What were the Jurchen tribes/confederations in the 11th-12th centuries?

I couldn't find anything about them other than vague geographical localization. Basically, I'm looking for the highest tribal organizations (no need to cite every single clan), akin to the five Mongol Khanligs to the west.

I don't think there was any tribal organisation as such. Starting with Wanyan Wugunai circa mid-11th century, the Wanyan Tribe became dominant among the Jurchens. Successive Wanyan chieftains gradually unified the Jurchen tribes as hereditaryjiédùshǐ of the Liao Empire, and also took the Jurchen title of begile.

By 1115, the new begile Wanyen Akuta (Wanyan Aguda) revolted against the Khitan Liao Empire, founding the Jurchen Great Jin Empire in the process. So You might justifiably call the Great Jin the "highest tribal organisation" of 12th century Jurchens.

This is an incomplete list of Jurchen clans around the rise of the Wanyan:

  • Wanyan: from the Ashi/Anchuhu River
  • Wulinda: from the Hailang River
  • Wendu: from the Lalin River
  • Jiagu: from around Wuchang.
  • Wole: from north of the Ashi/Anchuhu River
  • Tangguo: from the Paektu Mountain
  • Adian: from one of the tributaries of the Liao River
  • VariousHelandianclans: from around modern Hamhung City
  • VariousWugulunclans: possibly from the Wugulun river basin
  • EightBoliclans: where the Amur River meets the Ussuri River
  • TheFive Country Clans

"Tamed" Jurchens or Shu Jurchen (熟女眞) Edit

"Wild" Jurchens or Sheng Jurchen (生女眞) Edit

    完顏函普 (金始祖) (941–960) 完顏烏魯 (金德帝) (960–962) 完顏跋海 (金安帝) (962–983). 完顏綏可 (金獻祖) (983–1005): In 1003, under his leadership the Wanyan tribe united five tribes in a federation called the "Five Nations" (wuguobu 五國部: Punuli (蒲努里/蒲奴里/蒲聶), Tieli 鐵驪, Yuelidu (越裡篤國), Aolimi (奧里米國), and Puali 剖阿里國). 完顏石魯 (金昭祖) (1005–1021) 完顏烏古迺 (金景祖) (1021–1074): Meanwhile, King Hyung ordered to continue and finish the work of building a wall (Cheolli Jangseong) from Song-ryung Pass (in the mouth of the Yalu River ner Uiju in the west to the borders of the Jurchen tribe in the north-east around Hamheung) (完颜劾里钵) Shizu (金世祖) (1074–1092) 完顏頗剌淑 (金肅宗) (1092–1094) (完颜盈歌) Muzong (金穆宗) (1094–1103) (完顏烏雅束/完颜乌雅束) Kangzong (金康宗) b. 1061 (1103–1113) (完颜阿骨打) Taizu (金太祖) b. 1068 (1113–1123)

List of Jianzhou Jurchens chieftains Edit

Located on the banks of Hun River(渾江)

Odoli Clan (1405–1616) (俄朵里 or 斡都里 or 斡朵里 or 吾都里 or 斡朵怜) Edit

  • Mengtemu (孟特穆) or Möngke Temür (童孟哥帖木兒) (1405–1433) (Temple name: Zhàozǔ 肇祖) (充善) b. 1419 (1433–1467) (Temple name: Chúndì 纯帝)
  • Fanca († 1458) (妥罗) (1467–1481) (Temple name: Xīngdì 兴帝) (锡宝齐篇古) (1481–1522) (Temple name: Zhèngdì 正帝) (福满) (1522–1542) (Temple name: Xingzu 兴祖)

Huligai Clan (胡里改) (1403–? ) Edit

  • Ahacu (阿哈出) (Li Sicheng) (李思誠) († 1409–1410)
  • Šigiyanu 釋加奴 (Li-Hsien-chung/Li Xianzhong) (李顯忠)
  • Li-Man-chu (Li Manzhu (李滿住) (b. 1407 – † 1467)

The Maolian (毛憐) Jurchens (1405–?) Edit

Synonyms: Wu-liang-ha, Orankha, Oranke (兀良哈/乙良哈) according to Korean records, Orangai (瓦爾哈オランカイ) according to Japanese records.
Location: They settled south of the Suifen River (绥芬河 or 速平江), on the north-west of Hui-ning under the leadership of one of Ahacu (阿哈出)'s sons.


The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. They established the Jin Dynasty ( aisin gurun in Jurchen/Manchu) between 1115 and 1122 it lasted until 1234.

Jin Dynasty

The name Jurchen dates back to at least the beginning of the tenth century. It comes from the Jurchen word jusen , the original meaning of which is unclear. The Jurchen tribes of northern Manchuria were originally vassals of the Khitans (see also Liao Dynasty). They rose to power after an outstanding leader unified them in 1115, declared himself emperor, and quickly seized the Supreme Capital of Liao. The Jurchens overran most of North China and captured the Song capital of Kaifeng in 1126. Their armies pushed all the way south to the Yangtze but the boundary with the Southern Song was eventually stabilised roughly along the Huai River.

