Information

Marshal Odet de Foix, Count of Lautrec, 1485-1528


Marshal Odet de Foix, Count of Lautrec, 1485-1528

Marshal Odet de Foix, count of Lautrec (1485-1528) was a French commander of the Italian Wars most famous for suffering a heavy defeat at La Bicocca in 1522.

Lautrec was born in 1485. He rose to prominence after Francis I came to the throne, and at least partly owed his advancement to being the brother of Francis's mistress Francoise, Countess of Châteaubriant. He was part of the French army that invaded Italy in 1515, and fought at Francis's great victory of Marignano (15-16 September 1515). This gave Francis possession of Milan, and Lautrec was appointed governor.

Lautrec was an unpopular ruler. After the outbreak of the First Hapsburg-Valois War (1521-26) he was faced with a Spanish-German-Papal army commanded by the able Italian leader Prospero Colonna. At first Colonna attempted to capture Parma, but the siege bogged down. Colonna then decided to concentrate on Lautrec's army instead. The French were outmanoeuvred, and Colonna was able to advance on Milan. Lautrec was unable to stop Colonna from crossing the Po, joining up with his own Swiss allies, crossing the Adda and advancing on Milan. Lautrec's unpopularity now resulted in an anti-French revolt, and on 23 November the city fell to the Imperialists. Only Milan Castle remained in French hands. Lautrec had to retreat to Como, then under Venetian command.

Lautrec was soon reinforced, giving him around 25,000 men (including 8,000 Swiss mercenaries), and 10,000 Venetian allies. Money was short, and the Swiss were unpaid. They agreed to fight one battle before they left, forcing Lautrec to attack quickly. He chose to attack Colonna's fortified camp at La Bicocca, close to Milan. Colonna had fewer men, around 20,000, but they included the excellent Spanish infantry and were in a strong position, having added entrenchments to the existing ditches and walls of the garden at La Bicocca.

The battle of La Bicocca (27 April 1522) began with a frontal assault against the Spanish fortifications. Lautrec's Swiss troops failed to make any progress, and suffered very heavy casualties, losing around 3,000 dead in a short period. Lautrec attempted to help them by sending his cavalry to outflank the Spanish position, but this move was defeated by the Milanese cavalry under Francesco Sforza. Lautrec and his surviving troops were forced to retreat east into Venetian territory, while the Swiss survivors returned home.

Late in 1524 Francis I led a fresh army into Italy. Lautrec joined this force, and was thus present at the disastrous battle of Pavia (24 February 1525). Like Francis, Lautrec was captured during the battle. He was released after paying a ransom.

Francis was taken to Spain, where he eventually agreed the Treaty of Madrid (March 1526), officially ending the First Hapsburg-Valois War. He was then released at the French border

Soon after his release Francis renounced the treaty, triggering the Second Hapsburg-Valois War. One of the first results of this renewed war was the disastrous Imperial sack of Rome of May 1527. Although Charles V was embarrassed by the sight of his armies plundering the Holy City, it did him control of Pope Clement, who had been forced to surrender on terms in early June.

In July 1527 Lautrec returned to Italy at the head of a large French army, supported by Andrea Doria, the Genoese leader. Lautrec captured Alessandria and Pavia, and then moved south in an attempt to rescue Pope Clement, but on 26 November the Pope made peace with Charles V.

Although Lautrec had failed to help the Pope, he continued to move south. In January 1528 he began to march towards Naples, and by the spring of 1528 he was able to begin a siege of Naples, once again aided by Doria and the Genoese. At first the campaign went well, but Francis then managed to alienate Doria. In July 1528 the Genoese leader switched sides, joining the Imperial cause. He withdrew his fleet from the blockade at Naples, and helped get food into the city. The Genoese then imposed a naval blockade on the French, and food began to run short in their camp. Lautrec didn't help matters by alienating many of the Neapolitan nobles who had originally supported the French cause.

A plague broke out in the siege camp and the army began to suffer heavy losses. Lautrec was one of the victims of the plague, dying outside Naples on 15/ 16 August 1528. On 28 August the French were forced to lift the siege, and shortly afterwards the survivors of Lautrec's army surrendered.


  • Counts of Comminges
  • House of Comminges
  • House of Lescun
  • House of Aydie
  • House of Foix-Lautrec
  • House of La-Barthe
  • House of Comminges-Guitaut
  • House of Comminges-Lastronque
  • House of Comminges-Saint-Lary
  • References
  • External links

House of Comminges

RulerDatesGascon lineNotes
Garcia Aznar 836-846Comminges lineFirst known count of Comminges. Garcia descended agnatically from Aznar Sánchez of Gascony.
Aznar Garcia 846-905Comminges lineSon of the predecessor.
Lupus I Aznar 905-935Comminges lineSon of the predecessor.
Aznar II 935-946Comminges lineSon of the predecessor.
Arnaud I 946-957Comminges lineSon of the predecessor.
Roger I The Old957-1011 Carcassonne lineSons of the predecessor, probably ruled jointly. Roger was also the founder of the County of Carcassonne.
Arnaud II 957-988Comminges line
Odo 1011-1035Comminges lineSons of Arnaud II, ruled jointly.
Roger II
Arnaud III 1035-1070Comminges lineSon of Roger II.
Roger III 1035-1105Comminges lineSon of Arnaud III.
Bernard I 1105-1145Comminges lineSon of the predecessor.
Bernard II 1145-1153Comminges lineSon of the predecessor.
Bernard III 1153-1176Comminges lineBrother of the predecessor, born Dodon de Samatan, later changed his name after his brother's death.
Bernard IV 1176-1225Comminges lineSon of the predecessor. Also, by marriage, Count of Bigorre.
Bernard V 1225-1241Comminges lineSon of the predecessor.
Bernard VI 1241-1295Comminges lineSon of the predecessor.
Bernard VII 1295-1312Comminges lineSon of the predecessor.
Bernard VIII 1312-1336Comminges lineSon of the predecessor.
John I The Posthumous1336-1339Comminges lineSon of the predecessor.
Peter Raymond I 1339-1341Comminges lineBrother of Bernard VIII.
Peter Raymond II 1341-1376Comminges lineSon of the predecessor.
Margaret 1376-1443Comminges lineDaughter of the predecessor. Co-ruler with her husbands, John III, Count of Armagnac, John of Armagnac (son of Geraud, Viscount of Fezensaguet) and Mathieu of Foix. At his death in 1453, Comminges was reunited to the French crown by King Charles VII of France.

House of Lescun

In 1462, the king of France Louis XI detached the county of Comminges from the royal domain and gave it to his friend.

  • 1462�   : Jean de Lescun (illegitimate son of Arnaud-Guillaume of Lescun, bishop of Aire, and of Anne of Armagnac, born   ? – died 1472, known as the Bastard of Armagnac, Marshal of France)

House of Aydie

At the death of John of Lescun in 1472, the county of Comminges passed to:

  • 1472�   : Odet of Aydie (husband of Marie of Lescun, heiress of Lescun as daughter of Mathieu of Lescun, himself probably a cousin of John of Lescun, born c. 1425 – died 1498, constable of France, supreme commander of the French army and close advisor of Louis XI)

In 1498, at the death of Odet of Aydie, who did not have a son, king Louis XII of France definitely reunited the county of Comminges to the French crown. The descendants of Odet of Aydie's daughter continued to carry the title of count of Comminges.

House of Foix-Lautrec

  • Jean of Foix-Lautrec, count of Comminges (1472�).
  • Odet de Cominges, count of Comminges, Marshal of France (1494�).
  • Enrique de Foix-Lautrec, count of Comminges (1528�).
  • Claudia de Foix-Lautrec, contesse of Rethel, of Cominges, of Beaufort in Champagne, vicecontesse of Lautrec (1540�).

House of La-Barthe

House of Comminges-Guitaut

House of Comminges-Lastronque

  • Roger James of Comminges, count of Comminges (1718�).
  • Roger Louis of Comminges, count of Comminges (1785�).
  • Roger Aymeric of Comminges, count of Comminges (1789�).

House of Comminges-Saint-Lary

  • Elie de Comminges-Péguilhan, count of Comminges and Baron Saint-Lary (1840�).
  • Aimery Elie de Comminges-Péguilhan, count of Comminges and Baron Saint-Lary (1894�).
  • Bertrand de Comminges-Péguilhan, count of Comminges (1925�).
  • Jean-Odon de Comminges-Péguilhan, count of Comminges (1987– to date).

Famous Birthdays In 1528

Famous People Born In This Year In History

Jan 07 Jeanne d'Albret, queen of Navarra/mother of French King Henry IV was born in the year 1528.

