and the delicacy of its execution than s afforded us by the fragment which we now possess. There will always be a variety of opinions as to the intrinsic value of a history which is written with a strong political bias but no difference of sentiments on this point can affect the universal estimate of the transcendent literary merit of Lord Macaulay's greatest work.


Brave provides examples of:

  • Accidental Aiming Skills: Twice:
    • During the tournament, Wee Dingwall handles the bow as if he's never touched one before the tournament. When Fergus gets tired of making fun of him, he screams for him to "Shoot, boy!" and Dingwall jumps and looses his arrow &mdash into a perfect bull's-eye. Everyone is understandably shocked.
    • When Merida recounts the story of the four lords banding together to save Scotland from invaders.
    • In the beginning, when Fergus sees the giant demon bear Mor'du bearing down on his wife and young daughter, who are completely defenseless, when they'd been feeling completely safe, or what Elinor must have felt taking Merida and running away on horseback, leaving her husband and his men behind to fight the bear, with no way of knowing the outcome until after the whole affair.
    • Though long since over it by the time the main length of the movie occurred, Queen Elinor was probably quite distraught over her husband suffering the loss of limb at the hands of Mor'du.
    • The scene where Fergus finds Elinor's torn dress. just think what awful scenarios he must have been imagining.
    • Running into the tapestry room and finding what looked like the same bear who killed Elinor attacking his daughter.
    • Merida is down in the abandoned castle and Mor'du shows up and tries to kill her. Elinor is helpless to protect her daughter who is trapped with this bear because she cannot fit through the hole.
    • The whole scene where Mor'du is relentlessly pursuing Merida and manages to trap her beneath him, snarling straight into Merida's face as he prepares to rip her apart and then likely eat her. And Fergus is lying off to the side, unable to reach his daughter in time to save her. It's this act that finally makes bear Elinor go ballistic and square off against Mor'du in a battle of Mama Bear vs. Evil Bear. The entire sequence is an amazing showcase of a frightened and vengeful mother desperately trying to protect her child from one of the most dangerous creatures in existence.
    • What both Elinor and Fergus may have thought after realizing that they had sent their tiny daughter into the woods to fetch the arrow, alone, defenseless, with that very same giant bear stalking her the entire time, where he could have attacked and killed her without their knowledge.
    • When Merida runs off after the fight with her mother, her mother is clearly very relieved to see her again and voices that she had no idea when she'd be back or if she was all right &mdash after all, her daughter was running on horseback in the woods, roamed by a monster bear, without her bow or any kind of protection. Even without the threat of a bear attack, there's still the fact that she could be hurt or killed in many other ways out there on her own, such as being thrown by her horse and injured with no one to help her. She was thrown but thankfully wasn't harmed.
    • Elinor is hesitant about leaving the castle temporarily because she doesn't want to leave the triplets behind. Merida assures her they'll be fine. And they are. except they decide to sample the magic cake and turn into bears themselves.
    • The fear of war breaking out if the marriage isn't arranged properly.
    • Anachronism Stew: Where to begin? The film is meant to portray a medieval fantasy Scotland, so The Time of Myths can be easily invoked. That being said, there are references to recently fighting both the Romans (a 5th century at the latest) and the Vikings (8th-11th century), and there's a hodgepodge of features (clothing, weaponry, and the like) from a wide range of eras.
      • The tartan (15th-16th century), kilt (18th century) note Scottish clans have been wearing kilts in the style as seen in the movie since the 16th century. Wearing the kilt was outlawed in the mid 18th century after some rebellions, and was re-legalized near the end of that century, just in time for it to be romanticized by Sir Walter Scott and woad warpaint (Iron Age) forks and tea (didn't make landfall in Britain till mid-17th century) bagpipes (14th century) note Originating in such Middle Eastern countries as Turkey, Persia, Mesopotamia, and later found in Spain, Portugal, and throughout Eastern Europe the carnyx (Iron Age) and bears (extinct in Scotland since the 9th-10th century at the latest) at the same time.
      • The sleeves on Merida's dresses are too tight to have existed before sewing technology developed in the 14th century (unless she sews them up each morning), and the slashes on the shoulders and elbows are a fashion of Renaissance Italy.
      • One mainly justified through Rule of Funny: the witch uses a welding mask when making the spell.
      • The castle has features not introduced until the very end of the medieval period, yet looks like it's been there for centuries.
      • The language spoken throughout the film is primarily Modern English with a faint Scots accent and is easily understood by most Anglophones. The exceptions to this are the occasional Gaelic word or phrase, Young MacGuffin who speaks in Doric, and an improvised line borrowed fromOor Wullie, all Played for Laughs.
      • Every single carving the witch has made is a bear. Justified because she advertises it as bear-themed carving.

      Contents

      Rāma is a Vedic Sanskrit word with two contextual meanings. In one context as found in Atharva Veda, as stated by Monier Monier-Williams, means "dark, dark-colored, black" and is related to the term ratri which means night. In another context as found in other Vedic texts, the word means "pleasing, delightful, charming, beautiful, lovely". [23] [24] The word is sometimes used as a suffix in different Indian languages and religions, such as Pali in Buddhist texts, where -rama adds the sense of "pleasing to the mind, lovely" to the composite word. [25]

      Rama as a first name appears in the Vedic literature, associated with two patronymic names – Margaveya and Aupatasvini – representing different individuals. A third individual named Rama Jamadagnya is the purported author of hymn 10.110 of the Rigveda in the Hindu tradition. [23] The word Rama appears in ancient literature in reverential terms for three individuals: [23]

        , as the sixth avatar of Vishnu. He is linked to the Rama Jamadagnya of the Rigveda fame.
    • Rama-chandra, as the seventh avatar of Vishnu and of the ancient Ramayana fame. , also called Halayudha, as the elder brother of Krishna both of whom appear in the legends of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.
    • The name Rama appears repeatedly in Hindu texts, for many different scholars and kings in mythical stories. [23] The word also appears in ancient Upanishads and Aranyakas layer of Vedic literature, as well as music and other post-Vedic literature, but in qualifying context of something or someone who is "charming, beautiful, lovely" or "darkness, night". [23]

      The Vishnu avatar named Rama is also known by other names. He is called Ramachandra (beautiful, lovely moon), [24] or Dasarathi (son of Dasaratha), or Raghava (descendant of Raghu, solar dynasty in Hindu cosmology). [23] [26] He is also known as Ram Lalla (Infant form of Rama). [27]

      Additional names of Rama include Ramavijaya (Javanese), Phreah Ream (Khmer), Phra Ram (Lao and Thai), Megat Seri Rama (Malay), Raja Bantugan (Maranao), Ramudu (Telugu), Ramar (Tamil). [28] In the Vishnu sahasranama, Rama is the 394th name of Vishnu. In some Advaita Vedanta inspired texts, Rama connotes the metaphysical concept of Supreme Brahman who is the eternally blissful spiritual Self (Atman, soul) in whom yogis delight nondualistically. [29]

      The root of the word Rama is ram- which means "stop, stand still, rest, rejoice, be pleased". [24]

      According to Douglas Q. Adams, the Sanskrit word Rama is also found in other Indo-European languages such as Tocharian ram, reme, *romo- where it means "support, make still", "witness, make evident". [24] [30] The sense of "dark, black, soot" also appears in other Indo European languages, such as *remos or Old English romig. [31] [β]

      This summary is a traditional legendary account, based on literary details from the Ramayana and other historic mythology-containing texts of Buddhism and Jainism. According to Sheldon Pollock, the figure of Rama incorporates more ancient "morphemes of Indian myths", such as the mythical legends of Bali and Namuci. The ancient sage Valmiki used these morphemes in his Ramayana similes as in sections 3.27, 3.59, 3.73, 5.19 and 29.28. [33]

      Birth

      Rama was born on the ninth day of the lunar month Chaitra (March–April), a day celebrated across India as Ram Navami. This coincides with one of the four Navaratri on the Hindu calendar, in the spring season, namely the Vasantha Navaratri. [34]

      The ancient epic Ramayana states in the Balakhanda that Rama and his brothers were born to Kaushalya and Dasharatha in Ayodhya, a city on the banks of Sarayu River. [35] [36] The Jain versions of the Ramayana, such as the Paumacariya (literally deeds of Padma) by Vimalasuri, also mention the details of the early life of Rama. The Jain texts are dated variously, but generally pre-500 CE, most likely sometime within the first five centuries of the common era. [37] Moriz Winternitz states that the Valmiki Ramayana was already famous before it was recast in the Jain Paumacariya poem, dated to the second half of the 1st century, which pre-dates a similar retelling found in the Buddha-carita of Asvagosa, dated to the beginning of the 2 : nd century or prior. [38]

      Dasharatha was the king of Kosala, and a part of the solar dynasty of Iksvakus. His mother's name Kaushalya literally implies that she was from Kosala. The kingdom of Kosala is also mentioned in Buddhist and Jain texts, as one of the sixteen Maha janapadas of ancient India, and as an important center of pilgrimage for Jains and Buddhists. [35] [39] However, there is a scholarly dispute whether the modern Ayodhya is indeed the same as the Ayodhya and Kosala mentioned in the Ramayana and other ancient Indian texts. [40] [γ]

      Youth, family and friends

      Rama had three brothers, according to the Balakhanda section of the Ramayana. These were Lakshmana, Bharata and Shatrughna. [3] The extant manuscripts of the text describes their education and training as young princes, but this is brief. Rama is portrayed as a polite, self-controlled, virtuous youth always ready to help others. His education included the Vedas, the Vedangas as well as the martial arts. [43]

      The years when Rama grew up are described in much greater detail by later Hindu texts, such as the Ramavali by Tulsidas. The template is similar to those found for Krishna, but in the poems of Tulsidas, Rama is milder and reserved introvert, rather than the prank-playing extrovert personality of Krishna. [3]

      The Ramayana mentions an archery contest organised by King Janaka, where Sita and Rama meet. Rama wins the contest, whereby Janaka agrees to the marriage of Sita and Rama. Sita moves with Rama to his father Dashratha's capital. [3] Sita introduces Rama's brothers to her sister and her two cousins, and they all get married. [43]

      While Rama and his brothers were away, Kaikeyi, the mother of Bharata and the second wife of King Dasharatha, reminds the king that he had promised long ago to comply with one thing she asks, anything. Dasharatha remembers and agrees to do so. She demands that Rama be exiled for fourteen years to Dandaka forest. [43] Dasharatha grieves at her request. Her son Bharata, and other family members become upset at her demand. Rama states that his father should keep his word, adds that he does not crave for earthly or heavenly material pleasures, neither seeks power nor anything else. He talks about his decision with his wife and tells everyone that time passes quickly. Sita leaves with him to live in the forest, the brother Lakshmana joins them in their exile as the caring close brother. [43]

      Exile and war

      Rama, along with his younger brother Lakshmana and wife Sita, exiled to the forest.

