28 April 1941

28 April 1941

April 1941


War at Sea

German submarine U-65 sunk with all hands south east of Iceland

North Africa

Rommel captures Sollum


Last British troops are evacuted from Greece

A May Day Message to Working Women

From Labor Action, Vol.م No.㺑, 28 April 1941, p.ل.
Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’ Callaghan for the Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism On-Line (ETOL).

The working women of America have a glorious record of struggle, of which they can be very proud. The power wielded by labor today is the result of bitter combat, from which women and men have drawn strength and wisdom. On this May Day, the international holiday of the workers of the world, working men and women can join hands in mutual esteem as comrades in a good fight.

The exploiters and deceivers of the workers point a triumphant finger at the recent agreement between Big Steel and the CIO and say: “Where else in the world can labor sit down with the big industrial magnates and with representatives of the government and work out an agreement so beneficial to labor?” Such a thing, they say, can only happen in this great American democracy. Therefore, continues this tricky argument, let every mother’s son go get his gun and fight for this grand and glorious democracy.

Labor Fought for Its Gains

All this is as false as that beautiful set of new teeth in the head of an old man. American democracy never handed the workers anything on a silver platter. Whatever gains the American working class has made it FOUGHT FOR. Industrial magnates and government representatives sit down with labor BECAUSE THEY HAVE TO. American labor is STRONG. It knows how to close down huge plants like Ford’s and how to keep them closed. It knows how to stop the flow of profits into the bulging pockets of the bosses. That is their talking point.

Labor has gained this strength and knowledge over long years of fierce fighting – struggles that have piled up many martyrs for the cause, And every inch of the way the workers have been attacked, not only by the private thugs of the bosses but by the city, state and federal forces of “this great American democracy.” With its laws and with its guns American “democracy” has sought to keep the working class down. IT HAS NOT SUCCEEDED.

In all these battles the women have done their share. They have fought bravely on their own, striking for unions, wages and conditions, and picketing shoulder to shoulder with the men. They have also participated as fighting partners of their striking husbands, as fighting partners of their striking sons.

In Steel and in Textile

In 1919 during the great strike that first shook the feudal foundations of the steel industry which now is forced to sign with the CIO, the women stood by their men for three and a half long months. Those were the days of Burleson and Palmer, when the revolts of the European workers produced such hysterical fear and hatred in the ruling class here that no terror against the workers was terrible enough. In the steel districts the Cossacks of. American democracy ruled supreme. Every vestige of free speech, press, assembly, was gone. For weeks at a time strikers were isolated from each other, without organizers, without strike bulletins. The mounted gunmen went so far as to charge into groups of children in order to provoke the fathers to fight and thus give the gunmen the excuse to let flow rivers of blood. The women had the strength to restrain their men. Their strength has gone into the building of the great labor movement of today.

In the textile strikes of the early twenties, that spread like wild fire throughout the New England states, the most backward, the most suppressed and exploited workers rose and did battle against their bosses and the forces of American “democracy.” Against a 54-hour week, against a 20 per cent reduction in wages and against the well armed troops of “democracy,” they fought. There were 100,000 of them, of all nationalities, many who came to the great American melting pot to escape the Cossacks abroad. Tens of thousands of women and girls were in the strikers’ ranks and in some localities fought on for nearly nine months. Their strength has gone into the building of the mighty labor movement of today.

There was the great Passaic strike of 1926�. Fifty per cent of the strikers were women – enslaved women who had labored continuously for eight to ten hours every night without pause even for a drink of water, who had slaved thus even when carrying their unborn children. They became dauntless warriors of the working class, They marched with the men on the picket lines and were in the thick of all union activities. During “Terror Week” when men, women and children were indiscriminately and mercilessly beaten and ridden down by the mounted police of the bosses and “the great American democracy,” these women did not run away, but kept reforming the picket lines with the men. Their strength too has gone into the building of the powerful labor movement of today.

As Militant as Ever

The growth of the CIO, the symbol and instrument of working class power in this country, was made possible by the splendid solidarity of the women with the men, by their courageous cooperation and at times brilliant initiative. Most dramatic is the part played by them in the great auto strikes, in Flint they went from house to house, from store to store, exposing the vigilante committees organized to fight the strikers, and succeeded in completely discrediting them. The women’s battalion picketed the plants and by their unswerving militancy often shamed the police into less brutal conduct. In the famous “Battle of Bulls Run” the women had the satisfaction of being fighters on the victorious side.