Mar 01 In the year 1528 birth of albrecht V von Wittelsbach, [the Generous], duke of Bavaria

Jun 21 Maria of Spain, Holy Roman Empire Empress (1603) was born on this day in history.

Jul 07 Anna of Austria, Duchess of Bavaria, daughter of Ferdinand I (d. 1590) was born on this day in history.

Jul 08 Emanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy/governor of Netherland was born in the year 1528.

Oct 25 Seerp Galama, Dutch nobleman/soldier/politician was born on this day in history.

Nov 02 On this day in history birth of peter S Lotichius, [Peter Lotz], Neo latin poet (Collected Works)

Nov 12 On this day in history birth of qi Jiguang, Chinese general (d. 1588)


Family

Legitimate siblings

Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, Marshal of France (1485–15 August 1528) of plague in Naples. Married Charlotte d’Albret, 1520, and they had 4 children.

Thomas de Foix, Seigneur de Lescun, seigneur de Coulommiers (1485 – 3 March 1525) died of wounds received at the Battle of Pavia. Marshal of France from 1518.

André de Foix, Sire de Lesparre (1490–1547), a French General. Count de Montfort and Viscount of Villemur.

  • Marshal Thomas de Foix-Lescun, Countess Françoise de Foix’s brother
  • General André de Foix-Lesparre, Countess Françoise de Foix’s brother
  • Marshal Odet de Foix, Viscount de Lautrec, Countess Françoise de Foix’s brother

In-laws

Father-in-law: François de Laval-Montafilant, b. 1462, d 5 January 1503.

Mother-in-law: Françoise de Rieux, b. 1461 m. 1486, d. 15 October 1532.

Brother-in-law: younger brother, Pierre de Laval, Seigneur de Montafilant, d. 1502.


Jean de Foix (Lautrec)

Jean de Foix (* 1454 † after 1498) was the only, posthumously born son of Pierre de Foix († 1454) and his wife Catharine d'Astarac. As heir to his father, Jean took over the vice counties of Lautrec and Villemur . Due to Jean's immaturity, his uncle Count Gaston IV. Von Foix reigned his inherited lands until his death in 1472.

After the death of his cousin King François Fébus of Navarre in 1483, Jean supported his sister and heir Catherine against her uncle Vice Count John of Narbonne , who denied the inheritance of Catherine to the Kingdom of Navarre . Jean worked primarily as a mediator of the marriage between Katharina and Jean d'Albret , which could be concluded on June 14, 1484 in Orthez .

Then Jean besieged the city of Maubourguet which held the vice count of Narbonne. But he had to give up the siege after King Ludwig XII. of France, who was a brother-in-law of John of Narbonne, approached with an army to relieve the city. Nevertheless, Katharina's party was ultimately able to assert itself in this struggle for succession when Johann von Narbonne gave up his claims in a peace treaty that was concluded in Tarbes on September 7, 1497 . Jean de Foix testified, among other things, to this contract with his signature.


Charity

This sculpture is one of three, representing virtues, which are thought to have been carved for the monument of Gaston de Foix, commander of the French forces in Italy. Each is by a different sculptor, employed by Agostino Busti, known as Bambaia, to assist in producing the many figures required for the commission. Fortitude and Charity were appropriate virtues for a warrior as they suggested strength and clemency.

Charity is tradtionally represented either holding a flame or two or three infants. The children might symbolise Faith and Hope, who without Charity are nothing (see C. Ripa). It is unusual to represent Charity with only one child, because of its similarity to the Virgin and Child.

Given the structure and organisation of Lombard workshops during the 16th century, it is almost impossible to say with any certainty which sculptor was responsible for any single piece. The Annali della Fabbrica del Duomo show that in 1517 Busti was granted the permission to recruit Gian Giacomo di San Gallo, Giovanni Pietro and Ambrogio da Bornago, and Ambrogio Pomero from the Duomo, to help him with the Gaston de Foix monument. In the following year he was joined by a further four sculptors from the Veneranda Fabbrica, Cristoforo Lombardo, Giovanni Ambrogio da Cremona, Agostino del Pozzo and Ambrogio da Arluno, as well as, Giovanni Antonio da Osnago, Andrea da Saronno and Ambrogio Dolcebuono. Thus, there were a total of eleven members of the Duomo-workshop, as well as Agostino Busti himself and Benedetto Cervi "Pavese", who according to Lomazzo's testimony of 1585 was responsible for the battle-reliefs (see reliefs).

Even though the surviving drawings of monuments by Bambaia seem to be presentation drawings rather than direct models for specific structures, they can give us an insight into the workshop practices of the time.

With the number of collaborators engaged in the project, Busti must have prepared a detailed drawing of the complete tomb, as well as providing more individual sketches of the single pieces to be carved by his assistants. It is likely that, as the lead sculptor of the project, Busti would have carved some key pieces himself, as well as perfecting and unifying his assistants sculptures to create a harmonious whole.

Together with other two statuettes in the Victoria and Albert Museum (4912-1858 and 332-1903) and the reliefs, effigy and statuettes in the Castello Sforzesco and Pinacoteca Ambrosiana in Milan and the Museo Civico in Turin it might have formed part of the monument of Gaston de Foix.

Very similar sculptures of Fortitude and a Virtue, in opposite poses to the present statues, can be found in the Kimbell Museum of Art in Fort Worth. Busti uses similar figures of Fortitude, Charity, and other virtues in a number of his tomb and monument designs, as well as in the drawing that is usually linked to the tomb of Gaston de Foix. Due to the frequent appearance of such sculptures it is almost impossible to assign them to any particular monument or any single artist. This recurrence of similar pieces is also a good indicator of workshop collaboration, since it was not unusual for assistants to copy some of their masters examples and models, and thus providing pieces for a future sculptural complex.

However, the provenance of the Fort Worth sculptures supports the notion that they were once part of the Birago monument, which is also disassembled and dispersed. The present statuettes seem to be slightly earlier, since the pose of this Fortitude coincides directly with the Leda by Leonardo da Vinci, which is often mentioned as the model for this composition, while the Kimbell statue is reversed and would therefore seem to be a later take on the masters Fortitude. A now lost inscribed panel dated the Birago monument to 1522, so just after the work on the De Foix monument was halted. If then our statues are indeed earlier than the Fort Worth objects, the date would coincide with the French Tomb, Busti's first large-scale commission.

Charity is tradtionally represented either holding a flame or two or three infants. The children might symbolise Faith and Hope, who without Charity are nothing (see C. Ripa). It is unusual to represent Charity with only one child, because of its similarity to the Virgin and Child.

Agostino Busti (1483-1548), first documented in 1512, when he and his brother Polidoro applied to the Fabbrica del Duomo for employment. It has been suggested that he must have spent some of his formative years in France, to explain why he was so little known in Milan in 1512, when he was already titled a 'maestro', and why he was selected by the King of France, to sculpt the monument for his nephew Gaston de Foix, in S. Marta, Milan. The only known work by him before this major commission is the funeral monument for the poet Lancino Curzio, begun in 1513. He seems to have travelled to Rome in 1514, where he studied Roman tomb sculpture and sarcophagi, lessons which he applied to his next monument, the tomb of Gaston de Foix. In 1522 he completed the tomb of Gian Marco and Zenone Birago and six years later he received a commission for a further tomb in S. Marta, for Giovanni Antonio Bellotti. From 1535 Bambaia works mainly on the Cathedral of Milan, as a sculptor and a teacher to young apprentices. His last known commission was the marble tomb of S. Evasio in the cathedral of Casale Monferrato, which he left to be completed by Ambrogio Volpi. He died in Milan in June 1548.

Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours (1489-1512) was a nephew of Louis XII of France. In 1511 he took command of the French army fighting in the War of the League of Cambrai he was initially successful against the forces of the Holy League, capturing Brescia and Bergamo. At the Battle of Ravenna in 1512, he defeated the Spanish under Ramon de Cardona but was killed during the subsequent pursuit.

Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec (1485-1528) marshal of France. In the Italian Wars he fought at Marignano (1515) and was subsequently governor of Milan. Defeated at La Bicocca (1522), he was forced to evacuate Italy. He recovered favor as governor of Languedoc and was made marshal in 1523. In 1527 he headed the French expedition to Italy and reconquered Milan but died of plague while besieging Naples.