      Ravana's sister Suparnakha attempts to seduce Rama and cheat on Sita. He refuses and spurns her (above).

      Ravana kidnapping Sita while Jatayu on the left tried to help her. 9th-century Prambanan bas-relief, Java, Indonesia.

      Rama heads outside the Kosala kingdom, crosses Yamuna river and initially stays at Chitrakuta, on the banks of river Mandakini, in the hermitage of sage Vasishtha. [44] During the exile, Rama meets one of his devotee, Shabari who happened to love him so much that when Rama asked something to eat she offered her ber, a fruit. But every time she gave it to him she first tasted it to ensure, it was sweet and tasty. Such was the level of her devotion. Rama also understood her devotion and ate all the half-eaten bers given by her. Such was the reciprocation of love and compassion he had for his people. This place is believed in the Hindu tradition to be the same as Chitrakoot on the border of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The region has numerous Rama temples and is an important Vaishnava pilgrimage site. [44] The texts describe nearby hermitages of Vedic rishis (sages) such as Atri, and that Rama roamed through forests, lived a humble simple life, provided protection and relief to ascetics in the forest being harassed and persecuted by demons, as they stayed at different ashrams. [44] [45]

      After ten years of wandering and struggles, Rama arrives at Panchavati, on the banks of river Godavari. This region had numerous demons (rakshashas). One day, a demoness called Shurpanakha saw Rama, became enamored of him, and tried to seduce him. [43] Rama refused her. Shurpanakha retaliated by threatening Sita. Lakshmana, the younger brother protective of his family, in turn retaliated by cutting off the nose and ears of Shurpanakha. The cycle of violence escalated, ultimately reaching demon king Ravana, who was the brother of Shurpanakha. Ravana comes to Panchavati to take revenge on behalf of his family, sees Sita, gets attracted, and kidnaps her to his kingdom of Lanka (believed to be modern Sri Lanka). [43] [45]

      Rama and Lakshmana discover the kidnapping, worry about Sita's safety, despair at the loss and their lack of resources to take on Ravana. Their struggles now reach new heights. They travel south, meet Sugriva, marshall an army of monkeys, and attract dedicated commanders such as Hanuman who was a minister of Sugriva. [46] Meanwhile, Ravana harasses Sita to be his wife, queen or goddess. [47] Sita refuses him. Ravana gets enraged and ultimately reaches Lanka, fights in a war that has many ups and downs, but ultimately Rama prevails, kills Ravana and forces of evil, and rescues his wife Sita. They return to Ayodhya. [43] [48]

      Post-war rule and death

      The return of Rama to Ayodhya was celebrated with his coronation. It is called Rama pattabhisheka, and his rule itself as Rama rajya described to be a just and fair rule. [49] [50] It is believed by many that when Rama returned people celebrated their happiness with diyas (lamps), and the festival of Diwali is connected with Rama's return. [51]

      Upon Rama's accession as king, rumors emerge that Sita may have gone willingly when she was with Ravana Sita protests that her capture was forced. Rama responds to public gossip by renouncing his wife and asking her to undergo a test before Agni (fire). She does and passes the test. Rama and Sita live happily together in Ayodhya, have twin sons named Luv and Kush, in the Ramayana and other major texts. [45] However, in some revisions, the story is different and tragic, with Sita dying of sorrow for her husband not trusting her, making Sita a moral heroine and leaving the reader with moral questions about Rama. [52] [53] In these revisions, the death of Sita leads Rama to drown himself. Through death, he joins her in afterlife. [54] Rama dying by drowning himself is found in the Myanmar version of Rama's life story called Thiri Rama. [55]

      Inconsistencies

      Rama's legends vary significantly by the region and across manuscripts. While there is a common foundation, plot, grammar and an essential core of values associated with a battle between good and evil, there is neither a correct version nor a single verifiable ancient one. According to Paula Richman, there are hundreds of versions of "the story of Rama in India, Southeast Asia and beyond". [56] [57] The versions vary by region reflecting local preoccupations and histories, and these cannot be called "divergences or different tellings" from the "real" version, rather all the versions of Rama story are real and true in their own meanings to the local cultural tradition, according to scholars such as Richman and Ramanujan. [56]

      The stories vary in details, particularly where the moral question is clear, but the appropriate ethical response is unclear or disputed. [58] [59] For example, when demoness Shurpanakha disguises as a woman to seduce Rama, then stalks and harasses Rama's wife Sita after Rama refuses her, Lakshmana is faced with the question of appropriate ethical response. In the Indian tradition, states Richman, the social value is that "a warrior must never harm a woman". [58] The details of the response by Rama and Lakshmana, and justifications for it, has numerous versions. Similarly, there are numerous and very different versions to how Rama deals with rumours against Sita when they return victorious to Ayodhya, given that the rumours can neither be objectively investigated nor summarily ignored. [60] Similarly the versions vary on many other specific situations and closure such as how Rama, Sita and Lakshmana die. [58] [61]

      The variation and inconsistencies are not limited to the texts found in the Hinduism traditions. The Rama story in the Jainism tradition also show variation by author and region, in details, in implied ethical prescriptions and even in names – the older versions using the name Padma instead of Rama, while the later Jain texts just use Rama. [62]

      In some Hindu texts, Rama is stated to have lived in the Treta Yuga [64] that their authors estimate existed before about 5,000 BCE. A few other researchers place Rama to have more plausibly lived around 1250 BCE, [65] based on regnal lists of Kuru and Vrishni leaders which if given more realistic reign lengths would place Bharat and Satwata, contemporaries of Rama, around that period. According to Hasmukh Dhirajlal Sankalia, an Indian archaeologist, who specialised in Proto- and Ancient Indian history, this is all "pure speculation". [66]

      The composition of Rama's epic story, the Ramayana, in its current form is usually dated between 7th and 4th century BCE. [67] [68] According to John Brockington, a professor of Sanskrit at Oxford known for his publications on the Ramayana, the original text was likely composed and transmitted orally in more ancient times, and modern scholars have suggested various centuries in the 1st millennium BCE. In Brockington's view, "based on the language, style and content of the work, a date of roughly the fifth century BCE is the most reasonable estimate". [69]

      Valmiki in Ramayana describes Rama as a charming, well built person of a dark complexion (varṇam śyāmam) and long arms (ājānabāhu, meaning a person who's middle finger reaches beyond their knee). [70] In the Sundara Kanda section of the epic, Hanuman describes Rama to Sita when she is held captive in Lanka to prove to her that he is indeed a messenger from Rama:

      He has broad shoulders, mighty arms, a conch-shaped neck, a charming countenance, and coppery eyes

      he has his clavicle concealed and is known by the people as Rama. He has a voice (deep) like the sound of a kettledrum and glossy skin,

      is full of glory, square-built, and of well-proportioned limbs and is endowed with a dark-brown complexion. [71]

      Rama iconography shares elements of Vishnu avatars, but has several distinctive elements. It never has more than two hands, he holds (or has nearby) a bana (arrow) in his right hand, while he holds the dhanus (bow) in his left. [72] The most recommended icon for him is that he be shown standing in tribhanga pose (thrice bent "S" shape). He is shown black, blue or dark color, typically wearing reddish color clothes. If his wife and brother are a part of the iconography, Lakshamana is on his left side while Sita always on the right of Rama, both of golden-yellow complexion. [72]

      Rama's life story is imbued with symbolism. According to Sheldon Pollock, the life of Rama as told in the Indian texts is a masterpiece that offers a framework to represent, conceptualise and comprehend the world and the nature of life. Like major epics and religious stories around the world, it has been of vital relevance because it "tells the culture what it is". Rama's life is more complex than the Western template for the battle between the good and the evil, where there is a clear distinction between immortal powerful gods or heroes and mortal struggling humans. In the Indian traditions, particularly Rama, the story is about a divine human, a mortal god, incorporating both into the exemplar who transcends both humans and gods. [73]

      A superior being does not render evil for evil,
      this is the maxim one should observe
      the ornament of virtuous persons is their conduct.
      (. )
      A noble soul will ever exercise compassion
      even towards those who enjoy injuring others.