In the strikes of today the women are as militant as ever. They took their places among the pickets at the Ford plants. In the less spectacular strike at the Leviton factory in Brooklyn, now in its seventh month, women who have never struck before are persistent and courageous fighters. In the New York bus strike that made such a stir the wives and children of the strikers joined with them in their meetings and their activities.

The Real Test Is Yet to Come

As the child is father to the man, so labor’s history explains why the American workers can today talk turkey. Years of struggle

against the combined forces of American “democracy” and the exploiting bosses have made them strong – have increased their solidarity – have improved their strategy – have perfected their form of organization. In spite of the many setbacks inflicted by the craft form of organization of the AFL, in spite of the many sell-outs of false leaders in many of the unions, the rank and tile workers have come put on top. And in this development of labor there has been no such thing as “the weaker sex.”

But this May Day does not mark the achievement of the goal of’ the working class of America. Far from it. Today the call to fight rings out more compellingly than ever. The real test is yet to come.

The rising cost of living on the one hand and “frozen” wages on the other are bound to worsen living standards. The “mediation” boards will move heaven and earth to induce the workers to take it on the chin, while the bosses take it into their pockets. Payment for the imperialist war will in large measure be forced from the working class by income taxes, consumer taxes and ail kinds of “voluntary” contributions. If the war continues – as it is expected to – for three to five years more, there will be shortages of food and other living needs. Suffering and privation are the “benefits” the working class will get from the war.

As always, the women will feel most the direct impact of these war conditions. They suffer twice: their personal privations and their anguish for their families. On top of this is the harrowing worry over their boys who are already being sent to the outposts of American imperialism – to defend “their homes” in the Philippines, Hawaii and other distant places. And there will be the broken hearts of the bereaved mothers that will gradually fill up with anger at the war makers.

Women Will Play Their Part

In the past such conditions have led to great revolutionary struggles, in which women nave played a brave role. Back in 1871, the hardships of the Franco-Prussian war burst the bounds of endurance and the workers rebelled. For the first time in history, the working class of Paris took power and held it from March 15 to May 29: The Parisian working women knew how to fight. They were on the barricades, sewed the sand bags needed for defense, participated in the meetings of the people’s government, formed revolutionary clubs for women, And what they stood at the open graves of their fallen comrades, they pressed their children to them and taught the little ones to cry out “Vive la Commune!”

The Paris Commune was drowned in blood when the butcher Thiers invited the besieging German armies to enter Paris and do the filthy job. Then as in 1940 the French ruling class preferred the armies of the “enemy” capitalists of Germany to file power of ITS OWN WORKING CLASS. But the revolt of the men and women of the Paris Commune was not in vain. Perhaps the Russian Revolution would not have taken place without thee example of the Commune.

The world-shaking events of 1917, which stand as the criterion of action for the freedom-seeking workers of the world, also developed out of the unbearable conditions of war. The revolution was set in motion by a group of the most oppressed and downtrodden workers of Russia – THE WOMEN OF THE TEXTILE MILLS. On the 22nd of February, 1917, which was International Women’s Day, they walked out on strike – against the orders of their leaders.

They took the initiative, THE TIME HAD COME. They were through with slaving to fill the pockets of the bosses with war profits – through with standing hours on bread lines – through with being separated from their husbands at the front – through with being widowed.

They went out and more masses of women joined them. They flocked to the government buildings, demanding bread. Then the more advanced workers also swung into action. First to fall under the revolutionary might of the masses were the czar and the old despotism. After a series of crucial events leading up to the October Revolution the workers and peasants took complete power, ended the war, ended the rule of the capitalists, landlords and their fake democratic government.

Stalin and his gang of reactionary bureaucrats robbed the Russian masses of their revolutionary gains. But the glorious accomplishment of the Russian workers in making a successful revolution, the courage and initiative of the women in starting the massive, annihilating bail rolling over their vicious rulers, have not been lost. In some nation soon the workers will continue where the Russian masses left off.

Side by Side Toward Freedom

AMERICA SHOULD BE THAT NATION! The working class here has not yet been crushed by a military juggernaut. It is stronger than ever before. So strong, in fact, that while the stupid politicians call for the electric chair for strikers, the wiser ones advise kid-gloves for the handling of labor. They are afraid that the great giant will lift its mighty fist and slap them down.