The Jurchen named their dynasty the Jin ("Golden") after a river in their homeland — For more detailed treatment of dynastic history and administration, see Jin Dynasty. At first, the Jurchen tribesmen were kept in readiness for warfare but decades of settled lifestyle eroded their pastoral identity. Eventually intermarriage with Chinese was permitted and peace with the Southern Song confirmed. The Jin rulers themselves came to follow Confucian norms. After 1189, the Jin became involved on two fronts in exhausting wars with the Mongols and the Southern song. By 1215, under Mongol pressure, they were forced to move their capital south from Beijing to Kaifeng, where the Mongols extinguished the Jin dynasty in 1234.

Culture, language and society

The Jurchens generally lived by traditions that reflected the pastoral culture of early steppe peoples. Like the Khitans and Mongols, they took pride in feats of strength, horsemanship, archery and hunting. They engaged in shamanic cults and believed in a supreme sky god ( abka-i enduri , abka-i han ).

The early Jurchen script was based on the Khitan script, which in turn was inspired by Chinese characters. However, because Chinese is an isolating language and the Jurchen and Khitan languages are agglutinative, the script proved to be cumbersome. The written Jurchen language died out soon after the fall of the Jin Dynasty though its spoken form survived. Until the end of the sixteenth century, when Manchu became the new literary language, the Jurchens used a combination of Mongolian and Chinese.

The cultural conceptualisation of Jurchen society owes a great deal to the Mongols. Both Mongols and Jurchens used the title han for the leaders of a political entity, whether "emperor" or "chief". A particularly powerful chief was called beile ("prince, nobleman"), corresponding with the Mongolian beki and Turkish beg or bey . Also like the Mongols and the Turks, the Jurchens did not observe a law of primogeniture. According to tradition, any capable son or nephew could be chosen to become leader.

During Ming times the Jurchen people lived in social units that were sub-clans ( mukun or hala mukun ) of ancient clans ( hala ). Members of Jurchen clans shared a consciousness of a common ancestor and were led by a head man ( mukunda ). Not all clan members were blood related and division and integration of different clans was common. Jurchen households ( boo ) lived as families ( booigon ), consisting of five to seven blood-related family members and a number of slaves. Households formed squads ( tatan ) to engage in tasks related to hunting and food gathering and formed companies ( niru ) for larger activities, such as war.

Jurchens during the Ming

Chinese chroniclers of the Ming Dynasty distinguished three groups of Jurchens: the (Yeren) Wild Jurchens of northernmost Manchuria (东海/ 野人女直 4部) , the Haixi Jurchens ( 海西女直 4部) of modern Heilongjiang and the Jianzhou Jurchens ( 建州女直 5部/5 tribes = the Suksuhu River tribe (Nurhachi), Hunehe ( Ni-kan-wai-lan? ) , Wanggiya, Donggo and Jecen) of modern Jilin province. They led a pastoral-agrarian lifestyle, hunting, fishing and engaging in limited agriculture. In 1388, the Hongwu Emperor dispatched a mission to establish contact with the tribes of Odoli, Huligai and T'owen, beginning the sinicisation of the Jurchen people.

The Yongle Emperor found allies among the various Jurchen tribes against the Mongols. He bestowed titles and surnames to various Jurchen chiefs and expected them to send periodic tribute. Chinese commanderies were established over tribal military units under their own hereditary tribal leaders. In the Yongle period alone 178 commanderies were set up in Manchuria, an index of the Chinese divide-and-rule tactics. Later on, horse markets were also established in the northern border towns of Liaodong for trade. The increasing sinification of the Jurchens ultimately gave them the organisation structures to extend their power beyond the steppe. Later, a Korean army led by Yi-Il,and Yi sun shin would expell them from Korea.

Over a period of thirty years from 1586, Nurhaci, a chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens, united the three Jurchen tribes, and renamed the united tribe Manchu. He created a formidable synthesis of nomadic institutions, providing the basis of the Manchu state and later the conquest of China by the Qing dynasty.

By the time of the campaign against Japan in 1592, he led an army of about 35,000 cavalry and 45,000 infantry.

See also

the Haixi Jurchens ( 海西女直 4部) of modern Heilongjiang The territories of Huron Lake area was named Haixi-wei by Ming Dynasty ( Ni-kan-wai-lan, Huron Chieftan )

Yehe (Ye-ho) : Nurhaci first defeated the Ye-he Statelet at Huron Lake .

Hada (Ha-ta) After Wang Tai's death in 1582,

tribes of the Jianzhou Jurchens, the Odoli, Huligai and Tuowen : three tribes established themselves around the Tumen River (near the modern border of China, Russia and North Korea).

Ahacu, chief of the Huligai, became commander of the Jianzhou Guard in 1403

Möngke Temür of the Odoli became leader of the Jianzhou Left Guard and accepted the Chinese surname of Tong not long afterward.