King Francis I (1494-1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters, and France's first Renaissance monarch, was crowned in 1515 and reigned until his death in 1547. He was a major patron of the arts, employing a number of renowned Renaissance artists, most famously Benvenuto Cellini and Leonardo da Vinci. Francis I. was also responsible for building or restoring a vast number of chateaux in France, including the chateaux de Blois and of Fontainebleau. Politically, he tried unsuccessfully to become Holy Roman Emperor and engaged in a number of wars with Italy.

Santa Marta, Milan. The Augustinian church and convent of S. Marta was built in the first decades of the 16th century, resctructured completely by Richini in 1621-1624, and suppressed in 1798. Contemporary references to the church, don't give much further detail about its architecture or decoration. Apart from the main altar dedicated to Saint Martha, it is known that one chapel was given to Saint Michael and one to the Virgin Mary.

The Duomo, Milan. Begun in 1387 on a site where several churches had previously existed the Dumo's construction began by order of Gian Galeazzo Visconti. The construction proved to be a daunting task and frequently architects and consultants were hired and dismissed from the project. Of those who worked on the Cathedral, Leonardo and Bramante are the most notable.

The Duomo was completed over 500 years from the start of construction and was dedicated to the Virgin Mary upon completion.

Monument for Gaston de Foix, begun after the entry of the French into Milan in 1515 and stopped in 1521, when they were forced by the Spanish-German-Papal troups to leave the city.

The drawings by Busti in the Louvre and the V&A of other monuments include very similar statuettes.

That the monument was placed in the church of Santa Marta in Milan is confirmed by documentary evidence, such as letters from the prioress of the convent of S. Marta, as well as the writings of Vasari and Lomazzo, who still saw parts of the tomb in its original context.

This sculpture is one of three, representing virtues, which are thought to have been carved for the monument of Gaston de Foix, commander of the French forces in Italy. Each is by a different sculptor, employed by Agostino Busti, known as Bambaia, to assist in producing the many figures required for the commission. Fortitude and Charity were appropriate virtues for a warrior as they suggested strength and clemency.

Charity is tradtionally represented either holding a flame or two or three infants. The children might symbolise Faith and Hope, who without Charity are nothing (see C. Ripa). It is unusual to represent Charity with only one child, because of its similarity to the Virgin and Child.

  • Pope-Hennessy, John, assisted by Lightbown, Ronald, Catalogue of Italian Sculpture in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London: HMSO, 1964, (3 volumes) vol. 2, p. 541.
  • Inventory of Art Objects Acquired in the Year 1860. In: Inventory of the Objects in the Art Division of the Museum at South Kensington, Arranged According to the Dates of their Acquisition. Vol I. London: Printed by George E. Eyre and William Spottiswoode for H.M.S.O., 1868, p. 42
  • Maclagan, Eric and Longhurst, Margaret H. Catalogue of Italian Sculpture. Text. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1932, p. 118
  • Raggio, Olga, "Catalogue of Italian Sculpture in the Victoria and Albertt Museum" in Art Bulletin. Vol. L, 1968, p. 102
  • Williamson, Paul (ed), European Sculpture at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London : Victoria & Albert Museum, 1996, p. 93

A Virtue possibly Truth, Temperance or Justice

This statue is one of three thought to have been carved for the monument of Gaston de Foix, commander of the French forces in Italy. Each is by a different sculptor, employed by Agostino Busti, known as Bambaia, to assist in producing the many figures required for the commission.

Agostino Busti (1483-1548), first documented in 1512, when he and his brother Polidoro applied to the Fabbrica del Duomo for employment. It has been suggested that he must have spent some of his formative years in France, to explain why he was so little known in Milan in 1512, when he was already titled a 'maestro', and why he was selected by the King of France, to sculpt the monument for his nephew Gaston de Foix, in S. Marta, Milan. The only known work by him before this major commission is the funeral monument for the poet Lancino Curzio, begun in 1513. He seems to have travelled to Rome in 1514, where he studied Roman tomb sculpture and sarcophagi, lessons which he applied to his next monument, the tomb of Gaston de Foix. In 1522 he completed the tomb of Gian Marco and Zenone Birago and six years later he received a commission for a further tomb in S. Marta, for Giovanni Antonio Bellotti. From 1535 Bambaia works mainly on the Cathedral of Milan, as a sculptor and a teacher to young apprentices. His last known commission was the marble tomb of S. Evasio in the cathedral of Casale Monferrato, which he left to be completed by Ambrogio Volpi. He died in Milan in june 1547.

Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours (1489-1512) was a nephew of Louis XII of France. In 1511 he took command of the French army fighting in the War of the League of Cambrai he was initially successful against the forces of the Holy League, capturing Brescia and Bergamo. At the Battle of Ravenna in 1512, he defeated the Spanish under Ramon de Cardona but was killed during the subsequent pursuit.

Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec (1485-1528) marshal of France. In the Italian Wars he fought at Marignano (1515) and was subsequently governor of Milan. Defeated at La Bicocca (1522), he was forced to evacuate Italy. He recovered favor as governor of Languedoc and was made marshal in 1523. In 1527 he headed the French expedition to Italy and reconquered Milan but died of plague while besieging Naples.

Given the structure and organisation of Lombard workshops during the 16th century, it is almost impossible to say with any certainty which sculptor was responsible for any single piece. The Annali della Fabbrica del Duomo show that in 1517 Busti was granted the permission to recruit Gian Giacomo di San Gallo, Giovanni Pietro and Ambrogio da Bornago, and Ambrogio Pomero from the Duomo, to help him with the Gaston de Foix monument. In the following year he was joined by a further four sculptors from the Veneranda Fabbrica, Cristoforo Lombardo, Giovanni Ambrogio da Cremona, Agostino del Pozzo and Ambrogio da Arluno, as well as, Giovanni Antonio da Osnago, Andrea da Saronno and Ambrogio Dolcebuono. Thus, there were a total of eleven members of the Duomo-workshop, as well as Agostino Busti himself and Benedetto Cervi "Pavese", who according to Lomazzo's testimony of 1585 was responsible for the battle-reliefs (see reliefs).

Even though the surviving drawings of monuments by Bambaia seem to be presentation drawings rather than direct models for specific structures, they can give us an insight into the workshop practices of the time.

With the number of collaborators engaged in the project, Busti must have prepared a detailed drawing of the complete tomb, as well as providing more individual sketches of the single pieces to be carved by his assistants. It is likely that, as the lead sculptor of the project, Busti would have carved some key pieces himself, as well as perfecting and unifying his assistants sculptures to create a harmonious whole.

Together with two other statuettes in the Victoria and Albert Museum (4912-1858 and 7100-1860) and the reliefs, effigy and statuettes in the Castello Sforzesco and Pinacoteca Ambrosiana in Milan and the Museo Civico in Turin it might have formed part of the monument of Gaston de Foix.

Very similar sculptures of Fortitude and a Virtue, in opposite poses to the present statues, can be found in the Kimbell Museum of Art in Fort Worth. Busti uses similar figures of Fortitude, Charity, and other virtues in a number of his tomb and monument designs, as well as in the drawing that is usually linked to the tomb of Gaston de Foix. Due to the frequent appearance of such sculptures it is almost impossible to assign them to any particular monument or any single artist. This recurrence of similar pieces is also a good indicator of workshop collaboration, since it was not unusual for assistants to copy some of their masters examples and models, and thus providing pieces for a future sculptural complex.

However, the provenance of the Fort Worth sculptures supports the notion that they were once part of the Birago monument, which is also disassembled and dispersed. The present statuettes seem to be slightly earlier, since the pose of this Fortitude coincides directly with the Leda by Leonardo da Vinci, which is often mentioned as the model for this composition, while the Kimbell statue is reversed and would therefore seem to be a later take on the masters Fortitude. A now lost inscribed panel dated the Birago monument to 1522, so just after the work on the De Foix monument was halted. If then our statues are indeed earlier than the Fort Worth objects, the date would coincide with the French Tomb, Busti's first large-scale commission.

This virtue is represented by a female figure dressed in classical robes with a veil or cloak draped over her head and tied on her right shoulder. On her head is a crown or diadem, in her left hand a small scroll and in her right she holds one end of her veil.

It is not quite clear which virtue is represented by this statue, since her attributes are inconclusive to any specific virtue or other allegorical figure. Rhetoric sometimes holds a partially unrolled scroll in her hand (see J. Hall), while Truth is often shown as a figure being unveiled which could also be the significance of the right hand gesture. It has also been suggested that this figure personifies Temperance or Justice.