      Ramayana 6.115, Valmiki
      (Abridged, Translator: Roderick Hindery) [74]

      As a person, Rama personifies the characteristics of an ideal person (purushottama). [53] He had within him all the desirable virtues that any individual would seek to aspire, and he fulfils all his moral obligations. Rama is considered a maryada purushottama or the best of upholders of Dharma. [75]

      According to Rodrick Hindery, Book 2, 6 and 7 are notable for ethical studies. [76] [59] The views of Rama combine "reason with emotions" to create a "thinking hearts" approach. Second, he emphasises through what he says and what he does a union of "self-consciousness and action" to create an "ethics of character". Third, Rama's life combines the ethics with the aesthetics of living. [76] The story of Rama and people in his life raises questions such as "is it appropriate to use evil to respond to evil?", and then provides a spectrum of views within the framework of Indian beliefs such as on karma and dharma. [74]

      Rama's life and comments emphasise that one must pursue and live life fully, that all three life aims are equally important: virtue (dharma), desires (kama), and legitimate acquisition of wealth (artha). Rama also adds, such as in section 4.38 of the Ramayana, that one must also introspect and never neglect what one's proper duties, appropriate responsibilities, true interests, and legitimate pleasures are. [42]

      Ramayana

      The primary source of the life of Rama is the Sanskrit epic Ramayana composed by Rishi Valmiki. [77]

      The epic had many versions across India's regions. The followers of Madhvacharya believe that an older version of the Ramayana, the Mula-Ramayana, previously existed. [78] The Madhva tradition considers it to have been more authoritative than the version by Valmiki. [79]

      Versions of the Ramayana exist in most major Indian languages examples that elaborate on the life, deeds and divine philosophies of Rama include the epic poem Ramavataram, and the following vernacular versions of Rama's life story: [80]

      • Ramavataram or Kamba-Ramayanam in Tamil by the poet Kambar in Tamil. (12th century) in Assamese by poet Madhava Kandali. (14th century)
      • Krittivasi Ramayan in Bengali by poet Krittibas Ojha. (15th century)
      • Ramcharitmanas in Hindi by sant Tulsidas. (16th-century)
      • Pampa Ramayana, Torave Ramayana by Kumara Valmiki and Sri Ramayana Darshanam by Kuvempu in Kannada
      • Ramayana Kalpavruksham by Viswanatha Satyanarayana and Ramayana by Ranganatha in Telugu
      • Vilanka Ramayana in Odia
      • Eluttachan in Malayalam (this text is closer to the Advaita Vedanta-inspired rendition Adhyatma Ramayana). [81]

      The epic is found across India, in different languages and cultural traditions. [82]

      Adhyatma Ramayana

      Adhyatma Ramayana is a late medieval Sanskrit text extolling the spiritualism in the story of Ramayana. It is embedded in the latter portion of Brahmānda Purana, and constitutes about a third of it. [83] The text philosophically attempts to reconcile Bhakti in god Rama and Shaktism with Advaita Vedanta, over 65 chapters and 4,500 verses. [84] [85]

      The text represents Rama as the Brahman (metaphysical reality), mapping all attributes and aspects of Rama to abstract virtues and spiritual ideals. [85] Adhyatma Ramayana transposes Ramayana into symbolism of self study of one's own soul, with metaphors described in Advaita terminology. [85] The text is notable because it influenced the popular Ramcharitmanas by Tulsidas, [83] [85] and inspired the most popular version of Nepali Ramayana by Bhanubhakta Acharya. [86] This was also translated by Thunchath Ezhuthachan to Malayalam, which lead the foundation of Malayalam literature itself. [87]

      Ramacharitmanas

      The Ramayana is a Sanskrit text, while Ramacharitamanasa retells the Ramayana in a vernacular dialect of Hindi language, [88] commonly understood in northern India. [89] [90] [91] Ramacharitamanasa was composed in the 16th century by Tulsidas. [92] [93] [88] The popular text is notable for synthesising the epic story in a Bhakti movement framework, wherein the original legends and ideas morph in an expression of spiritual bhakti (devotional love) for a personal god. [88] [94] [δ]

      Tulsidas was inspired by Adhyatma Ramayana, where Rama and other characters of the Valmiki Ramayana along with their attributes (saguna narrative) were transposed into spiritual terms and abstract rendering of an Atma (soul, self, Brahman) without attributes (nirguna reality). [83] [85] [96] According to Kapoor, Rama's life story in the Ramacharitamanasa combines mythology, philosophy, and religious beliefs into a story of life, a code of ethics, a treatise on universal human values. [97] It debates in its dialogues the human dilemmas, the ideal standards of behaviour, duties to those one loves, and mutual responsibilities. It inspires the audience to view their own lives from a spiritual plane, encouraging the virtuous to keep going, and comforting those oppressed with a healing balm. [97]

      The Ramacharitmanas is notable for being the Rama-based play commonly performed every year in autumn, during the weeklong performance arts festival of Ramlila. [20] The "staging of the Ramayana based on the Ramacharitmanas" was inscribed in 2008 by UNESCO as one of the Intangible Cultural Heritages of Humanity. [98]

      Yoga Vasistha

      Yoga Vasistha (Vasistha teaching Rama)
      Tr: Christopher Chapple [99]

      Yoga Vasistha is a Sanskrit text structured as a conversation between young Prince Rama and sage Vasistha who was called as the first sage of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy by Adi Shankara. The complete text contains over 29,000 verses. [100] The short version of the text is called Laghu Yogavasistha and contains 6,000 verses. [101] The exact century of its completion is unknown, but has been estimated to be somewhere between the 6 : th century to as late as the 14 : th century, but it is likely that a version of the text existed in the 1 : st millennium. [102]

      The Yoga Vasistha text consists of six books. The first book presents Rama's frustration with the nature of life, human suffering and disdain for the world. The second describes, through the character of Rama, the desire for liberation and the nature of those who seek such liberation. The third and fourth books assert that liberation comes through a spiritual life, one that requires self-effort, and present cosmology and metaphysical theories of existence embedded in stories. [103] These two books are known for emphasising free will and human creative power. [103] [104] The fifth book discusses meditation and its powers in liberating the individual, while the last book describes the state of an enlightened and blissful Rama. [103] [105]

      Yoga Vasistha is considered one of the most important texts of the Vedantic philosophy. [106] The text, states David Gordon White, served as a reference on Yoga for medieval era Advaita Vedanta scholars. [107] The Yoga Vasistha, according to White, was one of the popular texts on Yoga that dominated the Indian Yoga culture scene before the 12th century. [107]

      Other texts

      Other important historic Hindu texts on Rama include Bhusundi Ramanaya, Prasanna raghava, and Ramavali by Tulsidas. [3] [108] The Sanskrit poem Bhaṭṭikāvya of Bhatti, who lived in Gujarat in the seventh century CE, is a retelling of the epic that simultaneously illustrates the grammatical examples for Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī as well as the major figures of speech and the Prakrit language. [109]

      Another historically and chronologically important text is Raghuvamsa authored by Kalidasa. [110] Its story confirms many details of the Ramayana, but has novel and different elements. It mentions that Ayodhya was not the capital in the time of Rama's son named Kusha, but that he later returned to it and made it the capital again. This text is notable because the poetry in the text is exquisite and called a Mahakavya in the Indian tradition, and has attracted many scholarly commentaries. It is also significant because Kalidasa has been dated to between the 4th and 5th century CE, suggesting that the Ramayana legend was well established by the time of Kalidasa. [110]

      The Mahabharata has a summary of the Ramayana. The Jainism tradition has extensive literature of Rama as well, but generally refers to him as Padma, such as in the Paumacariya by Vimalasuri. [37] Rama and Sita legend is mentioned in the Jataka tales of Buddhism, as Dasaratha-Jataka (Tale no. 461), but with slightly different spellings such as Lakkhana for Lakshmana and Rama-pandita for Rama. [111] [112] [113]

      The chapter 4 of Vishnu Purana, chapter 112 of Padma Purana, chapter 143 of Garuda Purana and chapters 5 through 11 of Agni Purana also summarise the life story of Rama. [114] Additionally, the Rama story is included in the Vana Parva of the Mahabharata, which has been a part of evidence that the Ramayana is likely more ancient, and it was summarised in the Mahabharata epic in ancient times. [115]

      Rama's story has had a major socio-cultural and inspirational influence across South Asia and Southeast Asia. [14] [116]

      Few works of literature produced in any place at any time have been as popular, influential, imitated and successful as the great and ancient Sanskrit epic poem, the Valmiki Ramayana.

      – Robert Goldman, Professor of Sanskrit, University of California at Berkeley. [14]

      According to Arthur Anthony Macdonell, a professor at Oxford and Boden scholar of Sanskrit, Rama's ideas as told in the Indian texts are secular in origin, their influence on the life and thought of people having been profound over at least two and a half millennia. [117] [118] Their influence has ranged from being a framework for personal introspection to cultural festivals and community entertainment. [14] His life stories, states Goldman, have inspired "painting, film, sculpture, puppet shows, shadow plays, novels, poems, TV serials and plays." [117]

      Hinduism

      Rama Navami

      Rama Navami is a spring festival that celebrates the birthday of Rama. The festival is a part of the spring Navratri, and falls on the ninth day of the bright half of Chaitra month in the traditional Hindu calendar. This typically occurs in the Gregorian months of March or April every year. [119] [120]

      The day is marked by recital of Rama legends in temples, or reading of Rama stories at home. Some Vaishnava Hindus visit a temple, others pray within their home, and some participate in a bhajan or kirtan with music as a part of puja and aarti. [121] The community organises charitable events and volunteer meals. The festival is an occasion for moral reflection for many Hindus. [122] [123] Some mark this day by vrata (fasting) or a visit to a river for a dip. [122] [124] [125]

      The important celebrations on this day take place at Ayodhya, Sitamarhi, [126] Janakpurdham (Nepal), Bhadrachalam, Kodandarama Temple, Vontimitta and Rameswaram. Rathayatras, the chariot processions, also known as Shobha yatras of Rama, Sita, his brother Lakshmana and Hanuman, are taken out at several places. [122] [127] [128] In Ayodhya, many take a dip in the sacred river Sarayu and then visit the Rama temple. [125]

      Rama Navami day also marks the end of the nine-day spring festival celebrated in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh called Vasanthothsavam (Festival of Spring), that starts with Ugadi. Some highlights of this day are Kalyanam (ceremonial wedding performed by temple priests) at Bhadrachalam on the banks of the river Godavari in Bhadradri Kothagudem district of Telangana, preparing and sharing Panakam which is a sweet drink prepared with jaggery and pepper, a procession and Rama temple decorations. [129]

      Ramlila and Dussehra

      Rama's life is remembered and celebrated every year with dramatic plays and fireworks in autumn. This is called Ramlila, and the play follows Ramayana or more commonly the Ramcharitmanas. [130] It is observed through thousands [18] of Rama-related performance arts and dance events, that are staged during the festival of Navratri in India. [131] After the enactment of the legendary war between Good and Evil, the Ramlila celebrations climax in the Dussehra (Dasara, Vijayadashami) night festivities where the giant grotesque effigies of Evil such as of demon Ravana are burnt, typically with fireworks. [98] [132]

      The Ramlila festivities were declared by UNESCO as one of the "Intangible Cultural Heritages of Humanity" in 2008. Ramlila is particularly notable in historically important Hindu cities of Ayodhya, Varanasi, Vrindavan, Almora, Satna and Madhubani – cities in Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. [98] [133] The epic and its dramatic play migrated into southeast Asia in the 1st millennium CE, and Ramayana based Ramlila is a part of performance arts culture of Indonesia, particularly the Hindu society of Bali, Myanmar, Cambodia and Thailand. [134]