Ming guard structure had mostly disappeared and the Jurchens were split between two confederations: the Haixi Jurchens and the Jianzhou Jurchens.

the Suksuhu River tribe : Wang Gao d. 1575, Wang Gao's son Atai, Bu-ku-li-yong-shun 'bei-le' (= chieftan of three villages ) => 'Ai-xin-jue-luo' tribe place called He-tu-a-la (i.e., later Xingjing), Jue-chang-an(d.1583 Giocangga[满语读为] Beiles of the Sixes ), Taksi [塔克世] ( Nurhachi[ 努 爾哈 赤] : post of 'dudu' (i.e., governorship) of Jianzhou-wei, and the title pf General 'Long-hu' (dragon and tiger). )

In 1588 he subjected the Wanggiya tribe and received the submission of the Donggo tribe.

and few other tribes : Neyen (Nei-yen) Juseri (Chu-sheh-ri) along the Long white Mountains.

Jurchen (Jin) and the South-Sung Empire - History of the East

The Jurchen tribes that inhabited the territory of South Manchuria, from earliest times were connected with China, traded with it, and then entered the sphere of influence of the Khitan Liao Empire. Accelerated rates of their development in the process of tribalization, which should be attributed to no small degree due to constant contacts with more developed cultures and peoples, led at the turn of the 11th-12th centuries. to the emergence of pro-state formations among the Jurchens and the emergence among them of influential leaders. In 1113, one of them, the strengthened ruler of Aguda, opposed the Khitan neighbors, seized some of their lands and established there his own state Jin (1115-1234), later proclaimed by the empire. Sun rulers at first saw Jin as an ally in the struggle against the Khitan who had bothered them, but the situation soon became clear. In 1125 the state of Liao was destroyed by the Jurchen. After that, some part of the Khitan went to the west, where a small state of the Kara-China, West Liao (1124-1211) emerged in the area of ​​the Talas and Chu rivers, whence it came to the United States ethnonym "Chinese". As for the intensified Jurchens, they took the place of the Khitan who had been defeated by them and began to invade the territory of the Sung China, gradually digging deeper into it. In 1127, they captured Kaifeng, and the emperor himself with a part of the family was captured by the Jurchen. One of the sons of the captured emperor fled to the south, to Hangzhou, which later became the capital of the new South Song empire (1127-1280).

Meanwhile, the victorious army of the Jurchen successfully moved to the south, and only the deep-water Yangtze detained its advance. Over time, the border between Jin and the South Sung Empire was established somewhere near the Yangtze, as a result of which North China again, like almost a millennium ago, found itself for a long time in the state in which the foreigners dominated. True, as before, in this state the main part of the population was still the Chinese, and the Jurchen themselves, having barely escaped from their horses, began to rapidly become Chinese, which was facilitated by their perception of Chinese norms and standards, from political administration and hieroglyphs to the way of life of the population. Nevertheless, between Jin and South China China, relations continued to be very complex, often openly hostile.

In the beginning, the successful invasion of the Jurchens and the forced retreat of the Song Dynasty for the Yangtze caused a natural patriotic impulse in Chinese society. After all, the southern part of China, in contrast to what was a millennium earlier, in the Nan-bei chao period, has now become almost 100% Chinese, so the incident was perceived as a national catastrophe. Peasant militia recruits, created in due time Wang An-shi, rose to fight, tried to resist the invaders. The regular government army was also strengthened, and among its commanders there were talented and resolute generals ready for active struggle, like the famous Yue Fei (1103-1 1141), which in the middle of the 1130s. won several victories over the Jurchens and was, apparently, close to achieving more. However, the Yuzhno-Sung court, with a clearly expressed distrust and even suspicion of successful generals, was not inclined to contribute to the success of Yue Fei. The grouping against the commander at the court led by Chancellor Qin Gui summoned Yue Fei in Hangzhou in 1141 and imprisoned him, where he was soon executed. After this, in 1142, the Song Empire concluded with the Jurchens another humiliating world for it, according to the conditions of which the Jurchen paid 250,000 pieces of silk and 250 thousand silver lanas annually.

Although the world was humiliating, and the payments very weighty, for a pampered, rich and obviously not ready for decisive military actions with the brave nomads of the Sunni China, this was in its own logical and even in a certain sense a successful exit. Having made an uneasy decision and for a long time secured itself from invasions from the north, the South-Ssun dynasty existed for about a century and a half. Of course, one can not speak of prosperity in such conditions, but the dynasty did not disappear without a trace. On the contrary, Southern China in the XII-XIII centuries. was a rich and very developed in the economic and sociocultural plan of the state, where grain and cotton, tea and sugar cane were abundantly grown, the world's best silk and unique products made of porcelain, lacquer, ceramics, silver, bamboo, etc.,

The splendor of Hangzhou, which at one time made an indelible impression on Marco Polo, who had never seen anything like this, in his own words, anything like this (although the Italian was perhaps the most experienced European traveler of his time), speaks for itself .

South-China was not only an economically developed state. It was the center of a highly developed spiritual culture, the focus of Chinese philosophical thought in its almost the highest manifestation for imperial China. It was here that the phenomenon of neo-Confucianism - the doctrine that aimed not only to reform and enrich the ancient revered doctrine with new ideas, but also how to breathe new life into it, made it sparkle with new faces. The recognized head of this philosophical trend was the great Zhu Xi (1130-1200). Thanks to the efforts of famous thinkers, the phenomenon of neo-Confucianism in its Zhusian form became the pinnacle of Chinese philosophy. Subsequently, neo-Confucianism was spreading in neighboring countries and especially active in Japan.