Will the workers of America allow themselves to be “mediated,” then bludgeoned into powerlessness, or will they widen and deepen their struggle? Will the working women of America wait until their families are starving and their sons and husbands slaughtered or will they carry out the tradition of women’s militancy in the past and FIGHT NOW FOR PEACE AND ALL THEIR PEACE-TIME NEEDS!

Millons of stunned, starved, lonely women under Hitler’s heel wait tor a sign that will set them in motion. Millions of women squirming under the paws of the British lion wait for the dawn of a better day. The working women of America have it in their power to give inspiration and courage to all the others. They can make those miserable ones abroad understand that in America the working class has started on the road to power and the END OF WAR AND STARVATION. Then they too will rise up against the bloody imperialists – dictators and “democrats” alike!

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Gallup poll April 28 1941-Asking the same question, getting 2 different outcomes.

Opinions polls are a useful toll to check the sentiments in the country, an indication of what people think.

In the recent past some polls got it spectacularly wrong. But the key to a good opinion poll is how the question is worded.

On April 28 1941 Gallup released the results of a poll,which they had conducted between 10 and 15 April 1941, on the war in Europe.They asked 2 questions, but if you dissect the questions you can conclude it actually is the same question but just worded slightly different. The question really is “Would you vote for the US to go to war?”

By rearranging some words and adding a few, the outcomes were completely different.

Interviewing Date 4/10-15/41

If you were asked to vote today on the question of the United States entering the war against Germany and Italy, how would you vote — to go into the war, or to stay out of the war?

Interviewing Date 4/10-15/41

If it appeared certain that there was no other way to defeat Germany and Italy except for the United States to go to war against them, would you be in favor of the United States going to war?

How you ask a question really can make a difference.

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Wheels West Day in Susanville History – April 28th, 1941

Some 20 head of bucking horses, gathered in parts of Nevada and northern California, were herded into Susanville yesterday, and a round-up of steers, cows and calves is under way for the second annual rodeo of the Future Farmers of Lassen Union High School and Junior College to be held May 4th at the Susanville fair grounds.

Fifteen events are scheduled for the afternoon’s program, which last year attracted visitors from all parts of this and adjoining counties.

Prizes ranging from $12 to S150 have been offered for winners in the various events.

In charge of the affair is a committee composed of William Ramsey, president of the Future Farmer unit, Leo Chappuis, Glenn Blickenstaff, Paul DeWitt, James Davis, E. F. McCarthy, Paul Metz, Julian Mapes, Albert Garate, Robert Dunn, Howard Grant, Leo Fain, Verne Fuller, Laurie Reuck, Charles Ball and Ralph Blosser.

Supervisor Tro Emerson of this district has a crew of men at the fairgrounds, leveling the arena and preparing the track for racing.

Church Plans New Building

Leaders of Sacred Heart Catholic parish are to meet within a few days according to the Rev. P. J. Moran pastor, to name a building committee to carry out plans for the construction of a reinforced concrete church building at the corner of Union and North streets.

The edifice will cost $34,000 the aichitect estimates.

US Savings Bonds

On April 30, 1941, President Franklin Roosevelt announced a new series of US Savings Bonds and bought the first one himself the following day.

The practice of the government selling securities to the public dates back to 1776. That year, private citizens bought more than $27 million in government bonds to help pay for the American Revolution. They put their trust in their new government that they would be repaid. And indeed, they were all repaid, and on time, proving the system worked and paving the way for a new American tradition.

US #1320 was issued in 1966 for the 25th anniversary of the US Savings Bond program.

In the years that followed, Americans bought bonds to aid in many other projects – the Louisiana Purchase, the completion of the transcontinental railroad, the Panama Canal, the purchase of Alaska, and most notably, to fund wars. During the Civil War, the government found that selling bonds person-to-person worked very well. And during the Spanish-American War, they found that small-denomination bonds were very popular with the public.

By the mid-1930s, the nation was shaken by the Great Depression, leaving many Americans with little confidence in financial institutions. US Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, Jr. had seen how some programs targeting ordinary citizens had worked well in Great Britain and France and believed a similar program could work in America. He felt that encouraging smaller savers would decrease the dependence on large private investors, while also giving those citizens a more vested interest in national policy. So Morgenthau developed a new type of government security for general financing that would more greatly appeal to the mass market and was specifically tailored to small savers.

US #2534 – Fleetwood Plate Block First Day Cover.

By early 1935, legislation was introduced for a new type of security – the US Savings Bond. It passed the House and Senate on February 4, and the first US Savings Bond, Series A, was issued on March 1, 1935. Over the next six years, about 18 million Series A, B, C, and D bonds were sold for a total of about $4 billion.