Agostino Busti (1483-1548), first documented in 1512, when he and his brother Polidoro applied to the Fabbrica del Duomo for employment. It has been suggested that he must have spent some of his formative years in France, to explain why he was so little known in Milan in 1512, when he was already titled a 'maestro', and why he was selected by the King of France, to sculpt the monument for his nephew Gaston de Foix, in S. Marta, Milan. The only known work by him before this major commission is the funeral monument for the poet Lancino Curzio, begun in 1513. He seems to have travelled to Rome in 1514, where he studied Roman tomb sculpture and sarcophagi, lessons which he applied to his next monument, the tomb of Gaston de Foix. In 1522 he completed the tomb of Gian Marco and Zenone Birago and six years later he received a commission for a further tomb in S. Marta, for Giovanni Antonio Bellotti. From 1535 Bambaia works mainly on the Cathedral of Milan, as a sculptor and a teacher to young apprentices. His last known commission was the marble tomb of S. Evasio in the cathedral of Casale Monferrato, which he left to be completed by Ambrogio Volpi. He died in Milan in June 1548.

Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours (1489-1512) was a nephew of Louis XII of France. In 1511 he took command of the French army fighting in the War of the League of Cambrai he was initially successful against the forces of the Holy League, capturing Brescia and Bergamo. At the Battle of Ravenna in 1512, he defeated the Spanish under Ramon de Cardona but was killed during the subsequent pursuit.

Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec (1485-1528) marshal of France. In the Italian Wars he fought at Marignano (1515) and was subsequently governor of Milan. Defeated at La Bicocca (1522), he was forced to evacuate Italy. He recovered favor as governor of Languedoc and was made marshal in 1523. In 1527 he headed the French expedition to Italy and reconquered Milan but died of plague while besieging Naples.

King Francis I (1494-1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters, and France's first Renaissance monarch, was crowned in 1515 and reigned until his death in 1547. He was a major patron of the arts, employing a number of renowned Renaissance artists, most famously Benvenuto Cellini and Leonardo da Vinci. Francis I was also responsible for building or restoring a vast number of chateaux in France, including the chateaux de Blois and of Fontainebleau. Politically, he tried unsuccessfully to become Holy Roman Emperor and engaged in a number of wars with Italy.

Santa Marta, Milan. The Augustinian church and convent of S. Marta was built in the first decades of the 16th century, resctructured completely by Richini in 1621-1624, and suppressed in 1798. Contemporary references to the church, don't give much further detail about its architecture or decoration. Apart from the main altar dedicated to Saint Martha, it is known that one chapel was given to Saint Michael and one to the Virgin Mary.

The Duomo, Milan. Begun in 1387 on a site where several churches had previously existed the Dumo's construction began by order of Gian Galeazzo Visconti. The construction proved to be a daunting task and frequently architects and consultants were hired and dismissed from the project. Of those who worked on the Cathedral, Leonardo and Bramante are the most notable.

The Duomo was completed over 500 years from the start of construction and was dedicated to the Virgin Mary upon completion.

The drawings by Busti in the Louvre and the V&A of other monuments include very similar statuettes. Slightly less skilled in carving and finish and less elegant than the other two statues.

Monument for Gaston de Foix, begun after the entry of the French into Milan in 1515 and stopped in 1521, when they were forced by the Spanish-German-Papal troups to leave the city.

That the monument was placed in the church of Santa Marta in Milan is confirmed by documentary evidence, such as letters from the prioress of the convent of S. Marta, as well as the writings of Vasari and Lomazzo, who still saw parts of the tomb in its original context.

This statue is one of three thought to have been carved for the monument of Gaston de Foix, commander of the French forces in Italy. Each is by a different sculptor, employed by Agostino Busti, known as Bambaia, to assist in producing the many figures required for the commission.

Agostino Busti (1483-1548), first documented in 1512, when he and his brother Polidoro applied to the Fabbrica del Duomo for employment. It has been suggested that he must have spent some of his formative years in France, to explain why he was so little known in Milan in 1512, when he was already titled a 'maestro', and why he was selected by the King of France, to sculpt the monument for his nephew Gaston de Foix, in S. Marta, Milan. The only known work by him before this major commission is the funeral monument for the poet Lancino Curzio, begun in 1513. He seems to have travelled to Rome in 1514, where he studied Roman tomb sculpture and sarcophagi, lessons which he applied to his next monument, the tomb of Gaston de Foix. In 1522 he completed the tomb of Gian Marco and Zenone Birago and six years later he received a commission for a further tomb in S. Marta, for Giovanni Antonio Bellotti. From 1535 Bambaia works mainly on the Cathedral of Milan, as a sculptor and a teacher to young apprentices. His last known commission was the marble tomb of S. Evasio in the cathedral of Casale Monferrato, which he left to be completed by Ambrogio Volpi. He died in Milan in june 1547.

Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours (1489-1512) was a nephew of Louis XII of France. In 1511 he took command of the French army fighting in the War of the League of Cambrai he was initially successful against the forces of the Holy League, capturing Brescia and Bergamo. At the Battle of Ravenna in 1512, he defeated the Spanish under Ramon de Cardona but was killed during the subsequent pursuit.

Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec (1485-1528) marshal of France. In the Italian Wars he fought at Marignano (1515) and was subsequently governor of Milan. Defeated at La Bicocca (1522), he was forced to evacuate Italy. He recovered favor as governor of Languedoc and was made marshal in 1523. In 1527 he headed the French expedition to Italy and reconquered Milan but died of plague while besieging Naples.

  • Inventory of Works of Art Acquired by the Victoria and Albert Museum in the Years 1903 - 1904. In: List of Works of Art Acquired by the Victoria and Albert Museum, During the Year 1903, Arranged According to the Dates of Acquisition with Appendix and Indices. London: Printed for His Majesty's Stationery Office, by Wyman and Sons, Limited, 1907, p. 55
  • Maclagan, Eric and Longhurst, Margaret H. Catalogue of Italian Sculpture. Text. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1932, p. 119
  • Raggio, Olga. Catalogue of Italian Sculpture in the Victoria and Albertt Museum. Art Bulletin. Vol. L, 1968, p. 102
  • Pope-Hennessy, John. Catalogue of Italian Sculpture in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Volume II: Text. Sixteenth to Twentieth Century. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1964, pp. 541-543
  • Fiorio, Maria Teresa. Bambaia. Catalogo complete delle opera. Florence, 1990, pp. 30-32, p. 49, no. 3.23, illus. p. 51
  • Agosti, Giovanni. Bambaia e il Classicismo Lambardo. Turin, 1990, pp. 146, 161, fig. 78

January–June Edit

    – King Christian II of Denmark and Norway defeats the Swedes, at Lake Åsunden in Sweden. The Swedish regent Sten Sture the Younger is mortally wounded in the battle. He is rushed towards Stockholm, in order to lead the fight against the Danes from there, but dies from his wounds on February 3. [1] – Revolt of the Comuneros: Citizens of Toledo, Castile opposed to the rule of the Flemish-born Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, rise up when the royal government attempts to unseat radical city councilors. – Moctezuma II, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan, is declared deposed due to his captivity by conquistadorHernán Cortés. His brother Cuitláhuac rises to the throne. – King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France meet at the famous Field of the Cloth of Gold. [2] – Revolt of the Comuneros: Segovia is blockaded. – Pope Leo X issues the bull Exsurge Domine (Arise O Lord), threatening Martin Luther with excommunication, if he does not recant his position on indulgences and other Catholic doctrines.

July–December Edit

    – La Noche Triste (Night of Sorrow): The forces of Cuitláhuac, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan, gain a major victory against the forces of conquistadorHernán Cortés. This results in the death of about 400 conquistadors, and some 2,000 of their Native American allies. However, Cortés and the most skilled of his men manage to escape and later regroup. – Otumba near Lake Texcaco: The Spaniards defeat the Aztecs. [3]
    – Martin Luther writes To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation. – Christian II makes his triumphant entry into Stockholm, which had surrendered to him a few days earlier. Sten Sture's widow Christina Gyllenstierna, who has led the fight after Sten's death, and all other persons in the resistance against the Danes, are granted amnesty and are pardoned for their involvement in the resistance. – Suleiman I succeeds his father Selim I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. – Cuitláhuac, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan, dies from smallpox. He is succeeded by his nephew Cuauhtémoc. (Feast of St. Ursula) – The islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon are discovered by Portuguese explorer João Álvares Fagundes, off Newfoundland. He names them Islands of the 11,000 Virgins, in honour of Saint Ursula. – Charles V is crowned King of Germany. –4 – Christian II is crowned king of Sweden. The coronation is followed by a three-day feast in Stockholm. – At the end of the third day of Christian's coronation feast, several leading figures of the Swedish resistance against the Danish invasion are imprisoned, and tried for high treason. –10 – Stockholm Bloodbath: 82 noblemen and clergymen, having been sentenced to death for their involvement in the Swedish resistance against the Danish invasion, are executed by beheading. – After navigating through the South American strait, three ships under the command of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reach the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific (the strait is later named the Strait of Magellan). – Martin Luther burns a copy of The Book of Canon Law (see Canon Law), and his copy of the Papal bull Exsurge Domine.