      Diwali

      In some parts of India, Rama's return to Ayodhya and his coronation is the main reason for celebrating Diwali, also known as the Festival of Lights. [135]

      In Guyana, Diwali is marked as a special occasion and celebrated with a lot of fanfare. It is observed as a national holiday in this part of the world and some ministers of the Government also take part in the celebrations publicly. Just like Vijayadashmi, Diwali is celebrated by different communities across India to commemorate different events in addition to Rama's return to Ayodhya. For example, many communities celebrate one day of Diwali to celebrate the Victory of Krishna over the demon Narakasur. [ε]

      Hindu arts in Southeast Asia

      Rama's life story, both in the written form of Sanskrit Ramayana and the oral tradition arrived in southeast Asia in the 1st millennium CE. [138] Rama was one of many ideas and cultural themes adopted, others being the Buddha, the Shiva and host of other Brahmanic and Buddhist ideas and stories. [139] In particular, the influence of Rama and other cultural ideas grew in Java, Bali, Malaya, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos. [139]

      The Ramayana was translated from Sanskrit into old Javanese around 860 CE, while the performance arts culture most likely developed from the oral tradition inspired by the Tamil and Bengali versions of Rama-based dance and plays. [138] The earliest evidence of these performance arts are from 243 CE according to Chinese records. Other than the celebration of Rama's life with dance and music, Hindu temples built in southeast Asia such as the Prambanan near Yogyakarta (Java), and at the Panataran near Blitar (East Java), show extensive reliefs depicting Rama's life. [138] [140] The story of Rama's life has been popular in Southeast Asia. [141]

      In the 14th century, the Ayutthaya Kingdom and its capital Ayuttaya was named after the Hindu holy city of Ayodhya, with the official religion of the state being Theravada Buddhism. [142] [143] Thai kings, continuing into the contemporary era, have been called Rama, a name inspired by Rama of Ramakien – the local version of Sanskrit Ramayana, according to Constance Jones and James Ryan. For example, King Chulalongkorn (1853-1910) is also known as Rama V, while King Vajiralongkorn who succeeded to the throne in 2016 is called Rama X. [144]

      Jainism

      In Jainism, the earliest known version of Rama story is variously dated from the 1st to 5th century CE. This Jaina text credited to Vimalasuri shows no signs of distinction between Digambara-Svetambara (sects of Jainism), and is in a combination of Marathi and Sauraseni languages. These features suggest that this text has ancient roots. [145]

      In Jain cosmology, characters continue to be reborn as they evolve in their spiritual qualities, until they reach the Jina state and complete enlightenment. This idea is explained as cyclically reborn triads in its Puranas, called the Baladeva, Vasudeva and evil Prati-vasudeva. [146] [147] Rama, Lakshmana and evil Ravana are the eighth triad, with Rama being the reborn Baladeva, and Lakshmana as the reborn Vasudeva. [61] Rama is described to have lived long before the 22nd Jain Tirthankara called Neminatha. In the Jain tradition, Neminatha is believed to have been born 84,000 years before the 9th-century BCE Parshvanatha. [148]

      Jain texts tell a very different version of the Rama legend than the Hindu texts such as by Valmiki. According to the Jain version, Lakshmana (Vasudeva) is the one who kills Ravana (Prativasudeva). [61] Rama, after all his participation in the rescue of Sita and preparation for war, he actually does not kill, thus remains a non-violent person. The Rama of Jainism has numerous wives as does Lakshmana, unlike the virtue of monogamy given to Rama in the Hindu texts. Towards the end of his life, Rama becomes a Jaina monk then successfully attains siddha followed by moksha. [61] His first wife Sita becomes a Jaina nun at the end of the story. In the Jain version, Lakshmana and Ravana both go to the hell of Jain cosmology, because Ravana killed many, while Lakshmana killed Ravana to stop Ravana's violence. [61] Padmapurana mentions Rama as a contemporary of Munisuvrata, 20th tirthankara of Jainism. [149]

      Buddhism

      The Dasaratha-Jataka (Tale no. 461) provides a version of the Rama story. It calls Rama as Rama-pandita. [111] [112]

      At the end of this Dasaratha-Jataka discourse, the Buddhist text declares that the Buddha in his prior rebirth was Rama:

      The Master having ended this discourse, declared the Truths, and identified the Birth (. ): 'At that time, the king Suddhodana was king Dasaratha, Mahamaya was the mother, Rahula's mother was Sita, Ananda was Bharata, and I myself was Rama-Pandita.

      While the Buddhist Jataka texts co-opt Rama and make him an incarnation of Buddha in a previous life, [112] the Hindu texts co-opt the Buddha and make him an avatar of Vishnu. [150] [151] The Jataka literature of Buddhism is generally dated to be from the second half of the 1st millennium BCE, based on the carvings in caves and Buddhist monuments such as the Bharhut stupa. [152] [ζ] The 2nd-century BCE stone relief carvings on Bharhut stupa, as told in the Dasaratha-Jataka, is the earliest known non-textual evidence of Rama story being prevalent in ancient India. [154]

      Sikhism

      Rama is mentioned as one of twenty four divine incarnations of Vishnu in the Chaubis Avtar, a composition in Dasam Granth traditionally and historically attributed to Guru Gobind Singh. [10] [η] The discussion of Rama and Krishna avatars is the most extensive in this section of the secondary Sikh scripture. [10] [156] The name of Rama is mentioned more than 2,500 times in the Guru Granth Sahib [157] and is considered as avatar along with the Krishna. [η]

      Among people

      In Assam, Boro people call themselves Ramsa, which means Children of Ram. [158]

      In Chhattisgarh, Ramnami people tattooed their whole body with name of Ram. [159]

      Worship

      Rama is a revered Vaishanava deity, one who is worshipped privately at home or in temples. He was a part of the Bhakti movement focus, particularly because of efforts of 14th century North Indian poet-saint Ramananda who created the Ramanandi Sampradaya, a sannyasi community. This community has grown to become the largest Hindu monastic community in modern times. [162] [163] This Rama-inspired movement has championed social reforms, accepting members without discriminating anyone by gender, class, caste or religion since the time of Ramananda who accepted Muslims wishing to leave Islam. [164] [165] Traditional scholarship holds that his disciples included later Bhakti movement poet-saints such as Kabir, Ravidas, Bhagat Pipa and others. [165] [166]

      Temples

      Temples dedicated to Rama are found all over India and in places where Indian migrant communities have resided. In most temples, the iconography of Rama is accompanied by that of his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana. [167] In some instances, Hanuman is also included either near them or in the temple premises. [168]

      Hindu temples dedicated to Rama were built by early 5th century, according to copper plate inscription evidence, but these have not survived. The oldest surviving Rama temple is near Raipur (Chhattisgarh), called the Rajiva-locana temple at Rajim near the Mahanadi river. It is in a temple complex dedicated to Vishnu and dates back to the 7th-century with some restoration work done around 1145 CE based on epigraphical evidence. [169] [170] The temple remains important to Rama devotees in the contemporary times, with devotees and monks gathering there on dates such as Rama Navami. [171]

      Important Rama temples include:

      Rama has been considered as a source of inspiration and has been described as Maryāda Puruṣottama Rāma (transl. The Ideal Man ). [θ] He has been depicted in many films, television shows and plays. [172] The notable includes:-


      Even Bad Men Love Their Mamas

      Yep, even the biggest bad guy around can still have a soft spot for their parents. Sure you've killed scores of innocent people and committed several acts of terrorism but come on! They raised you and took care of you when you were sick!

      A Sub-Trope of Pet the Dog, this is when a tough or intimidating character is made more endearing via a loving relationship with their parents. It is usually just used for a quick punchline, but occasionally the concept is a bit more fleshed-out.

      While this trope usually focuses on mothers and their sons, it can just as easily focus on mothers and daughters, or fathers and their children.

      This trope is why Your Mom is a universal insult villains from the petty thief to the serial killer don't take kindly to abuse thrown at their mothers.

      A subtrope of Even Evil Has Loved Ones. May overlap with Morality Pet. See Momma's Boy for a similar Trope. The mama in question may or may not be a Mama Bear. If the mother is a villain herself, it may be a Villainous Mother-Son Duo.

      The inverse is Villainous Parental Instinct, where a villainous character still feels parental instinct and will sacrifice something important when their kids are in danger.

      When the villain tries to keep their mama in the dark about being a bad man, then you have a case of Don't Tell Mama. If she finds out anyway, she might react with Mama Didn't Raise No Criminal. Defying this can lead to Hates Their Parent see Matricide, Abusive Offspring, and Self-Made Orphan for villains who really go out of their way to defy this.


      Banned Books: Lord of the Flies

      Banning or challenging books consists of reviewing and regulating material considered to be offensive or unlawful. Usually, governments, religious institutions, and other authorities practice book banning in literature “seen as being in some way threatening to the welfare of the state”, yet the practice has decreased over centuries (Banned Books). Today, small institutions, schools, and libraries challenge books based on sexual content, offensive language, violence, and other thematic issues, which often result in “concerns over the appropriateness of certain books for young readers” (Banned Books).

      Lord of the Flies, by William Golding, received several challenges such as that of the 1992 Iowa School Board, due to its “profanity, lurid passages about sex, and statements defamatory to minorities, God, women, and the disabled” (ThoughtCo). In addition, the original novel suffered controversy from North Carolina’s Owen High School in 1981 due to the overall theme viewed “demoralizing… as it implies that man is little more than an animal” (ThoughtCo). Regardless of the novel’s extensive violence, language, and heavy thematic content, Lord of the Flies should not be banned, for Golding exemplifies to the reader the complexities of humankind, while presenting a moral allegory that forces the reader to question what it truly means to be humane. Censorship may be defined by the “methods of preventing the publication or dissemination of speech, printed matter, art, theater, music, electronic media, or other forms of expression,” often because they do not coincide with certain beliefs or rules (Laursen). Governments and cultural authorities have continuously censored and banned material for centuries, yet previously, written material could be permanently burned or disposed of. However, after the invention of the printing press in 1450, novels became increasingly accessible therefore, this forced authoritative systems to discover new methods of suppressing ideas, eventually leading to the first office devoted solely to censorship (Banned Books).