US #2534 – Silk Cachet First Day Cover.

By early 1941, much of the world was at war and America had begun modernizing its own defenses while providing equipment to our allies. Factories were filled with workers, the public debt was increasing, and price inflation seemed imminent. Secretary Morgenthau, among others, believed that the surplus funds needed to be saved rather than spent, and saw it as an opportunity to unite the public.

US #1320 – Classic First Day Cover picturing FDR purchasing the first Savings Bond.

So on the night of April 30, 1941, Roosevelt addressed the nation to announce a new Defense Savings Bond, the Series E. He invited all Americans to join him in “one great partnership” to help fund our defense effort. The next day, Roosevelt purchased the first bond as they went on sale to the public. After America entered the war, they became known as War Bonds.

Item #M91-23 – Savings Bond Maximum Card.

The War Finance Committee supervised the sale of bonds with the help of the War Advertising Council. The posters produced were part of a huge publicity campaign to finance the war. Images of soldiers on the front encouraged citizens back home to sacrifice some their income like the servicemen were sacrificing the comfort of home and even their lives. In addition to the constant reminders from the posters, eight loan drives were held. Some movie theaters offered free admission to anyone who bought a bond that day. The War Bond program was a success as more than $185 billion was raised over the years. Savings Bonds continued to remain popular after the war, and are still offered today.

US #WS7-13 – WWII-era War Savings Stamps.

Gretna Bomb 1941

This story was submitted to the People’s War site by Sarah Jones on behalf of Sheila King and has been added to the site with her permission. The author fully understands the site's terms and conditions.

In 1941 a car light was left on during the black outs and a plane came over and dropped a bomb on Gretna. There were an awful lot of local people killed and many of the children at school lost their fathers.

My father was supposed to be at a masonic meeting at Gretna but had just started a new job at ICI, and fortunately wasn't allowed time off work to attend.

The following morning though the local people thought my father would have been killed and couldn't look at my mother when she opened the door to pick up the milk delivery.

I also remember that my grandmother had an evacuee from London, a little boy. It's very rural round here you see so people were evacuated here. He was older than me and taught me to play piano. He stuck little stickers on to teach me the letters so that I could play.

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28 April 1941 - History

In April of 1945, Hitler moved into the Führerbunker, located 50 feet below the Chancellery buildings in Berlin. In this underground complex containing nearly thirty rooms on two separate floors, Hitler held daily briefings with his generals amid reports of the unstoppable Soviet advance into Berlin. He issued frantic orders to defend Berlin with armies that were already wiped out or were making a hasty retreat westward to surrender to the Americans.

On April 22, during a three hour military conference in the bunker, Hitler let loose a hysterical, shrieking denunciation of the Army and the 'universal treason, corruption, lies and failures' of all those who had deserted him. The end had come, Hitler exclaimed, his Reich was a failure and now there was nothing left for him to do but stay in Berlin and fight to the very end.

His staff attempted without success to convince him to escape to the mountains around Berchtesgaden and direct remaining troops and thus prolong the Reich. But Hitler told them his decision was final. He even insisted a public announcement be made.

Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels then brought his entire family, including six young children, to live with Hitler in the bunker. Hitler began sorting through his own papers and selected documents to be burned.

Personnel in the bunker were given permission by Hitler to leave. Most did leave and headed south for the area around Berchtesgaden via a convoy of trucks and planes. Only a handful of Hitler's personal staff remained, including his top aide Martin Bormann, the Goebbels family, SS and military aides, two of Hitler's secretaries, and longtime companion Eva Braun.

On April 23, Hitler's friend and Minister of Armaments, Albert Speer, arrived for his final meeting with the Führer. At this meeting Speer bluntly informed Hitler that he had disobeyed the Führer's scorched earth policy and had preserved German factories and industry for the post-war period. Hitler listened in silence and had no particular reaction, much to the surprise of Speer.

That afternoon, Hitler received a surprise telegram from Göring who had already reached safety in Berchtesgaden.

My Führer!
In view of your decision to remain in the fortress of Berlin, do you agree that I take over at once the total leadership of the Reich, with full freedom of action at home and abroad as your deputy, in accordance with your decree of June 29, 1941? If no reply is received by 10 o'clock tonight, I shall take it for granted that you have lost your freedom of action, and shall consider the conditions of your decree as fulfilled, and shall act for the best interests of our country and our people. You know what I feel for you in this gravest hour of my life. Words fail me to express myself. May God protect you, and speed you quickly here in spite of all.