Date unknown Edit

  • The Franciscan friar Matteo Bassi is inspired to return to the primitive life of solitude and penance, as practiced by St. Francis, giving rise to the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin. returns to Cananor.
  • Aleksandra Lisowska (Roxelana) is given as a gift to Suleiman I on the occasion of his accession to the throne. creates the public mail service of Portugal, the Correio Público.

January–June Edit

    – Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther, in the papal bullDecet Romanum Pontificem. [4] – Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, opens the Diet of Worms in Worms, Germany. [5] – Suleiman the Magnificent suppresses a revolt by the ruler of Damascus. – The Nydala Abbey Bloodbath takes place at Nydala Abbey, Sweden the abbot and many monks are murdered by Danes. [6]
      makes first European contact with Guam. is summoned to appear before the Diet of Worms.
      arrives at Cebu. preaches an inflammatory sermon to students at Erfurt, while on his way to Worms.

    July–December Edit

      Pfaffensturm: Students rebel against priests in Erfurt. – Fall of Tenochtitlan: Hernán Cortés and allied local indigenous peoples of the Americas defeat the Aztec forces of Cuauhtémoc, the last Tlatoani (Aztec Emperor), at Tenochtitlan in the Valley of Mexico. – Fall of Tenochtitlan: Cuauhtémoc surrenders to Cortés, thus incorporating the Aztec Empire into the Spanish Empire and ending the Late Postclassic period in Mesoamerica. – Belgrade is captured by the Ottoman army of Suleiman the Magnificent. – Spanish–German–Papal forces under Prospero Colonna force FrenchMarshalOdet de Lautrec to abandon Milan. – The Zwickau prophets arrive in Wittenberg, disturbing the peace and preaching the Apocalypse.

    Date unknown Edit

      publishes Commentaria cum amplissimus additionibus super anatomiam Mundini in Bologna, including observation of the vermiform appendix. [9] is founded in the archipelago of Puerto Rico.
    • The Principality of Ryazan is annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow.

    January–June Edit

      – Pope Adrian VI (born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, Dedens or Dedel [10] Hadrianus in Latin) succeeds Pope Leo X, as the 218th pope. The only Dutch pope, he will be the last non-Italian elected for more than 450 years. – Spanish conquistadorGil González Dávila sets out from the gulf of Panama to explore the Pacific coast of Central America. He explores Nicaragua and names Costa Rica when he finds copious quantities of gold in Pacific beaches. – Battle of Bicocca: French and Swiss forces under Odet de Lautrec are defeated by the Spanish in their attempt to retake Milan, and are forced to withdraw into Venetian territory. [11] – England presents an ultimatum to France and Scotland. [12] – Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor visits King Henry VIII of England, and signs the Treaty of Windsor, pledging a joint invasion of France, bringing England into the Italian War of 1521–1526. [13]

    July–December Edit

      – The English army attacks Brittany and Picardy from Calais, burning and looting the countryside. [14] – Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I begins his siege to expel the Knights of St. John in Rhodes.
    • August – The Knights' Revolt erupts in Germany. – The Vittoria, one of the surviving ships of Ferdinand Magellan's expedition, returns to Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Spain, under the command of Juan Sebastián Elcano, becoming the first ship to circumnavigate the world. – Luther Bible: Martin Luther's translation of the Bible's New Testament into Early New High German from Greek, Das newe Testament Deutzsch, is published in Germany, selling thousands in the first few weeks. – 1522 Almería earthquake: It is a major 6.8 to 7.0 Mw earthquake, that occurs in the capital of Almeria and the Andarax Valley, near Alhama de Almería. It has a maximum felt intensity of X–XI (extreme), and kills about 2,500 people, making it the most destructive earthquake in Spanish history. The city of Almería is totally destroyed, and there is serious destruction in 80 other towns in Granada, large cracks are observed in various walls and towers. [15] -October 22 – The 1522 Vila Franca earthquake takes place in the municipality of Vila Franca do Campo, at the time the provincial capital, located on São Miguel Island, in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.
    • November – The Diet of Nuremberg opens. – The Ottomans finally break into Rhodes, but the Knights continue fierce resistance in the streets. – Suleiman the Magnificent accepts the surrender of the surviving Knights, who are allowed to evacuate. They eventually re-settle on Malta, and become known as the Knights of Malta.

    Date unknown Edit

    • The third edition of Erasmus's Greek Textus Receptus of the New Testament, Novum Testamentum (with parallel Latin text), is published in Basel.
    • Chinese Ming dynasty War Ministry official He Ru is the first to acquire the Portuguesebreech-loadingculverin, while copies of them are made by two Westernized Chinese at Beijing, Yang San (Pedro Yang) and Dai Ming.
    • Australia is sighted by a Portuguese expedition led by Cristóvão de Mendonça, who maps the continent and names it Jave la Grande ("The Greater Java"), according to the theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia.
    • The Portuguese ally with the Sultanate of Ternate and begin the construction of Fort Kastela.
    • The Portuguese along with King Ilato of the Goratalo kingdom constructs the Otanaha Fortress.

    January–June Edit

      – Christian II is forced to abdicate as King of Denmark and Norway. – The Ningbo Incident: Two rival trade delegations from Japan feud in the Chinese city of Ningbo, resulting in the pillage and plunder of the city. – Gustav Vasa is elected king of Sweden, finally establishing the full independence of Sweden from Denmark, which marks the end of the Kalmar Union. This event is also traditionally considered to be the establishment of the modern Swedish nation. [16]

    July–December Edit

    • c. July – Martin Luther's translation of the Pentateuch into German (Das allte Testament Deutsch) is published. – Jan van Essen and Hendrik Vos become the first FlemishLutheran martyrs, burned at the stake by Roman Catholic authorities in Brussels. – Wijerd Jelckama, a Frisian warlord and military commander, is executed in Leeuwarden, ending the Frisian rebellion fought by the Arumer Black Heap. – Spanish conquest of Nicaragua: Agreement for an expedition by conquistadores into Nicaragua. – Following the death of Pope Adrian VI, the Medici cardinal is elected 219th pope as Clement VII. [17]

    Date unknown Edit

    • The Ming dynasty Chinese navy captures two Western ships with Portuguesebreech–loadingculverins aboard, which the Chinese call a fo–lang–ji (Frankish culverin). According to the Ming Shi, these cannons are soon presented to the Jiajing Emperor by Wang Hong, and their design is copied in 1529. [18] : The Swabian League destroys 23 robber baron castles.

    January–June Edit

      – Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano, on board La Dauphine in the service of Francis I of France, sets out from Madeira for the New World, to seek out a western sea route to the Pacific Ocean. – SpanishconquistadorPedro de Alvarado destroys the K'iche' kingdom of Q'umarkaj, taking the capital, Quiché. (approximate date) – da Verrazzano's expedition makes landfall at Cape Fear. – Verrazzano's expedition makes the first European entry into New York Bay, and sights the island of Manhattan. [19][20] – Battle of the Sesia: Spanish forces under Charles de Lannoy defeat the French army in Italy, under William de Bonnivet. The French, now commanded by François de St. Pol, withdraw from the Italian Peninsula. – Atiquipaque, the most important city of the Xinca people is conquered by the Spanish resulting in a significant reduction in the Xinca population. – Battle of Acajutla: Spanish conquistadorPedro de Alvarado defeats a battalion of Pipiles, in the neighborhoods of present day Acajutla, El Salvador. [21]

    July–December Edit

    • Summer – Paracelsus visits Salzburg he also visits Villach during the year. – Verrazzano's expedition returns to Dieppe.
    • August–September – Marseille is besieged by Imperial forces, under the Duke of Bourbon. – Protestant theologians Martin Luther and Andreas Karlstadt dispute at Jena. – A French army invading Italy, under King Francis, besieges Pavia. – Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba founds the city of Granada, Nicaragua, the oldest Hispanic city in the mainland of the Western Hemisphere.