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      In addition to these new German policies, the Roman Catholic Church made its first major “foray into book censorship in 1557, with the publication of the first version of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum,” consisting of books prohibited and not recognized by Church authority (Banned Books). Although the act of banning books no longer remains common worldwide, censorship still continues, however typically based on appropriateness for readers. Regardless, government censorship in the United States directly contrasts with the ideals of the Constitution, specifically the First Amendment stating “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press…,” therefore protecting each individual’s rights and freedoms to create and absorb content (Laursen). Because of this, citizens of the United States must be granted the privilege to all materials and thoughts, including literature, speech, and the arts, without government restriction. The original version of Lord of the Flies typically received controversy for its graphic scenes when presenting Golding’s “primal, fearsome sense of human evil and human mystery” (Feeney).

      Often, the banning of the novel results from its statements and violent scenery, yet also because of its alternative suggestions on human nature, good versus evil, morality, and the animal instinct found even within the innocence of children. Golding has undergone wide criticism for his chosen themes, however English author and academic Malcolm Bradbury claims he was “a teller of ‘”primal stories- about the birth of speech, the dawn of evil, the strange sources of art”‘ (Feeney). The central themes of Golding’s most famous novel may be widely inspired from his time serving in the Royal Navy of World War II, for he exclaims, ‘”Before the second World War, I believed in the perfectibility of social man,”‘ until his experiences proved “what man could do to another… the vileness beyond all words”‘ (Feeney). During one of the most deadly wars of modern history, Golding discovered the other side to mankind, the side of which humans suddenly become capable of controlling, harming, and destroying one another. His experiences translated through his two most famous novels, Lord of the Flies, and Darkness Visible, each revealing “an attempt to trace the defects of society back to the defects of human nature” (Feeney). Golding’s motivation for writing such controversial literature lies in his belief that the success of society relies on the beliefs and actions of each person, rather than a specific government system, whether it be totalitarian or democratic.

      The major reasons for the challenging of Lord of the Flies include graphic violence along with controversial thematic suggestion of societies. For example, while the schoolboys remain stranded on the island waiting for rescue, they discover “a figure dropping swiftly beneath a parachute, a figure that hung with dangling limbs,” a grownup of the outside world they once took comfort in (Golding 95). While this depicts a graphic image of death, it also shows that, although the boys believe they seek rescue from the island, Golding reminds the reader that the evil does not lie within the physical location itself, but rather exists even in the adulthood they believe to be their savior. A major acceptance to this evil within the children comes along with the first pig hunt, where the boys “flung themselves wildly, scrabbled in the creepers, screaming… Kill the pig! Cut his throat! Kill the pig! Bash him in!” (Golding 114). This scene represents the first abandonment of their previous desires for order and peace, while the impulse to hunt and kill becomes prominent.

      Ralph too, who, throughout the novel symbolizes order, humanity, and structure, even finds himself succumbing to his inner want of flesh, for “the desire to squeeze and hurt was overmastering,” (Golding 115). This represents the unsettling idea that all people, even those appearing pure and good, contain the capability of immorality, for it is a part of humanity’s complex makeup and capability. This moral statement continues further to the end of the novel, when conflict between Jack and Ralph’s camps escalates. The reader visualizes both sides of human nature, as Jack’s camp represents a desire for power and flesh, while Ralph’s camp symbolizes attempted order. However, once the two meet and they “felt the power in their own hands,” death arises and claims Piggy, Ralph’s greatest ally and voice of reason. During their ultimate example of instinct and disorder, the boys clash, and Piggy plunges to his death, with his body twitching “like a pig’s after it has been killed,” (Golding 181).

      Not only does this scene prove to be the most graphic and brutal, but it displays the battle between both aspects of human nature, represented by the two contrasting camps, with inhumanity and the savagery of animal instinct outweighing the good and civilized. Furthermore, these explicit scenes exemplify Golding’s controversial suggestion that humanity is filled with good yet complexity, which includes an often unrealized capability of evil towards another. Overall, Lord of the Flies should not be banned, for Golding creates the scenes above to represent his central theme of the intricacy and capability of humanity. The novel uses its story of the fear found in stranded schoolboys to blend “themes of warfare and childhood to illustrate a dark vision of humanity” (Lord of the Flies). By writing stories using his personal experiences during World War II, along with the time of becoming a school instructor, Golding teaches the reader that even the youngest and morally innocent of society prove capable of lawlessness and destruction. The difficult thematic content seen in the scenes above should not be challenged, for they fulfill a revelation of the undeniable truth, while he indicates “the moral is that the shape of a society must depend on the ethical nature of the individual, and not on any political system” (Themes and Construction).

      Golding accomplished what he desired to achieve, for he paints a picture of the savagery found even in those supposedly morally pure and not yet corrupt, who ultimately fall to death and disorder. This statement sums up the ending paragraph, where “Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of a man’s heart, and the fall through the air of the true, wise friend called Piggy” (Golding 202). As the rescue occurs, Ralph finally comprehends their loss of innocence and good, and the evil that continues to exist for as long as mankind remains. The novel concludes with one final statement, for the officer, after supposedly rescuing them from the beasts of the island, “[allows] his eyes to rest on the trim cruiser in the distance,” or a form of warfare (Golding 202). Golding solidifies within the reader that the evil did not exist solely on the island, but rather also in the outside, adult world consumed with war and chaos, the very same world that the children believed would become their savior. To conclude, Lord of the Flies should not be banned, for these statements and symbols represent an undeniable truth that force the reader to reflect and examine their individual nature, along with what it truly means to be human in society.

      Books causing one to reflect past the plot may be interpreted as dangerous to some, yet banning these novels remains unconstitutional, for it prohibits readers from thinking beyond to expand individual ideas and beliefs. Works Cited “Banned Books.” Gale Student Resources in Context, Gale, 2013. Student Resources in Context, Accessed 18 Apr. 2017.

      Feeney, Joseph J. “William Golding (1911-93): Lord of horror, lord of awe.” America, 31 July 1993, p. 6+. Student Resources in Context, Accessed 18 Apr. 2017.

      Golding, William. Lord of the Flies. New York, Penguin Books, 2006. Laursen, John Christian. “Censorship.” New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, edited by Maryanne Cline Horowitz, vol.

      1, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2005, pp. 290-295. Student Resources in Context. Accessed 22 Apr. 2017.

      “Lord of the Flies.” Gale Student Resources in Context, Gale, 2015. Student Resources in Context, Accessed 18 Apr. 2017. “Themes and Construction: Lord of the Flies.

      ” EXPLORING Novels, Gale, 2003. Student Resources in Context, Accessed 18 Apr. 2017.


      Dramas 2/Enthusiasm Act 1

      SCENE I. —A Saloon, with a Glass Door opening into a Garden in the bottom of the Stage.— Lord Worrymore and Lady Shrewdly are seen walking towards the House in earnest conversation, and enter by the said Door, speaking as they enter.

      LORD WORRYMORE (bowing with affected modesty).

      O, 'tis a gay young sailor returned from a three years' station in the Mediterranean.—You're welcome, dear Frank! let me see you as often as you can while you remain in town it always gives me pleasure. Permit me to present Mr. Francis Blount to your Lordship: the son of an old friend and schoolfellow of mine.

      ⁠ ( Lady Shrewdly frowns to him significantly.)

      LORD WORRYMORE (smiling).

      LADY SHREWDLY (who has been frowning and making faces to him behind Lord Worrymore 's back, but in vain.)

      BLOUNT (holding up his hands, and laughing heartily).

      ⁠ (As they are going off, he stops and laughs heartily.)
      What tickles your fancy so? Don't stop here.

      Colonel Frankland 's House.

      Enter Clermont , looking round as if disappointed.

      Enter Miss Frankland.

      Enter Sir John Crofton.

      Enter Lady Worrymore.

      Good morning, Lady Worrymore: how kind you are to call upon me, occupied as you are with so many objects of interest.

      SIR JOHN (to Lady Worrymore ).

      SIR JOHN (aside to Miss Frankland ).

      LADY WORRYMORE (still writing as before).

      Give this to my servant it is for the mistress of the house where Master Munhaunslet lodges. He must go with it immediately, and wait for an answer.

      SERVANT (taking the note).

      SIR JOHN (presenting Clermont ).

      MISS FRANKLAND (aside to Sir John ).

      ⁠ Ah! my dear Miss Frankland, you are too severe: Shakspeare should indeed be paramount to every thing. Dear Shakspeare! dear Petrarch! I doat on them both. (Looking at her watch.) Bless me! I am behind my time. Adieu, adieu! (To Clermont .) And you will send me your sonnet? you will do me that ​ honour? you will confer upon me that infinite obligation? Adieu, adieu!

      BLOUNT (coming forward).

      MISS FRANKLAND (glancing at Clermont ).

      ⁠ [Exeunt Sir John, Clermont , and Blount .

      MISS FRANKLAND (alone, after a thoughtful pause).

      A poor-looking Chamber, with a Sofa near the front of the Stage.

      Enter Mrs. Brown , with Hugho , whom she leads to the sofa, then lays him along, and spreads a shawl over him, and then takes a note from her pocket.


      Captain Blood/Chapter XXI

      Miss Arabella Bishop was aroused very early on the following morning by the brazen voice of a bugle and the insistent clanging of a bell in the ship's belfry. As she lay awake, idly watching the rippled green water that appeared to be streaming past the heavily glazed porthole, she became gradually aware of the sounds of swift, laboured bustle—the clatter of many feet, the shouts of hoarse voices, and the persistent trundlings of heavy bodies in the ward-room immediately below the deck of the cabin. Conceiving these sounds to portend a more than normal activity, she sat up, pervaded by a vague alarm, and roused her still slumbering woman.

      In his cabin on the starboard side Lord Julian, disturbed by the same sounds, was already astir and hurriedly dressing. When presently he emerged under the break of the poop, he found himself staring up into a mountain of canvas. Every foot of sail that she could carry had been crowded to the Arabella's yards, to catch the morning breeze. Ahead and on either side stretched the limitless expanse of ocean, sparkling golden in the sun, as yet no more than a half-disc of flame upon the horizon straight ahead.