An angry Hitler, prompted by Bormann, sent Göring a return message saying he had committed "high treason." Although the penalty for this was death, Göring was to be spared, due to his long years of service, if he would immediately resign all of his offices. Bormann then transmitted an order to the SS near Berchtesgaden to arrest Göring and his staff. Before dawn on April 25, Göring was locked up.

The next day, April 26, Soviet artillery fire made the first direct hits on the Chancellery buildings and grounds directly above the Führerbunker. That evening, a small plane containing female test pilot Hanna Reitsch and Luftwaffe General Ritter von Greim landed in the street near the bunker following a daring flight in which Greim had been wounded in the foot by Soviet ground fire.

Once inside the Führerbunker the wounded Greim was informed by Hitler he was to be Göring's successor, promoted to Field-Marshal in command of the Luftwaffe.

Although a telegram could have accomplished this, Hitler had insisted Greim appear in person to receive his commission. But now, due to his wounded foot, Greim would be bedridden for three days in the bunker.

On the night of April 27, Soviet bombardment of the Chancellery buildings reached its peak with numerous direct hits. Hitler sent frantic telegrams to Keitel demanding Berlin be relieved by (now non-existent) armies.

The final blow came on the 28th when Hitler received word via Goebbels' Propaganda Ministry that British news services were reporting SS Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler had sought negotiations with the Allies and had even offered to surrender German armies in the west to Eisenhower.

According to eyewitnesses in the bunker, Hitler "raged like a madman" with a ferocity never seen before. Himmler had been with Hitler since the beginning and had earned the nickname "der treue Heinrich" (faithful Heinrich) through years of fanatical, murderous service to his Führer, who now ordered Himmler's arrest.

As an act of immediate revenge, Hitler ordered Himmler's personal representative in the bunker, SS Lt. Gen. Hermann Fegelein, who was also the husband of Eva Braun's sister, to be taken up to the Chancellery garden above the bunker and shot.

Now, with the desertions of Göring and Himmler and the Soviets advancing deep into Berlin, Hitler began preparing for his own death.

Late in the evening of the 28th he dictated his last will and a two-part political testament (shown below) in which he expressed many of the same sentiments he had stated in Mein Kampf back in 1923-24. He essentially blamed the Jews for everything, including the Second World War. He also made a reference to his 1939 threat against the Jews along with a veiled reference to the subsequent gas chambers.

"I further left no one in doubt that this time not only would millions of children of Europe's Aryan people die of hunger, not only would millions of grown men suffer death, and not only hundreds of thousands of women and children be burnt and bombed to death in the towns, without the real criminal having to atone for this guilt, even if by more humane means."

Just before midnight, he married Eva Braun in a brief civil ceremony. There was then a celebration of the marriage in his private suite. Champagne was brought out and those left in the bunker listened to Hitler reminisce about better days gone by. Hitler concluded, however, that death would be a release for him after the recent betrayal of his oldest friends and supporters.

By the afternoon of April 29, Soviet ground forces were about a mile away from the Führerbunker. Inside the bunker the last news from the outside world told of the downfall and death of Mussolini, who had been captured by Italian partisans, executed, then hung upside down and thrown into the gutter.

Hitler now readied himself for the end by first having his poison tested on his favorite dog, Blondi. He also handed poison capsules to his female secretaries while apologizing that he did not have better parting gifts to give them. The capsules were for them to use if the Soviets stormed the bunker.

About 2:30 in the morning of April 30, Hitler came out of his private quarters into a dining area for a farewell with staff members. With glazed eyes, he shook hands in silence, then retired back into his quarters. Following Hitler's departure, those officers and staff members mulled over the significance of what they had just witnessed. The tremendous tension of preceding days seemed to suddenly evaporate with the realization that the end of Hitler was near. A lighthearted mood surfaced, followed by spontaneous displays of merry-making even including dancing.

At noon, Hitler attended his last military situation conference and was told the Soviets were just a block away. At 2 p.m., Hitler sat down and had his last meal, a vegetarian lunch. His chauffeur was then ordered to deliver 200 liters of gasoline to the Chancellery garden.

Hitler and his wife Eva then bid a final farewell to Bormann, Goebbels, Generals Krebs and Burgdorf, other remaining military aides and staff members.