In the time of the Sunnlight unprecedented heyday reached and Chinese painting. At this time lived and worked the best in the history of China artists, united around a special Academy of Painting. The scrolls they have written to this day are an ornament of many museums in the world. Among the artists of the sun were recognized theorists of painting, the authors of revered treatises. There were also masters of a thin landscape, lovers of images of flowers and birds. Among these masters were some of the Sung emperors who worked under pseudonyms.

For Chinese thought did not pass unnoticed and the very historical fact of the division of China into the north and south. Although this section was not new to the country, it still played a role.

• The division of the country into parts and the dominance of foreigners in the north have added additional emphasis to those small, but noticeable ethnic differences that have been formed and consolidated separately for centuries in the north and the south. It is about differences in language (dialects), in culture, even in food and clothing. Of course, these differences should not be overestimated. Ultimately, they did not affect the fact that the Chinese in the north and in the south remained Chinese. To do this, the foundations of spiritual culture, the principles of life, the norms of habitual being, relations in the family, society, etc., were all strong enough linking all of them together. But nevertheless, the differences were, moreover, according to contemporaries, they manifested themselves in some pampering of the southerners, opposed to the firmness and determination of the northerners, as was formulated, in particular, by one of the Sun reformers Lee Gou.

• Significant influence on the way of thinking, habitual stereotypes and cliches had a real political relationship of the Chinese with their northern neighbors - tangut, Khitan, Jurchen. The Chinese have long been used to think of themselves and their state in terms of the "Celestial", "Middle Empire", surrounded by backward and negligible barbarians. And these barbarians were almost in the position of the ruling ethnic group, to which China pays tribute. It was difficult to reconcile with reality, but it was necessary. Not that the Chinese have abandoned the usual stereotypes of thinking in the categories "Celestial" and the emperor as "the son of Heaven". But they had to admit to themselves that one thing bequeathed by tradition and therefore, as it were, unshakable ideas about the greatness and omnipotence of the Chinese empire, and quite another - real life. Being pragmatic by nature, they did not experience it too painfully, which played a role in decisive for the destinies of the country in the 19th-20th centuries.


Nurhaci was born on 8 April 1559. Being a member of the Gioro clan of the Suksuhu River tribe, Nurhaci also claimed descent from Mentemu, a Jurchen headman who lived some two centuries earlier. The young man grew up as a soldier in the household of the Ming dynasty general Li Chengliang in Fushun, where he learned Quonha, the official language of the courts. Nurhaci read the Chinese novels Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Water Margin learning all he knew about Chinese military and political strategies from them. [2] [3] [4] He named his clan Aisin Gioro around 1612, when he formally ascended the throne as the Khan of the Later Jin dynasty.

In 1582, Nurhaci's father Taksi and grandfather Giocangga were killed in an attack on Gure (now a village in Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County) by a rival Jurchen chieftain, Nikan Wailan ("Nikan Wailan" means "secretary of Han Chinese" in the Jurchen language, thus his existence is suspected by some historians.) while being led by Li Chengliang. The following year, Nurhaci began to unify the Jurchen bands around his area.

In 1584, when Nurhaci was 25, he attacked Nikan Wailan at Turun (today a village in Xinbin too) to avenge the deaths of his father and grandfather, who are said to have left him nothing but thirteen suits of armor. Nikan Wailan fled away to Erhun, which Nurhaci attacked again in 1587. Nikan Wailan this time fled to Li Chengliang's territory. Later, as a way to build relationship, Li gave Nikan Wailan to Nurhaci, who beheaded Nikan Wailan immediately. With Li's support, Nurhaci gradually grew his strength in the following years.

In 1593, the Yehe called upon a coalition of nine tribes: the Hada, Ula, Hoifa, Khorchin Mongols, Sibe, Guwalca, Jušeri, Neyen, and the Yehe themselves to attack the Jianzhou Jurchens. The coalition was defeated at the Battle of Gure and Nurhaci emerged victorious. [5]

From 1599 to 1618, Nurhaci set out on a campaign against the four Hulun tribes. He began by attacking the Hada in 1599 and conquering them in 1603. Then in 1607, Hoifa was also conquered with the death of its beile Baindari, followed by an expedition against Ula and its beile Bujantai in 1613, and finally the Yehe and its beile Gintaisi at the Battle of Sarhu in 1619.

In 1599, Nurhaci gave two of his translators, Erdeni Baksi ('Jewel Teacher' in Mongolian) and Dahai Jargūci, [6] the task of creating a Manchu alphabet by adapting the Mongolian script. Dahai was described with his origin from the Liao valley and his ethnicity as Han Chinese in the Korean book "Nanjung chamnok Sok chamnok" (亂中雜錄 / [趙慶南撰) by Cho Kyŏng-nam (趙慶南) (1570-1641) a Korean official and scholar, contradicting Qing texts which says his clan is Giolca. The Qing texts said Dahau's family lived near Fushun in the Giolca region. [7]

In 1606, he was granted the title of Kundulun Khan by the Mongols.