      About him in the waist, where all last night had been so peaceful, there was a frenziedly active bustle of some threescore men. By the rail, immediately above and behind Lord Julian, stood Captain Blood in altercation with a one-eyed giant, whose head was swathed in a red cotton kerchief, whose blue shirt hung open at the waist. As his lordship, moving forward, revealed himself, their voices ceased, and Blood turned to greet him.

      "Good-morning to you," he said, and added "I've blundered badly, so I have. I should have known better than to come so close to Jamaica by night. But I was in haste to land you. Come up here. I have something to show you."

      Wondering, Lord Julian mounted the companion as he was bidden. Standing beside Captain Blood, he looked astern, following the indication of the Captain's hand, and cried out in his amazement. There, not more than three miles away, was land—an uneven wall of vivid green that filled the western horizon. And a couple of miles this side of it, bearing after them, came speeding three great white ships.

      "They fly no colours, but they're part of the Jamaica fleet." Blood spoke without excitement, almost with a certain listlessness. "When dawn broke we found ourselves running to meet them. We went about, and it's been a race ever since. But the Arabella's been at sea these four months, and her bottom's too foul for the speed we're needing."

      Wolverstone hooked his thumbs into his broad leather belt, and from his great height looked down sardonically upon Lord Julian, tall man though his lordship was. "So that you're like to be in yet another sea-fight afore ye've done wi' ships, my lord."

      "That's a point we were just arguing," said Blood. "For I hold that we're in no case to fight against such odds."

      "The odds be damned!" Wolverstone thrust out his heavy jowl. "We're used to odds. The odds was heavier at Maracaybo yet we won out, and took three ships. They was heavier yesterday when we engaged Don Miguel."

      "Aye—but those were Spaniards."

      "And what better are these?—Are ye afeard of a lubberly Barbados planter? Whatever ails you, Peter? I've never known ye scared afore."

      A gun boomed out behind them.

      "That'll be the signal to lie to," said Blood, in the same listless voice and he fetched a sigh.

      Wolverstone squared himself defiantly before his captain

      "I'll see Colonel Bishop in hell or ever I lies to for him." And he spat, presumably for purposes of emphasis.

      "Oh, but—by your leave—surely there is nothing to be apprehended from Colonel Bishop. Considering the service you have rendered to his niece and to me . "

      Wolverstone's horse-laugh interrupted him. "Hark to the gentleman!" he mocked. "Ye don't know Colonel Bishop, that's clear. Not for his niece, not for his daughter, not for his own mother, would he forgo the blood what he thinks due to him. A drinker of blood, he is. A nasty beast. We knows, the Cap'n and me. We been his slaves."

      "But there is myself," said Lord Julian, with great dignity.

      Wolverstone laughed again, whereat his lordship flushed. He was moved to raise his voice above its usual languid level.

      "I assure you that my word counts for something in England."

      "Oh, aye—in England. But this ain't England, damme."

      Came the roar of a second gun, and a round shot splashed the water less than half a cable's-length astern. Blood leaned over the rail to speak to the fair young man immediately below him by the helmsman at the whipstaff.

      "Bid them take in sail, Jeremy," he said quietly. "We lie to."

      But Wolverstone interposed again.

      "Hold there a moment, Jeremy!" he roared. "Wait!" He swung back to face the Captain, who had placed a hand on is shoulder and was smiling, a trifle wistfully.

      "Steady, Old Wolf! Steady!" Captain Blood admonished him.

      "Steady, yourself, Peter. Ye've gone mad! Will ye doom us all to hell out of tenderness for that cold slip of a girl?"

      "Stop!" cried Blood in sudden fury.

      But Wolverstone would not stop. "It's the truth, you fool. It's that cursed petticoat's making a coward of you. It's for her that ye're afeard—and she, Colonel Bishop's niece! My God, man, ye'll have a mutiny aboard, and I'll lead it myself sooner than surrender to be hanged in Port Royal."

      Their glances met, sullen defiance braving dull anger, surprise, and pain.

      "There is no question," said Blood, "of surrender for any man aboard save only myself. If Bishop can report to England that I am taken and hanged, he will magnify himself and at the same time gratify his personal rancour against me. That should satisfy him. I'll send him a message offering to surrender aboard his ship, taking Miss Bishop and Lord Julian with me, but only on condition that the Arabella is allowed to proceed unharmed. It's a bargain that he'll accept, if I know him at all."

      "It's a bargain he'll never be offered," retorted Wolverstone, and his earlier vehemence was as nothing to his vehemence now. "Ye're surely daft even to think of it, Peter!"

      "Not so daft as you when you talk of fighting that." He flung out an arm as he spoke to indicate the pursuing ships, which were slowly but surely creeping nearer. "Before we've run another half-mile we shall be within range."

      Wolverstone swore elaborately, then suddenly checked. Out of the tail of his single eye he had espied a trim figure in grey silk that was ascending the companion. So engrossed had they been that they had not seen Miss Bishop come from the door of the passage leading to the cabin. And there was something else that those three men on the poop, and Pitt immediately below them, had failed to observe. Some moments ago Ogle, followed by the main body of his gun-deck crew, had emerged from the booby hatch, to fall into muttered, angrily vehement talk with those who, abandoning the gun-tackles upon which they were labouring, had come to crowd about him.

      Even now Blood had no eyes for that. He turned to look at Miss Bishop, marvelling a little, after the manner in which yesterday she had avoided him, that she should now venture upon the quarter-deck. Her presence at this moment, and considering the nature of his altercation with Wolverstone, was embarrassing.

      Very sweet and dainty she stood before him in her gown of shimmering grey, a faint excitement tinting her fair cheeks and sparkling in her clear, hazel eyes, that looked so frank and honest. She wore no hat, and the ringlets of her gold-brown hair fluttered distractingly in the morning breeze.

      Captain Blood bared his head and bowed silently in a greeting which she returned composedly and formally.

      "What is happening, Lord Julian?" she enquired.

      As if to answer her a third gun spoke from the ships towards which she was looking intent and wonderingly. A frown rumpled her brow. She looked from one to the other of the men who stood there so glum and obviously ill at ease.

      "They are ships of the Jamaica fleet," his lordship answered her.

      It should in any case have been a sufficient explanation. But before more could be added, their attention was drawn at last to Ogle, who came bounding up the broad ladder, and to the men lounging aft in his wake, in all of which, instinctively, they apprehended a vague menace.

      At the head of the companion, Ogle found his progress barred by Blood, who confronted him, a sudden sternness in his face and in every line of him.

      "What's this?" the Captain demanded sharply. "Your station is on the gun-deck. Why have you left it?"

      Thus challenged, the obvious truculence faded out of Ogle's bearing, quenched by the old habit of obedience and the natural dominance that was the secret of the Captain's rule over his wild followers. But it gave no pause to the gunner's intention. If anything it increased his excitement.

      "Captain," he said, and as he spoke he pointed to the pursuing ships, "Colonel Bishop holds us. We're in no case either to run or fight."

      Blood's height seemed to increase, as did his sternness.

      "Ogle," said he, in a voice cold and sharp as steel, "your station is on the gun-deck. You'll return to it at once, and take your crew with you, or else . "

      But Ogle, violent of mien and gesture, interrupted him.

      "Threats will not serve, Captain."

      It was the first time in his buccaneering career that an order of his had been disregarded, or that a man had failed in the obedience to which he pledged all those who joined him. That this insubordination should proceed from one of those whom he most trusted, one of his old Barbados associates, was in itself a bitterness, and made him reluctant to that which instinct told him must be done. His hand closed over the butt of one of the pistols slung before him.

      "Nor will that serve you," Ogle warned him, still more fiercely. "The men are of my thinking, and they'll have their way."

      "The way to make us safe. We'll neither sink nor hang whiles we can help it."

      From the three or four score men massed below in the waist came a rumble of approval. Captain Blood's glance raked the ranks of those resolute, fierce-eyed fellows, then it came to rest again on Ogle. There was here quite plainly a vague threat, a mutinous spirit he could not understand.

      "You come to give advice, then, do you?" quoth he, relenting nothing of his sternness.

      "That's it, Captain advice. That girl, there." He flung out a bare arm to point to her. "Bishop's girl the Governor of Jamaica's niece. We want her as a hostage for our safety."

      "Aye!" roared in chorus the buccaneers below, and one or two of them elaborated that affirmation.

      In a flash Captain Blood saw what was in their minds. And for all that he lost nothing of his outward stern composure, fear invaded his heart.

      "And how," he asked, "do you imagine that Miss Bishop will prove such a hostage?"

      "It's a providence having her aboard a providence. Heave to, Captain, and signal them to send a boat, and assure themselves that Miss is here. Then let them know that if they attempt to hinder our sailing hence, we'll hang the doxy first and fight for it after. That'll cool Colonel Bishop's heat, maybe."

      "And maybe it won't." Slow and mocking came Wolverstone's voice to answer the other's confident excitement, and as he spoke he advanced to Blood's side, an unexpected ally. "Some o' them dawcocks may believe that tale." He jerked a contemptuous thumb towards the men in the waist, whose ranks were steadily being increased by the advent of others from the forecastle. "Although even some o' they should know better, for there's still a few was on Barbados with us, and are acquainted like me and you with Colonel Bishop. If ye're counting on pulling Bishop's heartstrings, ye're a bigger fool, Ogle, than I've always thought you was with anything but guns. There's no heaving to for such a matter as that unless you wants to make quite sure of our being sunk. Though we had a cargo of Bishop's nieces it wouldn't make him hold his hand. Why, as I was just telling his lordship here, who thought like you that having Miss Bishop aboard would make us safe, not for his mother would that filthy slaver forgo what's due to him. And if ye' weren't a fool, Ogle, you wouldn't need me to tell you this. We've got to fight, my lads . "

      "How can we fight, man?" Ogle stormed at him, furiously battling the conviction which Wolverstone's argument was imposing upon his listeners. "You may be right, and you may be wrong. We've got to chance it. It's our only chance . "

      The rest of his words were drowned in the shouts of the hands insisting that the girl be given up to be held as a hostage. And then louder than before roared a gun away to leeward, and away on their starboard beam they saw the spray flung up by the shot, which had gone wide.