Hitler and his wife then went back into their private quarters while Bormann and Goebbels remained quietly nearby. Several moments later a gunshot was heard. After waiting a few moments, at 3:30 p.m., Bormann and Goebbels entered and found the body of Hitler sprawled on the sofa, dripping with blood from a gunshot to his right temple. Eva Braun had died from swallowing poison.

As Soviet shells exploded nearby, the bodies were carried up to the Chancellery garden, doused with gasoline and burned while Bormann and Goebbels stood by and gave a final Nazi salute. Over the next three hours the bodies were repeatedly doused with gasoline. The charred remains were then swept into a canvas, placed into a shell crater and buried.

Back inside the bunker, with the Führer now gone, everyone began smoking, a practice Hitler had generally forbidden in his presence. They next began collectively plotting daring (but fruitless) escapes out of Berlin to avoid capture by the Soviets.

On the following day, May 1, Goebbels and his wife proceeded to poison their six young children in the bunker, then went up into the Chancellery garden where they were shot in the back of the head at their request by an SS man. Their bodies were then burned, but were only partially destroyed and were not buried. Their macabre remains were discovered by the Soviets the next day and filmed, the charred body of Goebbels becoming an often seen image symbolizing of the legacy of Hitler's Reich.

The Last Will of Adolf Hitler

As I did not consider that I could take responsibility, during the years of struggle, of contracting a marriage, I have now decided, before the closing of my earthly career, to take as my wife that girl who, after many years of faithful friendship, entered, of her own free will, the practically besieged town in order to share her destiny with me. At her own desire she goes as my wife with me into death. It will compensate us for what we both lost through my work in the service of my people.

What I possess belongs - in so far as it has any value - to the Party. Should this no longer exist, to the State should the State also be destroyed, no further decision of mine is necessary.

My paintings, in the collections which I have bought in the course of years, have never been collected for private purposes, but only for the extension of a gallery in my home town of Linz on Donau.

It is my most sincere wish that this bequest may be duly executed.

I nominate as my Executor my most faithful Party comrade,
Martin Bormann

He is given full legal authority to make all decisions.

He is permitted to take out everything that has a sentimental value or is necessary for the maintenance of a modest simple life, for my brothers and sisters, also above all for the mother of my wife and my faithful co-workers who are well known to him, principally my old Secretaries Frau Winter etc. who have for many years aided me by their work.

I myself and my wife - in order to escape the disgrace of deposition or capitulation - choose death. It is our wish to be burnt immediately on the spot where I have carried out the greatest part of my daily work in the course of a twelve years' service to my people.

Given in Berlin, 29th April 1945, 4:00 A.M .
[Signed] A. Hitler

Dr. Joseph Goebbels
Martin Bormann
Colonel Nicholaus von Below

First Part of the Political Testament

More than thirty years have now passed since I in 1914 made my modest contribution as a volunteer in the First World War that was forced upon the Reich.

In these three decades I have been actuated solely by love and loyalty to my people in all my thoughts, acts, and life. They gave me the strength to make the most difficult decisions which have ever confronted mortal man. I have spent my time, my working strength, and my health in these three decades.

It is untrue that I or anyone else in Germany wanted the war in 1939. It was desired and instigated exclusively by those international statesmen who were either of Jewish descent or worked for Jewish interests. I have made too many offers for the control and limitation of armaments, which posterity will not for all time be able to disregard for the responsibility for the outbreak of this war to be laid on me. I have further never wished that after the first fatal world war a second against England, or even against America, should break out. Centuries will pass away, but out of the ruins of our towns and monuments the hatred against those finally responsible whom we have to thank for everything, International Jewry and its helpers, will grow.

Three days before the outbreak of the German-Polish war I again proposed to the British ambassador in Berlin a solution to the German-Polish problem - similar to that in the case of the Saar district, under international control. This offer also cannot be denied. It was only rejected because the leading circles in English politics wanted the war, partly on account of the business hoped for and partly under influence of propaganda organized by International Jewry.

I have also made it quite plain that, if the nations of Europe are again to be regarded as mere shares to be bought and sold by these international conspirators in money and finance, then that race, Jewry, which is the real criminal of this murderous struggle, will be saddled with the responsibility. I further left no one in doubt that this time not only would millions of children of Europe's Aryan people die of hunger, not only would millions of grown men suffer death, and not only hundreds of thousands of women and children be burnt and bombed to death in the towns, without the real criminal having to atone for this guilt, even if by more humane means.