In 1616, Nurhaci declared himself Khan and founded the Jin dynasty (aisin gurun), often called the Later Jin in reference to the legacy of the earlier Jurchen Jin dynasty of the 12th century. He constructed a palace at Mukden (present-day Shenyang, Liaoning). The "Later Jin" was renamed to "Qing" by his son Hong Taiji after his death in 1626, however Nurhaci is usually referred to as the founder of the Qing dynasty.

In order to help with the newly organized administration, five of his trusted companions were appointed as his chief councilors, Anfiyanggū, Eidu, Hūrhan, Fiongdon, and Hohori.

Only after he became Khan did he finally unify the Ula (clan of his consort Lady Abahai, mentioned below) and the Yehe, the clan of his consort Monggo Jerjer.

Nurhaci chose to variously emphasize either differences or similarities in lifestyles with other peoples like the Mongols for political reasons. [8] Nurhaci said to the Mongols that "The languages of the Chinese and Koreans are different, but their clothing and way of life is the same. It is the same with us Manchus (Jurchen) and Mongols. Our languages are different, but our clothing and way of life is the same." Later Nurhaci indicated that the bond with the Mongols was not based in any real shared culture, rather it was for pragmatic reasons of "mutual opportunism", when he said to the Mongols: "You Mongols raise livestock, eat meat and wear pelts. My people till the fields and live on grain. We two are not one country and we have different languages." [9]

When the Jurchens were reorganized by Nurhaci into the Eight Banners, many Manchu clans were artificially created as a group of unrelated people founded a new Manchu clan (mukun) using a geographic origin name such as a toponym for their hala (clan name). [10] The irregularities over Jurchen and Manchu clan origin led to the Qing trying to document and systematize the creation of histories for Manchu clans, including manufacturing an entire legend around the origin of the Aisin Gioro clan by taking mythology from the northeast. [11]

In 1618, Nurhaci commissioned a document entitled the Seven Grievances in which he enumerated seven problems with Ming rule and began to rebel against the domination of the Ming dynasty. A majority of the grievances dealt with conflicts against Yehe, and Ming favouritism of Yehe.

Nurhaci led many successful engagements against the Ming Chinese, the Koreans, the Mongols, and other Jurchen clans, greatly enlarging the territory under his control.

The first capitals of the state established by Nurhaci were Fe Ala and Hetu Ala. [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] Han Chinese participated in the construction of Hetu Ala, the capital of Nurhaci's state. [17]

Defectors from the Ming side played a massive role in the Qing conquest of the Ming. Ming generals who defected to the Manchus were often married to women from the Aisin Gioro clan while lower-ranked defectors were given non-imperial Manchu women as wives. Nurhaci arranged for a marriage between one of his granddaughters and the Ming general Li Yongfang (李永芳) after Li surrendered Fushun in Liaoning to the Manchus in 1618 as the result of the Battle of Fushun. [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] His son Abatai's daughter was married to Li Yongfang. [23] [24] [25] [26] The offspring of Li received the "Third Class Viscount" ( 三等子爵 sān děng zǐjué ) title. [27] Li Yongfang was the great great great grandfather of Li Shiyao 李侍堯. [28] [29]

The Han prisoner of war Gong Zhenglu (Onoi) was appointed to instruct Nurhaci's sons and received gifts of slaves, wives, and a domicile from Nurhaci after Nurhaci rejected offers of payment to release him back to his relatives. [30]

Nurhaci had treated Han in Liaodong differently according to how much grain they had, those with less than 5 to 7 sin were treated like chattel while those with more than that amount were rewarded with property. Due to a revolt by Han in Liaodong in 1623, Nurhachi, who previously gave concessions to conquered Han subjects in Liaodong, turned against them and ordered that they no longer be trusted and enacted discriminatory policies and killings against them, while ordering that Han who assimilated to the Jurchen (in Jilin) before 1619 be treated equally as Jurchens were and not like the conquered Han in Liaodong.

By May 1621, Nurhaci had conquered the cities of Liaoyang and Shenyang. In April 1625, he designated Shenyang the new capital city, which would hold that status until the Qing conquest of the Ming in 1644. [31]

Finally in 1626, Nurhaci suffered the first serious military defeat of his life at the hands of the Ming general Yuan Chonghuan. Nurhaci was wounded by the Portuguese-made cannons in Yuan's army at the Battle of Ningyuan. Unable to recover either physically or mentally, he died two days later in Aiji Fort (靉雞堡 in present-day Da'aijinbao Village, Dijia Township, Yuhong District, Shenyang) on 30 September at the age of 67. His tomb, Fu Mausoleum (Chinese: 福陵 pinyin: Fúlíng ), is located east of Shenyang.