    January–June Edit

      – The Swiss Anabaptist Movement is born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptize each other in the home of Manz's mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. – Battle of Pavia: German and Spanish forces under Charles de Lannoy and the Marquis of Pescara defeat the French army, and capture Francis I of France, after his horse is wounded by Cesare Hercolani. While Francis is imprisoned in Lombardy and then transferred to Madrid, the first attempts to form a Franco-Ottoman alliance with Suleiman the Magnificent against the Habsburg Empire are made. [22] – The last Aztec Emperor, Cuauhtémoc, is killed by Hernán Cortés. – In the German town of Memmingen, the pamphlet The Twelve Articles: The Just and Fundamental Articles of All the Peasantry and Tenants of Spiritual and Temporal Powers by Whom They Think Themselves Oppressed is published, the first human rights related document written in Europe. – German Peasants' War in the Holy Roman Empire: Battle of Leipheim – Peasants retreat. – Albert, Duke of Prussia commits Prussian Homage. –15 – German Peasants' War: Battle of Frankenhausen – Insurgent peasants led by radical pastor Thomas Müntzer are defeated. – Martin Luther marries ex-nun Katharina von Bora. [23] The painter Lucas Cranach the Elder is one of the witnesses. – Henry VIII of England appoints his six-year old illegitimate son Henry FitzRoyDuke of Richmond and Somerset. –24 – German Peasants' War: Battle of Pfeddersheim – Peasants defeated in the last significant action of the war, in which over 75,000 peasants have been killed.

    July–December Edit

      – Santa Marta, the first city in Colombia, is founded by Spanish conquistadorRodrigo de Bastidas.
    • December – The first French ambassador to reach the Sublime Porte, Jean Frangipani, sets out for Constantinople.

    Date unknown Edit

      , capital of the Pocomam Maya State, falls to the Spanish conquistadores of Pedro de Alvarado (in modern-day Guatemala) after a three-month siege.
    • European-brought diseases sweep through the Andes, killing thousands, including the Inca.
    • The Bubonic plague spreads in southern France.
    • Printing of the first edition of William Tyndale's New TestamentBible translation into English in Cologne is interrupted by anti-Lutheran forces (finished copies reach England in 1526).
    • The Navarre witch trials (1525-26) begin.
    • The Chinese Ministry of War under the Ming dynasty orders ships having more than one mast sailing along the southeast coast to be seized, investigated, and destroyed this in an effort to curb piracy and limit private commercial trade abroad.
    • The Age of Samael ends, and the Age of Gabriel begins, according to Johannes Trithemius.

    January–June Edit

      – Treaty of Madrid: Peace is declared between Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Francis agrees to cede Burgundy and abandons all claims to Flanders, Artois, Naples, and Milan. [24] – Battle of Panipat: Babur becomes Mughal emperor, invades northern India and captures Delhi, beginning the richest dynasty in the world, the Mughal Empire, which lasts until 1857. – Francis repudiates the Treaty of Madrid and forms the League of Cognac against Charles, including Pope Clement VII, Milan, Venice, and Florence. – A transit of Venus occurs, the last before optical filters allow astronomers to observe them. – Emperor Go-Nara ascends to the throne of Japan.

    July–December Edit

      – The Spanish ship Santiago, from García Jofre de Loaísa's expedition, reaches the Pacific Coast of Mexico, the first to navigate from Europe to the west coast of North America. – Milan is captured by the Spanish. – Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar becomes the first European to sight the Marshall Islands, in the Pacific Ocean. [25] – Battle of Mohács: The Ottoman army of Sultan Suleiman I defeats the Hungarian army of King Louis II, who is killed in the retreat. Suleiman takes Buda, while Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and John Zápolya, Prince of Transylvania, dispute the succession. As a result of the battle, Dubrovnik achieves independence, although it acknowledges Turkish overlordship. – Paracelsus arrives at Strasbourg.

    Date unknown Edit

    • Spring – The first complete printed translation of the New Testament of the Bible into the English language by William Tyndale arrives in England from Germany, printing having been completed in Worms by Peter Schöffer the younger (with other copies being printed in Amsterdam). In October, Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of London, attempts to collect all the copies in his diocese and burn them.
    • The first official translation is made of the New Testament into Swedish the entire Bible is completed in 1541.
    • Gunsmith Bartolomeo Beretta (in Italian) establishes the Beretta Gun Company, which will still be in business in the 21st century, making it one of the world's oldest corporations.

    January–June Edit

      – Croatian nobles elect Ferdinand I of Austria as King of Croatia in the Parliament on Cetin. – Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, is drowned in the Limmat in Zürich, by the Zürich Reformed state church. – Battle of Khanwa: Babur defeats Rajput ruler Rana Sanga. This and two other major Moghul victories lead to their domination of northern India. Dhaulpur fort is taken by Babur. [26]
        is appointed as town physician of Basel, Switzerland.
      • The Confederation of Shan States sack Ava, the capital of the Ava Kingdom.

      July–December Edit

        – The first known letter is sent from North America by John Rut, while at St. John's, Newfoundland. – Sixty Anabaptists meet at the Martyrs' Synod in Augsburg. – Diet of Odense (Denmark): King Frederick I declares religious tolerance for Lutherans, permits marriage of priests and forbids seeking papal pallium (approval) for royal appointments of Church officials. [28][29] – Battle of Tarcal: Ferdinand, future Holy Roman Emperor, defeats John Zápolya and takes over most of Hungary. John appeals to the Ottomans for help.

      Date unknown Edit

      • The Spanish conquest of Guatemala's highlands is completed the first city in Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja is founded.
      • Members of the University of Wittenberg flee to Jena, in fear of the bubonic plague. (at Sutton Coldfield, in the West Midlands of England) is founded by Bishop John Vesey. is founded as a grammar school at Walthamstow, England, by Sir George Monoux, draper and Lord Mayor of London.
      • The Ming dynasty government of China greatly reduces the quotas for taking grain, severely diminishing the state's capacity to relieve famines through a previously successful granary system.
      • The second of the Dalecarlian rebellions breaks out in Sweden.

      January–June Edit

        – Gustav I of Sweden is crowned king of Sweden, having already reigned since his election in June 1523. [30]
        • Peasant uprising in Dalarna, Sweden: The rebel campaign fails, and the rebel leader, later known as Daljunkern, flees to Rostock. explores the Sierra de la Plata along the Río de la Plata, and begins to travel up the Paraná River. [31] visits Colmar in Alsace.

        July–December Edit

          – Andrea Doria defeats his former allies, the French, and establishes the independence of Genoa. – Álvaro de Saavedra Cerón arrives in the Maluku Islands. – Cardinal Thomas Wolsey founds a college in his birthplace of Ipswich, England, which becomes the modern-day Ipswich School (incorporating institutions in the town dating back to 1299). – The Treaty of Gorinchem is signed between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and Charles, Duke of Guelders. – Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his companions become the first known Europeans to set foot on the shores of what is present-day Texas.

        Date unknown Edit

          gains autonomy under Ottoman power. Conquistador Francisco de Montejo attempts an invasion of the Yucatán, but is driven out by the Maya peoples. takes direct control of Acapulco. breaks out in England. [33] in Windsor Castle is completed. in France is begun. begins work on the fortifications of Florence. publishes The Book of the Courtier.
        • In Henan province, China, during the mid Ming dynasty, a vast drought deprives the region of harvests for the next two years, killing off half the people in some communities, due to starvation and cannibalism. [34] leaves Basel.

        January–June Edit

          – The Örebro Synod provides the theological foundation of the Swedish Reformation, following the economic foundation of it, after the Reduction of Gustav I of Sweden. – Battle of Shimbra Kure: ImamAhmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, with 200 men armed with matchlocks, defeats the army of Dawit II, Emperor of Ethiopia. [35] – Blood libel against the Jewish community of Bosen (formerly in Hungary, today in Slovakia), on the first day of Passover. Three Jews are accused and killed, while the boy is discovered alive, kidnapped for the benefit of the scheme. – The Flensburg Disputation is held, a debate attended by Stadtholder Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (later King Christian III of Denmark), between Lutherans (led by Hermann Fast) and the more radical Anabaptists (led by Melchior Hoffman). Johannes Bugenhagen, a close associate of Martin Luther, presides. The Disputation marks the rejection of radical ideas by the Danish Reformation. [36] – The Westrogothian rebellion breaks out in Sweden. – Diet of Speyer: A group of rulers (German:Fürst) and independent cities (German:Reichsstadt) protest the reinstatement of the Edict of Worms, beginning the Protestant movement. – The Treaty of Zaragoza divides the eastern hemisphere between the Spanish and Portuguese empires, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297.5 leagues or 17° east of the Moluccas. [37] –July – Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, presides over a legatine court at Blackfriars, London, to rule on the legality of King Henry VIII of England's marriage to Catherine of Aragon. [12] – The Ottoman army under Suleiman I leaves Constantinople, to invade Hungary once again. – War of the League of Cognac – Battle of Landriano: French forces in northern Italy are decisively defeated by Spain.