After six years of war, which in spite of all setbacks, will go down one day in history as the most glorious and valiant demonstration of a nation's life purpose, I cannot forsake the city which is the capital of this Reich. As our forces are too small to make any further stand against the enemy attack at this place and since our resistance is gradually being weakened by men who are as deluded as they are lacking in initiative, I should like, by remaining in this town, to share my fate with those, the millions of others, who have also taken upon themselves to do so. Moreover I do not wish to fall into the hands of an enemy who requires a new spectacle organized by the Jews for the amusement of their hysterical masses.

I have decided therefore to remain in Berlin and there of my own free will to choose death at the moment when I believe the position of the Führer and Chancellor itself can no longer be held.

I die with a joyful heart, aware of the immeasurable deeds and achievements of our soldiers at the front, our women at home, the achievements of our farmers and workers and the work, unique in history, of our youth who bear my name.

That from the bottom of my heart I express my thanks to you all, is just as self-evident as my wish that you should, because of that, on no account give up the struggle, but rather continue it against the enemies of the Fatherland, no matter where, true to the creed of a great Clausewitz. From the sacrifice of our soldiers and from my own unity with them unto death, will in any case spring up in the history of Germany, the seed of a radiant renaissance of the National Socialist movement and thus of the realization of a true community of nations.

Many of the most courageous men and women have decided to unite their lives with mine until the very last. I have begged and finally ordered them not to do this, but to take part in the further battle of the Nation. I beg the heads of the Armies, the Navy and the Air Force to strengthen by all possible means the spirit of resistance of our soldiers in the National Socialist sense, with special reference to the fact that also I myself, as founder and creator of this movement, have preferred death to cowardly abdication or even capitulation.

May it, at some future time, become part of the code of honor of German Army officers - as is already the case in our Navy - that the surrender of a district or of a town is impossible, and that above all commanders must march ahead as shining examples, faithfully fulfilling their duty unto death.

Second Part of the Political Testament

Before my death I expel the former Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring from the party and deprive him of all rights which he may enjoy by virtue of the decree of June 29th, 1941 and also by virtue of my statement in the Reichstag on September 1st, 1939, I appoint in his place Grossadmiral Dönitz, President of the Reich and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.

Before my death I expel the former Reichsführer-SS and Minister of the Interior, Heinrich Himmler, from the party and from all offices of State. In his stead I appoint Gauleiter Karl Hanke as Reichsführer-SS and Chief of the German Police, and Gauleiter Paul Giesler as Reich Minister of the Interior.

Göring and Himmler, quite apart from their disloyalty to my person, have done immeasurable harm to the country and the whole nation by secret negotiations with the enemy, which they have conducted without my knowledge and against my wishes, and by illegally attempting to seize power in the State for themselves. [Hitler then names the members of the new government].

Although a number of men, such as Martin Bormann, Dr. Goebbels, etc., together with their wives, have joined me of their own free will and did not wish to leave the capital of the Reich under any circumstances, but were willing to perish with me here, I must nevertheless ask them to obey my request, and in this case set the interests of the nation above their own feelings. By their work and loyalty as comrades they will be just as close to me after death, as I hope that my spirit will linger among them and always go with them. Let them be hard but never unjust, but above all let them never allow fear to influence their actions, and set the honor of the nation above everything in the world. Finally, let them be conscious of the fact that our task, that of continuing the building of a National Socialist State, represents the work of the coming centuries, which places every single person under an obligation always to serve the common interest and to subordinate his own advantage to this end. I demand of all Germans, all National Socialists, men, women and all the men of the Armed Forces, that they be faithful and obedient unto death to the new government and its President.

Above all I charge the leaders of the nation and those under them to scrupulous observance of the laws of race and to merciless opposition to the universal poisoner of all peoples, International Jewry.

Given in Berlin, this 29th day of April 1945, 4:00 A.M .

Dr. Joseph Goebbels Wilhelm Burgdorf
Martin Bormann Hans Krebs

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When I find something significant, I’m going to say it aloud, but until then I’m satisfied with the knowledge that I have interpreted something accurately, and not the way the author of a particular groove imagined/offered it.

The Communist Party had always kept its proper interpretations to the extent that individuals who dared to interpret the matter differently paid for it with their lives. Today, without danger, threats may be rarely heard, like “…more lies about you, even more, I love you!” But these are the cries of the already thinned generation.