The first Manchu translations of Chinese works were the Six Secret Teachings ( 六韜 ), Sushu 素書, and Three Strategies of Huang Shigong ( 三略 ), all Chinese military texts dedicated to the arts of war due to the Manchu interests in the topic, like Sun-Tzu's work The Art of War. [32] [33] The military related texts which were translated into Manchu from Chinese were translated by Dahai. [34]

Manchu translations of Chinese texts included the Ming penal code and military texts were performed by Dahai. [35] These translations were requested of Dahai by Nurhaci. [36] The military text Wuzi was translated into Manchu along with The Art of War. [37]

Chinese history, Chinese law, and Chinese military theory classical texts were translated into Manchu during the rule of Hong Taiji in Mukden (now Shenyang), with the Manchus placing significance upon military and governance related Chinese texts. [38] A Manchu translation was made of the military-themed novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. [39] [40] Chinese literature, military theory and legal texts were translated into Manchu by Dahai and Erdeni. [41] The translations were ordered in 1629. [42]

Among the most lasting contributions Nurhaci left his descendants was the establishment of the Eight Banners, which would eventually form the backbone of the military that dominated the Qing Empire. The status of Banners did not change much over the course of Nurhaci's lifetime, nor in subsequent reigns, remaining mostly under the control of the royal family. The two elite Yellow Banners were consistently under Nurhaci's control. The two Blue Banners were controlled by Nurhaci's brother Šurhaci until he died, at which point the Blue Banners were given to Šurhaci's two sons, Chiurhala and Amin. Nurhaci's eldest son, Cuyen, controlled the White Banner for most of his father's reign until he rebelled. Then the Bordered White Banner was given to Nurhaci's grandson and the Plain White was given to his eighth son and heir, Hong Taiji. However, by the end of Nurhaci's reign, Hong Taiji controlled both White Banners. Finally, the Red Banner was run by Nurhaci's second son Daišan. Later in Nurhaci's reign, the Bordered Red Banner was handed down to his son. Daišan and his son would continue holding the two Red Banners well into the end of Hong Taiji's reign.

The details of Hong Taiji's succession as the Khan of the Later Jin dynasty are unclear. [49] When he died in late 1626, Nurhaci did not designate an heir instead he encouraged his sons to rule collegially. [50] Three of his sons and a nephew were the "four senior beiles": Daišan (43 years old), Amin (son of Nurhaci's brother Šurhaci 40 or 41), Manggūltai (38 or 39), and Hong Taiji himself (33). [51] On the day after Nurhaci's death, they coerced his primary consort Lady Abahai (1590–1626) – who had borne him three sons: Ajige, Dorgon, and Dodo – to commit suicide to accompany him in death. [52] This gesture has made some historians suspect that Nurhaci had in fact named the fifteen-year-old Dorgon as a successor, with Daišan as regent. [53] By forcing Dorgon's mother to kill herself, the princes removed a strong base of support for Dorgon. The reason such intrigue was necessary is that Nurhaci had left the two elite Yellow Banners to Dorgon and Dodo, who were the sons of Lady Abahai. Hong Taiji exchanged control of his two White Banners for that of the two Yellow Banners, shifting their influence and power from his young brothers onto himself. [ citation needed ]

According to Hong Taiji's later recollections, Amin and the other beile were willing to accept Hong Taiji as Khan, but Amin then would have wanted to leave with his Bordered Blue Banner, threatening to dissolve Nurhaci's unification of the Jurchens. [54] Eventually the older Daišan worked out a compromise that allowed Hong Taiji as the Khan, but almost equal to the other three senior beiles. [55] Hong Taiji would eventually find ways to become the undisputed leader.

The change of the name from Jurchen to Manchu by Hong Taiji was made to hide the fact that the ancestors of the Manchus, the Jianzhou Jurchens, were ruled by the Chinese. [56] [57] [58] The Qing dynasty carefully hid the two original editions of the books of "Qing Taizu Wu Huangdi Shilu" and the "Manzhou Shilu Tu" (Taizu Shihlu Tu) in the Qing palace, forbidden from public view because they showed that the Manchu Aisin Gioro family had been ruled by the Ming dynasty. [59] [60] In the Ming period, the Koreans of Joseon referred to the Jurchen-inhabited lands north of the Korean peninsula, above the rivers Yalu and Tumen, as part of Ming China, which they called the "superior country" (sangguk). [61]

The Jiu Manzhou Dang from Nurhaci's reign also survives. A revised transcription of these records (with the dots and circles added to the script) was commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor. This has been translated into Japanese under the title Manbun roto, and Chinese, under the title Manwen Laodang (Chinese: 满文老檔 ). A project is currently [ year needed ] under way at Harvard University to translate them into English, as The Old Manchu Chronicles. [62]

According to the account of Korean ambassadors, Nurhaci was a physically strong man with a long and stern-looking face and that his nose was straight and big, and just like most of the other Manchu men, he shaved most of his facial hair and kept only his moustache.