      "They are within range," cried Ogle. And leaning from the rail, "Put down the helm," he commanded.

      Pitt, at his post beside the helmsman, turned intrepidly to face the excited gunner.

      "Since when have you commanded on the main deck, Ogle? I take my orders from the Captain."

      "You'll take this order from me, or, by God, you'll . "

      "Wait!" Blood bade him, interrupting, and he set a restraining hand upon the gunner's arm. "There is, I think, a better way."

      He looked over his shoulder, aft, at the advancing ships, the foremost of which was now a bare quarter of a mile away. His glance swept in passing over Miss Bishop and Lord Julian standing side by side some paces behind him. He observed her pale and tense, with parted lips and startled eyes that were fixed upon him, an anxious witness of this deciding of her fate. He was thinking swiftly, reckoning the chances if by pistolling Ogle he were to provoke a mutiny. That some of the men would rally to him, he was sure. But he was no less sure that the main body would oppose him, and prevail in spite of all that he could do, taking the chance that holding Miss Bishop to ransom seemed to afford them. And if they did that, one way or the other, Miss Bishop would be lost. For even if Bishop yielded to their demand, they would retain her as a hostage.

      Meanwhile Ogle was growing impatient. His arm still gripped by Blood, he thrust his face into the Captain's.

      "What better way?" he demanded. "There is none better. I'll not be bubbled by what Wolverstone has said. He may be right, and he may be wrong. We'll test it. It's our only chance, I've said, and we must take it."

      The better way that was in Captain Blood's mind was the way that already he had proposed to Wolverstone. Whether the men in the panic Ogle had aroused among them would take a different view from Wolverstone's he did not know. But he saw quite clearly now that if they consented, they would not on that account depart from their intention in the matter of Miss Bishop they would make of Blood's own surrender merely an additional card in this game against the Governor of Jamaica.

      "It's through her that we're in this trap," Ogle stormed on. "Through her and through you. It was to bring her to Jamaica that you risked all our lives, and we're not going to lose our lives as long as there's a chance to make ourselves safe through her."

      He was turning again to the helmsman below, when Blood's grip tightened on his arm. Ogle wrenched it free, with an oath. But Blood's mind was now made up. He had found the only way, and repellent though it might be to him, he must take it.

      "That is a desperate chance," he cried. "Mine is the safe and easy way. Wait!" He leaned over the rail. "Put the helm down," he bade Pitt. "Heave her to, and signal to them to send a boat."

      A silence of astonishment fell upon the ship—of astonishment and suspicion at this sudden yielding. But Pitt, although he shared it, was prompt to obey. His voice rang out, giving the necessary orders, and after an instant's pause, a score of hands sprang to execute them. Came the creak of blocks and the rattle of slatting sails as they swung aweather, and Captain Blood turned and beckoned Lord Julian forward. His lordship, after a moment's hesitation, advanced in surprise and mistrust—a mistrust shared by Miss Bishop, who, like his lordship and all else aboard, though in a different way, had been taken aback by Blood's sudden submission to the demand to lie to.

      Standing now at the rail, with Lord Julian beside him, Captain Blood explained himself.

      Briefly and clearly he announced to all the object of Lord Julian's voyage to the Caribbean, and he informed them of the offer which yesterday Lord Julian had made to him.

      "That offer I rejected, as his lordship will tell you, deeming myself affronted by it. Those of you who have suffered under the rule of King James will understand me. But now in the desperate case in which we find ourselves—outsailed, and likely to be outfought, as Ogle has said—I am ready to take the way of Morgan: to accept the King's commission and shelter us all behind it."

      It was a thunderbolt that for a moment left them all dazed. Then Babel was reënacted. The main body of them welcomed the announcement as only men who have been preparing to die can welcome a new lease of life. But many could not resolve one way or the other until they were satisfied upon several questions, and chiefly upon one which was voiced by Ogle.

      "Will Bishop respect the commission when you hold it?"

      It was Lord Julian who answered:

      "It will go very hard with him if he attempts to flout the King's authority. And though he should dare attempt it, be sure that his own officers will not dare to do other than oppose him."

      "Aye," said Ogle, "that is true."

      But there were some who were still in open and frank revolt against the course. Of these was Wolverstone, who at once proclaimed his hostility.

      "I'll rot in hell or ever I serves the King," he bawled in a great rage.

      But Blood quieted him and those who thought as he did.

      "No man need follow me into the King's service who is reluctant. That is not in the bargain. What is in the bargain is that I accept this service with such of you as may choose to follow me. Don't think I accept it willingly. For myself, I am entirely of Wolverstone's opinion. I accept it as the only way to save us all from the certain destruction into which my own act may have brought us. And even those of you who do not choose to follow me shall share the immunity of all, and shall afterwards be free to depart. Those are the terms upon which I sell myself to the King. Let Lord Julian, the representative of the Secretary of State, say whether he agrees to them."

      Prompt, eager, and clear came his lordship's agreement. And that was practically the end of the matter. Lord Julian, the butt now of good-humouredly ribald jests and half-derisive acclamations, plunged away to his cabin for the commission, secretly rejoicing at a turn of events which enabled him so creditably to discharge the business on which he had been sent.

      Meanwhile the bo'sun signalled to the Jamaica ships to send a boat, and the men in the waist broke their ranks and went noisily flocking to line the bulwarks and view the great stately vessels that were racing down towards them.

      As Ogle left the quarter-deck, Blood turned, and came face to face with Miss Bishop. She had been observing him with shining eyes, but at sight of his dejected countenance, and the deep frown that scarred his brow, her own expression changed. She approached him with a hesitation entirely unusual to her. She set a hand lightly upon his arm.

      "You have chosen wisely, sir," she commended him, "however much against your inclinations."

      He looked with gloomy eyes upon her for whom he had made this sacrifice.

      "I owed it to you—or thought I did," he said.

      She did not understand. "Your resolve delivered me from a horrible danger," she admitted. And she shivered at the memory of it. "But I do not understand why you should have hesitated when first it was proposed to you. It is an honourable service."

      "England's," she corrected him in reproof. "The country is all, sir the sovereign naught. King James will pass others will come and pass England remains, to be honourably served by her sons, whatever rancour they may hold against the man who rules her in their time."

      He showed some surprise. Then he smiled a little. "Shrewd advocacy," he approved it. "You should have spoken to the crew."

      And then, the note of irony deepening in his voice: "Do you suppose now that this honourable service might redeem one who was a pirate and a thief?"

      Her glance fell away. Her voice faltered a little in replying. "If he . needs redeeming. Perhaps . perhaps he has been judged too harshly."

      The blue eyes flashed, and the firm lips relaxed their grim set.

      "Why . if ye think that," he said, considering her, an odd hunger in his glance, "life might have its uses, after all, and even the service of King James might become tolerable."

      Looking beyond her, across the water, he observed a boat putting off from one of the great ships, which, hove to now, were rocking gently some three hundred yards away. Abruptly his manner changed. He was like one recovering, taking himself in hand again. "If you will go below, and get your gear and your woman, you shall presently be sent aboard one of the ships of the fleet." He pointed to the boat as he spoke.

      She left him, and thereafter with Wolverstone, leaning upon the rail, he watched the approach of that boat, manned by a dozen sailors, and commanded by a scarlet figure seated stiffly in the stern sheets. He levelled his telescope upon that figure.

      "It'll not be Bishop himself," said Wolverstone, between question and assertion.

      "No." Blood closed his telescope. "I don't know who it is."

      "Ha!" Wolverstone vented an ejaculation of sneering mirth. "For all his eagerness, Bishop'd be none so willing to come, hisself. He's been aboard this hulk afore, and we made him swim for it that time. He'll have his memories. So he sends a deputy."

      This deputy proved to be an officer named Calverley, a vigorous, self-sufficient fellow, comparatively fresh from England, whose manner made it clear that he came fully instructed by Colonel Bishop upon the matter of how to handle the pirates.

      His air, as he stepped into the waist of the Arabella, was haughty, truculent, and disdainful.

      Blood, the King's commission now in his pocket, and Lord Julian standing beside him, waited to receive him, and Captain Calverley was a little taken aback at finding himself confronted by two men so very different outwardly from anything that he had expected. But he lost none of his haughty poise, and scarcely deigned a glance at the swarm of fierce, half-naked fellows lounging in a semicircle to form a background.

      "Good-day to you, sir," Blood hailed him pleasantly. "I have the honour to give you welcome aboard the Arabella. My name is Blood—Captain Blood, at your service. You may have heard of me."

      Captain Calverley stared hard. The airy manner of this redoubtable buccaneer was hardly what he had looked for in a desperate fellow, compelled to ignominious surrender. A thin, sour smile broke on the officer's haughty lips.

      "You'll ruffle it to the gallows, no doubt," he said contemptuously. "I suppose that is after the fashion of your kind. Meanwhile it's your surrender I require, my man, not your impudence."

      Captain Blood appeared surprised, pained. He turned in appeal to Lord Julian.

      "D'ye hear that now? And did ye ever hear the like? But what did I tell ye? Ye see, the young gentleman's under a misapprehension entirely. Perhaps it'll save broken bones if your lordship explains just who and what I am."

      Lord Julian advanced a step and bowed perfunctorily and rather disdainfully to that very disdainful but now dumbfounded officer. Pitt, who watched the scene from the quarter-deck rail, tells us that his lordship was as grave as a parson at a hanging. But I suspect this gravity for a mask under which Lord Julian was secretly amused.

      "I have the honour to inform you, sir," he said stiffly, "that Captain Blood holds a commission in the King's service under the seal of my Lord Sunderland, His Majesty's Secretary of State."

      Captain Calverley's face empurpled his eyes bulged. The buccaneers in the background chuckled and crowed and swore among themselves in their relish of this comedy. For a long moment Calverley stared in silence at his lordship, observing the costly elegance of his dress, his air of calm assurance, and his cold, fastidious speech, all of which savoured distinctly of the great world to which he belonged.

      "And who the devil may you be?" he exploded at last.

      Colder still and more distant than ever grew his lordship's voice.