        July–December Edit

          – The only continental outbreak of English sweating sickness reaches Lübeck, spreading from there into Schleswig-Holstein in the next few months. [38] – Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and Francis I of France sign the Treaty of Cambrai, or Ladies' Peace in the War of the League of Cognac: Francis abandons his claims in Italy, but is allowed to retain the Duchy of Burgundy. Henry VIII of England accedes on August 27. [13] – Sancti Spiritu, the first European settlement in Argentina, is destroyed by local natives.
            is recaptured by the invading forces of the Ottoman Empire.
          • The city of Maracaibo, Venezuela is founded by Ambrosius Ehinger.

          Date unknown Edit

            is granted the county town of Buckinghamshire, England by KingHenry VIII. becomes governor of Transylvania. succeeds Ramathibodi II as king of Ayutthaya. is first described, by Georg Agricola. visits Rome. becomes historiographer of Venice. becomes pastor of Bremgarten, Switzerland. uses that name for the first time and visits Nuremberg.
          • Occultist Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa publishes Declamatio de nobilitate et praecellentia foeminei sexus ("Declamation on the Nobility and Preeminence of the Female Sex"), a book pronouncing the theological and moral superiority of women.
          • A summit level canal between Alster and the Trave in Germany opens to navigation. [40]
            – Peder Oxe, Danish finance minister (d. 1575) – William More, English courtier (d. 1600) – Frederick III of Legnica, Duke of Legnica (d. 1570) – Matthias Flacius, Croatian Protestant reformer (d. 1575) – Nicolás Factor, Spanish artist (d. 1583) – Gonzalo II Fernández de Córdoba, Governor of the Duchy of Milan (d. 1578) – King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland (d. 1572) – Madeleine of Valois, queen of James V of Scotland (d. 1537) – Bartholomäus Sastrow, German official (d. 1603) – Heinrich Sudermann, German politician (d. 1591) – William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, English statesman, chief advisor to Queen Elizabeth I (d. 1598) [41] – Alessandro Farnese, Italian cardinal (d. 1589) – Dorothea of Denmark, Electress Palatine, Princess of Denmark, Sweden and Norway (d. 1580) – Barbara Radziwiłł, queen of Poland (d. 1551) – Martha Leijonhufvud, politically active Swedish noble (d. 1584)
          • date unknown
            • Patriarch Metrophanes III of Constantinople (d. 1580) , Korean monk , French navigator (d. 1565) , Italian music theorist, lutenist, and composer (d. 1591) , last independent king of Granada (d. 1568) , Japanese nobleman (d. 1561) , German physician (d. 1581) , Swedish abbess (d. 1593) , French legal expert (d. 1590) , German doctor and mathematician (d. 1564)
              , Flemish portrait painter (d. 1574) , German printer (d. 1592) , Spanish novelist and poet (d. 1561) , Italian mannerist painter (d. 1578)
            • , Fifth Queen of Henry VIII of England, (born in between 1518 and 1524 d. 1542)
              – Maurice, Elector of Saxony (d. 1553) – Francesco Laparelli, Italian architect (d. 1570) – Johann Marbach, German theologian (d. 1581) – François de Coligny d'Andelot, French general (d. 1569) – Petrus Canisius, Dutch Jesuit (d. 1597) – John Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Coburg, (d. 1553) – Maria of Portugal, Duchess of Viseu, daughter of King Manuel I (d. 1577) – John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Haderslev (d. 1580) – Pope Urban VII (d. 1590) [42] – Lodovico Guicciardini, Italian historian (d. 1589) – Frederick Magnus I, Count of Solms-Laubach, (d. 1561) – Edmund Sheffield, 1st Baron Sheffield, English baron (d. 1549) – Marcantonio Maffei, Italian Catholic archbishop and cardinal (d. 1583) – Takeda Shingen, Japanese warlord (d. 1573) – Pope Sixtus V (d. 1590) [43] date unknown
                , English Protestant martyr (d. 1546) , English divine (d. 1594) , Japanese retainer and later daimyō under Ouchi Yoshitaka (d. 1555) , English statesman and poet (d. 1565) , Flemish composer (d. 1603) , Japanese daimyō (d. 1598) , English rebel (d. 1554)
                , Fifth Queen of Henry VIII of England, (b. between 1518 and 1524 d. 1542)
                – Charles II de Valois, Duke of Orléans, (d. 1545)
                  , Italian mathematician (d. 1565) , Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1580)
                  , Ottoman princess (d. 1578) , Spanish Jewish rabbi and kabbalist (d. 1570) , Greek saint (d. 1589)
                • Emperor Gelawdewos of Ethiopia (d. 1559)
                  , fifth queen of Henry VIII of England, (b. between 1518 and 1524 d. 1542)
                  – Enea Vico, Italian engraver (d. 1567) – Francesco Abbondio Castiglioni, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1568) – Valentin Naboth, German astronomer and mathematician (d. 1593) – Jan Blahoslav, Czech writer (d. 1571) – Giovanni Francesco Commendone, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1584) – Kaspar Eberhard, German theologian (d. 1575) – Blaise de Vigenère, French diplomat and cryptographer (d. 1596) – Marco Antonio Bragadin, Venetian lawyer and military officer (d. 1571) – Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry (d. 1574) – Pier Francesco Orsini, Italian condottiero and art patron (d. 1583) – Duke George II of Brieg (1547–1586) (d. 1586) – Sancho d'Avila, Spanish general (d. 1583) – Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon, French church leader and pretender to the throne (d. 1590) – Ludwig Rabus, German martyrologist (d. 1592) – Eleonore of Fürstenberg, wife of Philip IV, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg (d. 1544) – Anna Jagiellon, daughter of Sigismund I of Poland (d. 1596) date unknown
                    , Italian anatomist and physician (d. 1562) , Spanish conquistador (d. 1589) , Portuguese Dominican theologian and biblist (d. 1581) , Italian poet (d. 1554)
                    – Albrecht Giese, German politician and diplomat (d. 1580) – Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, French cardinal (d. 1574) – Selim II, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1574) – Achilles Statius, Portuguese humanist (d. 1581) – Johann Stössel, German theologian (d. 1576) – Elizabeth of Denmark, Duchess of Mecklenburg, Danish princess (d. 1586) – François Hotman, French Protestant lawyer and writer (d. 1590) [44] – Thomas Erastus, Swiss theologian (d. 1583) – Pierre de Ronsard, French poet (d. 1585) – Francisco Vallés, Spanish physician (d. 1592) – Rani Durgavati, Queen of Gond (d. 1564) – Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma (d. 1586) – Nicolas, Duke of Mercœur, French Catholic bishop (d. 1577) – Diego de Landa, Bishop of the Yucatán (d. 1579) date unknown
                      , royal secretary of Poland (d. 1584) , French soldier (d. 1592) , French lawyer and author (d. 1602) and his twin brother, Nicolas Pithou, French lawyer and author (d. 1598) , Portuguese Sephardi diplomat and administrator (d. 1579) , English poet and farmer (d. 1580) , Portuguese poet (d. 1580) [45] , Italian painter (d. 1588) (d. 1579) , cousin of Elizabeth I of England (d. 1569) , French Huguenot magnate (d. 1567)
                      , fifth queen of Henry VIII of England, (b. between 1518 and 1524 d. 1542)
                      – Caspar Peucer, German reformer (d. 1602) [46] – Lelio Sozzini, Italian Renaissance humanist and anti-Trinitarian reformer (d. 1562) – Juraj Drašković, Croatian Catholic cardinal (d. 1587) – Caspar Cruciger the Younger, German theologian (d. 1597) – Richard Edwardes, English choral musician, playwright and poet (d. 1566) – Katharina of Hanau, Countess of Wied, German noblewoman (d. 1581) – Peter Agricola, German Renaissance humanist, educator, classical scholar, theologian, diplomat and statesman (d. 1585) – Christoffer Valkendorff, Danish politician (d. 1601) – John George, Elector of Brandenburg (d. 1598) – Steven Borough, English explorer (d. 1584) – Georg Cracow, German lawyer and politician (d. 1575) – Tadeáš Hájek, Czech astronomer (d. 1600) – John Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg (d. 1576) date unknown
                        , Talmudic scholar, Jewish mystic and philosopher (d. 1609) , Spanish theologian (d. 1560) (d. 1586)
                        , Flemish painter (d. 1569) [47] , Italian composer and singer (d. 1603) , Italian composer (d. 1594) , German soldier and sailor (d. 1579)
                        – Louis Bertrand, Spanish missionary to Latin America, patron saint of Colombia (d. 1581) – Rafael Bombelli, Italian mathematician (d. 1572) – Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (d. 1586) – Niiro Tadamoto, Japanese samurai (d. 1611) – Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski, Polish noble (d. 1608) – Charles de L'Ecluse, Flemish botanist (d. 1609) – Gonçalo da Silveira, Portuguese Jesuit missionary (d. 1561) – Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon (d. 1596) – Heinrich Rantzau, German humanist writer, astrologer, and astrological writer (d. 1598) – Guiseppe Arcimboldo, Italian painter (d. 1566) – Elisabeth of Brunswick-Calenberg, Countess of Henneberg (d. 1566) – Muretus, French humanist (d. 1585) – Beate Clausdatter Bille, Danish noblewoman (d. 1593) – Matsudaira Hirotada, Japanese daimyō (d. 1549) – Elisabeth Parr, Marchioness of Northampton, English noble (d. 1565) – Elizabeth of Austria, Polish noble (d. 1545) – Philipe de Croÿ, Duke of Aerschot (d. 1595) – Augustus, Elector of Saxony (d. 1586) – Claude, Duke of Aumale, third son of Claude (d. 1573) – Adolph of Nassau-Saarbrücken, Count of Nassau (d. 1559) – Henry Manners, 2nd Earl of Rutland (d. 1563) – Wolfgang, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (d. 1569) – Dorothy Stafford, English noble (d. 1604) – Hubert Goltzius, Dutch Renaissance painter-engraver (d. 1583) – Catherine Jagiellon, queen of John III of Sweden (d. 1583) – Andreas Gaill, German jurist and statesman (d. 1587) – Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz, Spanish admiral (d. 1588) – Rose Lok, English businesswoman and Protestant exile during the Tudor period (d. 1613) – Anna Maria of Brandenburg-Ansbach, German princess (d. 1589) date unknown
                          , Dutch war heroine (d. 1588) , Japanese daimyō in the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods (d. 1603) , Japanese warlord (d. 1573)
                          , Ottoman Muslim scientist (d. 1585) , Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire (d. 1563)
                          – Ludwig Lavater, Swiss Reformed theologian (d. 1586) – Ulrich, Duke of Mecklenburg (d. 1603) – Alfonso d'Este, Lord of Montecchio, Italian nobleman (d. 1587) – Hermann Finck, German composer and music theorist (d. 1558) – Isabella Markham, English courtier (d. 1579) – Edward Fitton, the elder, Irish politician (d. 1579) – Abraham Ortelius, Flemish cartographer and geographer (d. 1598) – Johannes Stadius, German astronomer, astrologer, mathematician (d. 1579) – Philip II, King of Spain (d. 1598) [48] – Agnes of Hesse, German noble, by marriage, Princess of Saxony (d. 1555) – Anna Sophia of Prussia, Duchess of Prussia and Duchess of Mecklenburg (d. 1591) – Jean Vendeville, French law professor, Roman Catholic bishop (d. 1592) – Saitō Yoshitatsu, Japanese daimyō (d. 1561) – John Dee, English mathematician, astronomer, and geographer (d. 1608) [49] – Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1576) – Barbara of Brandenburg, Duchess of Brieg, German princess (d. 1595) – John Lesley, Scottish bishop (d. 1596) – William Drury, English politician (d. 1579) – Maria Manuela, Princess of Portugal (d. 1545) – Louis I, Cardinal of Guise, French Catholic cardinal (d. 1578)
                            , Spanish hagiologist (d. 1611) , English noble and politician (d. 1597)
                            , Italian artist (d. 1593) , Spanish lyric poet and mystic (d. 1591) , Japanese retainer and samurai (d. 1581) , Italian composer and organist (d. 1575)
                            , English nobleman (d. 1554) , English clergyman and educator (d. 1590)
                              , Spanish theologian (d. 1604) (d. 1579)
                              , Dutch statesman (d. 1604) , Swiss alchemist and physician (d. 1577) , French antiquary and Latin poet (d. 1602) , Russian writer (d. 1583) , English statesman (d. 1590) , Vietnamese military strategist, politician, diplomat and poet (d. 1613) (d. 1578) , Japanese daimyō (d. 1579) , English musician and author (d. 1595)
                              , English general (d. 1590) , French diplomat (d. 1584) , stadtholder of the Dutch provinces of Friesland (d. 1568) , Italian composer (d. 1601)
                              – John Frederick II, Duke of Saxony (d. 1595) – Ebba Månsdotter, Swedish noble (d. 1609) – Markus Fugger, German businessman (d. 1597) – Onofrio Panvinio, Augustinian historian (d. 1568) – Michael Neander, German mathematician and historian (d. 1581) – Francesco Patrizi, Italian philosopher and scientist (d. 1597) – Sabina of Brandenburg-Ansbach, German princess (d. 1575) – Étienne Pasquier, French lawyer, poet and author (d. 1615) – Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria, regent of Tyrol and Further Austria (d. 1595) – Petrus Peckius the Elder, Dutch jurist, writer on international maritime law (d. 1589) – Henry Sidney, lord deputy of Ireland (d. 1586)ref> Ann Hoffmann (1977). Lives of the Tudor Age, 1485-1603. Barnes & Noble Books. p. 397. ISBN978-0-06-494331-4 . </ref> – Charles II, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (d. 1577) – Ernst Vögelin, German publisher (d. 1589) – Taddeo Zuccari, Italian painter (d. 1566) – Günther XLI, Count of Schwarzburg-Arnstadt (d. 1583) – Anna of Hesse, Countess Palatine of Zweibrücken (d. 1591) – Fulvio Orsini, Italian humanist historian (d. 1600) – Laurent Joubert, French physician (d. 1582) date unknown
                                , Inca ruler of Vilcabamba (d. 1571) , Italian sculptor (d. 1608) , Ruthenian prince at Wiśniowiec (d. 1584) , English critic (d. 1590)
                                – Jo Gwang-jo, Korean philosopher (b. 1482) – Sten Sture the Younger, Viceroy of Sweden (b. 1493) [51] – Alfonsina de' Medici, née Orsini, Regent of Florence (b. 1472) – Raphael, Italian painter and architect (b. 1483) [52] – Jan Lubrański, Polish bishop (b. 1456) – Hosokawa Sumimoto, Japanese samurai commander (b. 1489) – Moctezuma II, 9th Tlatoani (emperor) of the Aztecs, assassinated or possibly killed in a riot, 1502-1520 (b. 1466) [53] – Kunigunde of Austria, Archduchess of Austria (b. 1465) – Ippolito d'Este, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1479) – Selim I, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1465) [54]
                              • October – Cuitláhuac, 10th Tlatoani (emperor) of the Aztecs, 1520, brother of Moctezuma II, smallpox (b. c. 1476) [55] – Bernardo Dovizi, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1470)
                              • date unknown
                                  , king of Texcoco (altepetl) (modern Mexico) (b. 1483) [56] , first Raja of Kantipur , king of Lan Xang (b. 1465) , Ottoman calligrapher (b. 1436) , German court singer (b. 1440)
                              • March–April: Ferdinand Magellan's voyage around the world.