  • Primary consort, of the Tunggiya clan ( 元妃 佟佳氏 1560–1592), personal name Hahana Jacing ( 哈哈納扎青 )
    • Princess Duanzhuang of the First Rank ( 端莊固倫公主 8 April 1578 – August/September 1652), personal name Nenzhe ( 嫩哲 ), first daughter
      • Married Hohori ( 何和禮 1561–1624) of the Manchu Donggo clan in 1588
        , Prince of the Third Rank ( 貝勒 莽古爾泰 1587 – 11 January 1633), fifth son
    • Third daughter (1590 – January/February 1636), personal name Mangguji ( 莽古濟 )
      • Married Urgūdai ( 吳爾古代 ) of the Manchu Hada Nara clan in February/March 1601
      • Married Sodnom Dügüreng ( 索諾木杜棱 d. 1644) of the Aohan Borjigit clan in 1627
        , Taizong ( 太宗 皇太極 28 November 1592 – 21 September 1643), eighth son
      • , Prince Ying of the First Rank ( 英親王 阿濟格 28 August 1605 – 28 November 1651), 12th son , Prince Ruizhong of the First Rank ( 睿忠親王 多爾袞 17 November 1612 – 31 December 1650), 14th son , Prince Yutong of the First Rank ( 豫通親王 多鐸 2 April 1614 – 29 April 1649), 15th son
    • Princess of the Second Rank ( 和碩公主 1587 – August/September 1646), personal name Yanzhe ( 顏哲 ), second daughter
      • Married Yilaka ( 伊拉喀 )
      • Married Darhan ( 達爾漢 1590–1644) of the Manchu Gorolo ( 郭絡羅 ) clan
      • Princess of the Second Rank ( 和碩公主 28 December 1612 – March/April 1646), personal name Songgutu ( 松古圖 ), eighth daughter
        • Married Gürbüshi ( 古爾布什 d. 1661) of the Khalkha Borjigit clan on 22 February 1625
        • Abai, Duke Qinmin of the First Rank ( 鎮國勤敏公 阿拜 8 September 1585 – 14 March 1648), third son
        • Tanggūdai, General Kejie of the First Rank ( 鎮國克潔將軍 湯古代 24 December 1585 – 3 November 1640), fourth son
        • Tabai, Duke Quehou of the Second Rank ( 輔國愨厚公 塔拜 2 April 1589 – 6 September 1639), sixth son
        • Babutai, Duke Kexi of the First Rank ( 鎮國恪僖公 巴布泰 13 December 1592 – 27 February 1655), ninth son
        • Princess of the Second Rank ( 和碩公主 1595 – June/July 1659), personal name Mukushen ( 穆庫什 ), fourth daughter
          • Married Bujantai (1575–1618) of the Manchu Ula Nara clan in 1608, and had issue (three sons)
          • Married Eidu (1562–1621) of the Manchu Niohuru clan, and had issue (two sons including Ebilun, one daughter)
          • Married Turgei ( 圖爾格 1594–1645) of the Manchu Niohuru clan in 1621
          • Married Daki ( 達啟 ) of the Manchu Niohuru clan in 1608
          • Married Suna ( 蘇納 d. 1648) of the Manchu Yehe Nara clan in 1613, and had issue (Suksaha)
          • Lady of the Third Rank ( 鄉君 8 April 1604 – July/August 1685), seventh daughter
            • Married Ezhayi ( 鄂札伊 d. 1641) of the Manchu Nara clan in November/December 1619
              , Duke Jiezhi of the Second Rank ( 輔國介直公 賴慕布 26 January 1612 – 23 June 1646), 13th son
            • Fiyanggū ( 費揚果 October/November 1620 – 1640), 16th son
            Sibeoci Fiyanggū
            Giocangga (1526–1583)
            Empress Zhi
            Taksi (1543–1583)
            Empress Yi
            Nurhaci (1559–1626)
            Empress Xuan (d. 1569)
            • In the opening scene of the 1984 film Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, Indiana Jones trades the remains of Nurhaci (contained in a small, ornate jade urn) for a diamond owned by Shanghai mobster Lao Che.
            • The 2005 television series Taizu Mishi focused on the life of Nurhaci. He was portrayed by Steve Ma.
            • Nurhaci was portrayed by Jing Gangshan in the 2017 television series Rule The World.

            The genus Nurhachius, a pterodactyloid pterosaur, is named after Nurhaci.


            ●Persia, Anatolia, and India were transformed after conquests by Turkish tribes.

            ●The Mongols created the largest empire of all time, stretching from China to Russia, during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

            ●Even after the collapse of the Mongol empire in the fifteenth century, a resurgence of Turkish power continued the influence of these nomadic tribes.

            ●Although the tribes spoke related languages, they were nomadic and never approached true centralized rule.

            ●The central Asian environment and resulting Turkish nomadic lifestyle made large-scale agriculture or craft manufacturing impossible.

            ●The Turkish tribes made perfect trading partners for settled communities, and they played a key role in the long-distance trade networks.

            ●Turkish nomadic society remained both simple and fluid, with passage between noble and commoner status possible.

            ●Shamanism dominated early Turkish religion.

            ●Their equestrian and archery skills made the Turks substantial military threats. The Saljuq Turks were originally drawn to the Abbasid Empire by trading opportunities.

            ●By 1055 the Abbasid caliph accepted the Saljuq Turk leader Tughril Beg as sultan, or "chieftain."

            ●The Saljuq Turks continued to expand and eventually reduced the Abbasid caliphs to puppet rulers.

            ●In the north other Saljuq Turks turned their attention to the riches of the Byzantine empire, inflicting a painful defeat at Manzikert in 1071.

            ●The defeat left Anatolia in Saljuq control, and the Byzantine empire never recovered.