      "You're not very civil, sir, as I have already noticed. My name is Wade—Lord Julian Wade. I am His Majesty's envoy to these barbarous parts, and my Lord Sunderland's near kinsman. Colonel Bishop has been notified of my coming."

      The sudden change in Calverley's manner at Lord Julian's mention of his name showed that the notification had been received, and that he had knowledge of it.

      "I . I believe that he has," said Calverley, between doubt and suspicion. "That is: that he has been notified of the coming of Lord Julian Wade. But . but . aboard this ship . " The officer made a gesture of helplessness, and, surrendering to his bewilderment, fell abruptly silent.

      "I was coming out on the Royal Mary . "

      "That is what we were advised."

      "But the Royal Mary fell a victim to a Spanish privateer, and I might never have arrived at all but for the gallantry of Captain Blood, who rescued me."

      Light broke upon the darkness of Calverley's mind. "I see. I understand."

      "I will take leave to doubt it." His lordship's tone abated nothing of its asperity. "But that can wait. If Captain Blood will show you his commission, perhaps that will set all doubts at rest, and we may proceed. I shall be glad to reach Port Royal."

      Captain Blood thrust a parchment under Calverley's bulging eyes. The officer scanned it, particularly the seals and signature. He stepped back, a baffled, impotent man. He bowed helplessly.

      "I must return to Colonel Bishop for my orders," he informed them.

      At that moment a lane was opened in the ranks of the men, and through this came Miss Bishop followed by her octoroon woman. Over his shoulder Captain Blood observed her approach.

      "Perhaps, since Colonel Bishop is with you, you will convey his niece to him. Miss Bishop was aboard the Royal Mary also, and I rescued her together with his lordship. She will be able to acquaint her uncle with the details of that and of the present state of affairs."

      Swept thus from surprise to surprise, Captain Calverley could do no more than bow again.

      "As for me," said Lord Julian, with intent to make Miss Bishop's departure free from all interference on the part of the buccaneers, "I shall remain aboard the Arabella until we reach Port Royal. My compliments to Colonel Bishop. Say that I look forward to making his acquaintance there."


      Prince Charles's Real 1969 Investiture Speech in Welsh Was as Daring as The Crown Shows

      Inside the study abroad adventure that changed him forever.

      • The third season ofThe Crownpremiered on Netflix on November 17.
      • Now a young man, Prince Charles (Josh O'Connor) is a main character on the show.
      • Before becoming Prince of Wales, Charles lives in Wales for two months to learn the language.

      For an insecure person, much of life is spent shushing that little, internal voice convinced everyone actually hates you. The key is to remember those thoughts are the product of anxiety. People don&rsquot actually hate you.

      Unless, of course, you&rsquore 20-year-old Prince Charles studying at Wales&rsquos Aberystwyth College in 1969. In that case, everyone really does hate you&mdashand they&rsquore not afraid to be expressive with their disdain. "Every day I had to go down to the town where I went to these lectures, and most days there seemed to be a demonstration going on against me," Charles recalled in an ITV documentary years after his two-months stay in Wales.

      At the time, Charles, the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip, was poised to assume a more official royal title of his own. But before Charles could be crowned Prince of Wales, he was pulled out of Cambridge University and sent to study at Aberystwyth University for a semester, per a suggestion by the new Labor Prime Minister, Harold Wilson.

      In Wilson's mind, Charles&rsquos investiture speech would be an opportunity to show Wales respect in a moment when anti-English sentiment was especially high. For Welsh nationalists, investitures (an event in which the queen presents recipients with an honor) were a symbol of England's long history of stifling the Welsh people. Ideally, Charles's speech would act as an outstretched hand.

      So, before becoming Prince of Wales, Charles had to learn what it meant to be Welsh. After nine weeks of studying, Charles was supposed to give the investiture speech in the Welsh language.

      Much of the sixth episode in The Crown&rsquos third season, which is titled &ldquoTywysog Cymru&rdquo (or &ldquoThe Prince of Wales&rdquo in Welsh), focuses on the intellectual sparring between the privileged, naïve Charles and his Welsh tutor, Dr. Edward "Tedi" Millward (actor Mark Lewis Jones and real-life Welsh politician), a vocal anti-royalist. For the first time in The Crown, Charles is confronted with someone who shows an open disdain for the basis of his entire existence&mdashand it changes him forever.

      In The Crown, the opposing men end up surprising one another. After some initial fumbling, Charles takes his task seriously. Not only does Charles give a speech in seamless Welsh&mdashhe surreptitiously embeds pro-Welsh sentiment into his speech, which he knows his family won&rsquot understand. Charles compares the voicelessness of the Welsh people in the broader U.K. context to his own inability to steer his fate in the face of royal &ldquodyuty&rdquo (say it like a Queen Elizabeth).

      It&rsquos certainly a cinematic moment, and one that furthers Charles's characterization as a tortured, sympathetic softie. But is that how the speech went down in real life?

      Actually, yeah. It totally is.

      In an interview with The Guardian in 2015, the real Millward confirms the initial &ldquoodd couple&rdquo vibe about his relationship with Charles. &ldquoThe early '60s was the start of an upsurge in Welsh nationalism,&rdquo Millward explained. "By that point I was a well-known nationalist, so I was a little surprised when the university asked me if I would teach Welsh to Prince Charles for a term.&rdquo

      Millward was a natural choice, though. In 1962, Millward co-founded a society for the preservation of the Welsh language. Keeping Welsh alive was his life&rsquos mission.

      As in the show, the real Millward was impressed by Charles&rsquos studiousness. &ldquoHe had a one-on-one tutorial with me once a week. He was eager, and did a lot of talking. By the end, his accent was quite good."

      On July 1, 1969, Charles indeed delivered a speech in Welsh (and Josh O&rsquoConnor, who plays Charles in the show, also memorized quite a bit of the difficult language for the scene). Unfortunately for those of us who live for drama, Charles&rsquos real speech wasn&rsquot as revolutionary as the one seen in The Crown.

      Admittedly, the real speech is not quite as straightforward in its pro-Welsh sentiment as Charles&rsquos speech in The Crown, which goes: &ldquoWales has a history to be proud of, and it is completely understandable that the Welsh wish to hold on to their heritage, their native culture, their identity, their disposition, and their personality as a nation. It is important we respect that. Wales has her own identity&hellipher own voice.&rdquo

      Even if it was more subdued, the real speech had a similarly daring sentiment. According to Cabinet papers that were released in 2000, people in Parliament were concerned about Charles&rsquos speech. George Thomas, Welsh Secretary between 1968 and 1970, told Wilson he feared Charles&rsquos speech &ldquoboosted Welsh nationalism.&rdquo

      Well, royals rebel as they can.

      This jaunt in Wales isn&rsquot the first time Charles is forced to submit to the crown's calling, or the desires of his family&mdashand as later episodes in the season shows, it won&rsquot be the last. But as opposed to his scarring childhood experience at Gordonstoun Boarding School, or his thwarted romance with Camilla Shand, Charles&rsquos time in Wales is actually, well, positive.

      The 20-year-old royal swallows uncomfortable revelations about his family&rsquos place in history, and acts as a bridge between cultures. Now that's a productive study abroad experience.

      For more ways to live your best life plus all things Oprah, sign up for our newsletter!


      Ground Zero

      “It’s hard to be neutral when your kitchen turns into a battlefield,” writes Showkat Nanda, a news photographer, who while covering a demonstration in Kashmir in the summer of 2010, decided to put his camera aside and walk into the photo he would have clicked. He became a stone thrower.

      “I turned into a rebel because I felt that lessons in neutrality and objective journalism sometimes make us so weak that we end up aligning ourselves with falsehood without even knowing,” he explains in his essay The Pain of Being Haunted by Memories, which opens the anthology “Of Occupation and Resistance: Writings from Kashmir”.

      Thankfully, the book has no such pretensions to neutrality. Edited by Fahad Shah, founder-editor of the alternative magazine The Kashmir Wallah, it brings together 27 essays on the various aspects of the situation in Kashmir. The essays have been organised into four sections — Memoirs, Resistance, Longing and The Kashmir Walla.

      “The idea was to compile the book such that most of the aspects of the Kashmir conflict should be in it. The writers I chose were based around that theme. I wanted a grave digger to write his own story. And the half-widow to say what she felt…We have been doing stories on them, but I wanted them to tell their own story,” Fahad said, at the recent launch of the book in India International Centre.

      Apart from these first-person accounts, the book also includes analyses, interviews and reportage. So while M.C. Kash talks about how he became a rapper, Gautam Navlakha, former editorial consultant for The Economic and Political Weekly, looks at the ‘perception management’ exercise underway in the valley and its centrality to the continuing military occupation of the region.

      The launch was followed by a panel discussion, moderated by journalist Iftikhar Gilani, between Fahad and Navlakha. David Barsamian, fellow contributor and founder of Alternative Radio, delivered a pre-recorded video message.

      Not surprisingly, the idea of journalism was at the heart of the discussion. Introducing the book, Gilani said we are living in a time where Kashmiris have started controlling the narrative. “Narratives of Kashmir used to be dominated by outsiders - foreign writers or those from India and Pakistan. But now you are hearing the stories from the horse’s mouth.”

      Much of this has been enabled by the explosion of alternative media. As Fahad writes in the introduction, “Free speech has been crushed. Actually, ‘crushed’ is an understatement in Kashmir, freedom of speech has been made a crime. The media is gagged. Local cable news channels are banned. Journalists on the ground are barred from reporting the truth, from writing about the killings, the torture, the spate of curfews…Alternate media therefore has had to come to the rescue.” The post-2008 churning, coupled with the frequent curfews, turned the youth inwards, and they started writing. These writings circulated as notes on blogs and on Facebook and Twitter, he added.

      The launch ended on an ugly, if predictable, note, as a member of the audience asked aggressively about the representation of Kashmiri Pandits, and accused the editor of tokenism, as also a bias towards the Army. Sanity was restored when another member of the audience drew attention to the title of the book, and asked the questioner how many Pandits feel they live under occupation and how many are waging a resistance.


      Watch the video: ΠΑΙΖΟΥΝ ΜΕ ΤΗ ΝΟΗΜΟΣΥΝΗ ΤΟΥ ΕΛΛΗΝΑ.. (December 2021).