Our turn will come, but before that, I try to preserve the most important – the clarity of consciousness/mind, by reading, thinking, writing, and above all by learning about old and new. It is unavoidable that at different ages some subjects are interpreted differently, but some lies or half-truths have been misunderstood because the book was not read to the end or we bought it, to leave the impression of the bookworm and the learned man.

I am a proponent of the factual proof and, accordingly, the relevant documentation has to be interpreted as written by the source, rather than as explained by someone third, unless there is a PROVABLE reason. (Our late mother would, in her retrograde age, when the strong Istrian wind (Bura) lift the grooves from our roof, condemned a neighbor whom She might have seen on the roof repairing it, or just assumed that he was there. For the neighboring house, to which the Bura also broke a dozen groves, She explained, that it was a consequence of the strong wind. I turned her attention to the fact that the Bura could have destroyed even her part of the roof. She was insulted because I dared to suspect her interpretation. Well, that is no exception but often happens in our environment.)

Historian Anton Miletić or his assistant wrote in the title of the first document in his book “Jasenovac III” as follows: “No. 1 Order of the German Army of the 49th Army Corps of 30 April 1941 defining the garrison’ places of the armed forces of the ISC (Croatia 1941-1945) and their sizes and ordering the establishment of concentration camps!”

The document itself, of course, does not mention the establishment of concentration camps, but the establishment of garrison’ places, as follows: “… for the time being the following garrison places were designated: Zagreb, Varaždin, Bjelovar, Osijek, Virovitica, Slavonski Brod, Slavonski Brod, Bijeljina, Tuzla, Nova Gradiška, Sarajevo, Mitrovica, Zemun, Travnik, Bihać, Sisak, Petrinja, Vukovar Čakovec. Other places cannot be occupied for now.”

The fact that A. Miletić or his assistant assumes that the concentration camps will be erected in these places is not factual evidence which is based on an entirely different document from May 1941 on the immigration of the Slovenes to the territory of the ISC and the emigration of the same quote of Serbs to Serbia. Germany’s or Hitler’s idea is crucial for the establishment of concentration camps, for example, in Slavonska Požega, on whose territory lived Serbian immigrants, the ”war veterans from the Thessaloniki front,” who settled after 1918, and ISC regulations on citizenship foresee their return to Serbia. There was no shortage of prisons in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, inherited in 1941 by ISC…

The content of the document on the founding of garrison cities proves, in fact, that the Germans still suspected the loyalty of the Ustasha and consequently restricted their armament: “The strength of the troops, including the protective units, must not have more than 800 people in some garrison place. Armaments in each garrison are limited to 800 rifles and 16 light machine guns. Any other weapons are forbidden for the Croatian army, for now.” So, not – have the best armament and kill all the Serbs, but ”Every other weapon is forbidden for the Croatian army, for now.”

I doubt that Miletic and his assistant ever read this text without ideological prejudice. The guilt of Ustashi is brought to them as a final act (though the choice of documents encourages to think about their hidden but well-meant intentions) accordingly, all documentation proves their guilt, but the matter cannot be interpreted so! All that has been written in this document speaks for suspicion, though also about Wehrmacht’s professionalism/routines. If Ustashes enjoyed the full trust of German troops, the thing would be managed in another way. The Croatian (so-called Macek’s Army / CFP, Farmers Party) security guards in Banovina Croatia made 200,000 people under light weapons (pistols), due to distrust their number is limited to around 16,000 (name of the town mentioned multiplied with 800). So at the very beginning, this document proves mistrust, but how the things developed (especially after the attack on the USSR) is another story. The same happened in the 1930s when Ustashas tried to establish cooperation with Hitler they were rejected!

Photo from VP (Military History) / Večernji list / For fair use.
The collection is of Krunoslav Mikulan.

Last Years and Death

Following Gehrig&aposs retirement, Major League Baseball circumvented its own rules and immediately inducted the former Yankee into its Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York. In addition, the Yankees retired Gehrig&aposs uniform, making him the first baseball player ever to receive that honor.

Over the next year, Gehrig maintained a busy schedule, accepting a civic role with the City of New York in which the former ballplayer determined the time of release for prisoners in the city&aposs penal institutions.

By 1941, however, Gehrig&aposs health had significantly deteriorated. He largely remained at home, too frail to even sign his own name, much less go out. On June 2, 1941, he passed away in his sleep at his home in New York City.

Watch the video: 2531941 Αθήνα: Η τελευταία ελεύθερη παρέλαση, λίγες ημέρες, πριν από την γερμανική εισβολή. (November 2021).