                                Hans Maler zu Schwaz, Portrait of a beardless man with the inscription:
                                „ALS MAN. 1521. ZALT. WAS. ICH. 33. IAR ALT“
                                (mutatis mutandis to English: „as we had in 1521, I was 33 years old)


                                Contents

                                The title derived from the office of marescallus Franciae created by King Philip II Augustus of France for Albéric Clément (circa 1190).

                                The title was abolished by the National Convention in 1793. It was restored during the First French Empire by Napoleon I as Marshal of the Empire, and then the title was given to Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo and later King of Sweden. Under the Bourbon Restoration, the title reverted to Marshal of France and Napoléon III kept that designation.

                                After the fall of Napoleon III and the Second French Empire, the Third Republic did not use the title until the First World War, when it was recreated as a military distinction and not a rank.

                                Philippe Pétain, awarded the distinction of Marshal of France for his generalship in World War I, retained his title even after his trial and imprisonment and after he was stripped of other positions and titles.

                                The last living Marshal of France was Alphonse Juin, promoted in 1952, who died in 1967. The latest Marshal of France was Marie Pierre Kœnig, who was made a Marshal posthumously in 1984.

                                Today, the title of Marshal of France can only be granted to a general officer who fought victoriously in war-time.


                                Watch the video: Jacques Offenbach: Geneviève de Brabant - Galop (December 2021).