            ●Further east the Ghaznavid Turks, under the control of Mahmud of Ghazni, pushed into northern India.

            ●Mahmud's main goal was plunder, and he wrought tremendous destruction, especially with his plundering of Hindu and Buddhist temples.

            ● From the wilds of the high steppe lands of east central Asia the Mongols roared across Eurasia to create the largest empire of all time.

            ●Temujin, better known as Chinggis Khan ("universal ruler"), united the Mongol tribes in 1206.

            ●He was a brilliant general as well as a master of steppe diplomacy, a complex mixture of courage, loyalty, and deceit.

            ●By breaking down tribal affiliations and promoting officials based on talent and loyalty, Chinggis Khan created a powerful Mongol fighting force, even though his army never numbered more than around 125,000.

            ●Like the Turks, the Mongol forces depended on surprising speed and legendary archery skills.
            ●From his capital at Karakorum Chinggis Khan began to expand his empire.

            ●By 1215 he had pushed into northern China and defeated the Jurchen, who had dominated the later Song period.

            ●The renamed Khanbaliq ("city of the khan"), the former Jurchen capital, served as the Mongol capital in China.

            ●At the same time, Chinggis Khan drove into Persia. In 1219 his forces slaughtered hundreds of thousands in Persia in revenge for a slight from the Khwarzam shah.

            ●Despite the extraordinary military success, Chinggis Khan was no administrator and didn't attempt to create a truly centralized empire.

            ●After Chinggis Khan's death in 1227 his empire split into four regional states: the great khans in China, the Chaghatai khans in central Asia, the ilkhans in Persia, and the khans of the Golden Horde in Russia.

            ●The wealthiest region was, not surprisingly, China, under the control of Chinggis Khan's grandson Khubilai Khan.

            ●Besides being a fierce warrior, Khubilai Khan supported his subjects culturally and religiously.

            ●By 1279 he had conquered southern China and proclaimed the Yuan dynasty.

            ●His attempts to conquer Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma, Japan, and Java were less successful.

            ●Russia was dominated, although not occupied, by the Golden Horde from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries.

            ●Hülegü, Khubilai Khan's brother, defeated the Abbasids and devastated Persia during the thirteenth century.

            ●There were several key differences between the Mongol rule in Persia and in China.

            ●The ilkhans made use of the brilliant Persian bureaucracy whereas the great khans in China preferred foreign administrators.

            ●Islam became the favored religion of the ilkhans whereas the Mongols in central Asia and China were drawn to the Lamaist school of Buddhism.

            ●Through a combination of trade, diplomatic missions, and the resettlement of skilled conquered peoples, the Mongols facilitated greater integration in Eurasia.

            ●Internal rebellions, disease, and crippling inflation helped bring an end to the brief reigns of the Mongols in Persia and China.

            Idrisid state

            In the 1st half of the 8th century, the Maghrib became a place of refuge for many opponents of official Islam — the Kharijites, various currents of Shiites and others. These movements have gained a great influence among the Berber tribes. In 739–742, a major uprising of the Kharijites took place, which led to the fall of the power of the Caliphate in part of Morocco and the formation of the Midrarids state in Tafilalte with its center in Sigilmas. On the Atlantic coast an association of Berber tribes of Bergvat appeared in the Tamesna region. The first major Islamic state in Morocco was the Idrisid power, formed in 789 by Idris I, a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad. The capital of Idrisid, the city of Fez, became an important center of culture and trade of the Maghreb. In 859, the Islamic University Karawyn was founded in Fez, many prominent geographers, historians, philosophers, and poets worked here. By the middle of the 9th century, the state of Idrisids weakened and divided into a number of principalities. At the beginning of the X century, the territory of Morocco was conquered by the Fatimid Ismaili caliphate. In the 2nd half of the 10th century Fatimids and the Cordoba Caliphate fought for power over Morocco. At the end of the 10th and mid-11th centuries, Meknas and Magrasum (vassals of Cordoba) dominated among the tribes of the central part of Morocco, the eastern part of the country was under the influence of the Zirid dynasty.

            The Arab state reached its greatest prosperity during the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties in the 11th – 12th centuries. Under the Almoravids, Morocco was the center of a vast empire that occupied the territories of modern Algeria, Libya, Tunisia and the vast territories of Spain and Portugal. The beginning of the Almoravid Empire was laid by the military monastic order, formed from the Berber tribes of the Lemtuna group of the Sanhaj in the territory of modern Mauritania. The Almoravids were supposed to lead an ascetic way of life in strict accordance with the provisions of the Malikit Sunniks and learn the art of war to fight the enemies of the faith. Their leader was Abdullah Ibn Yasin, who built the Ribat and began the conquest of the Berber tribes of the Sahara. After the capture of Audagosta in 1054, the lands from Senegal and Upper Niger to Tafilalth came under the rule of the Almoravids. The military command was in the hands of representatives of the ruling family of the Lemtuna tribe: Emir Yahya ibn Omar, and then his brother Abu Bakr ibn Omar, who became the leader of the Almoravids after the death of Abdullah ibn Yasin (1059). Almoravides subjugated Southern Morocco, defeated non-Sunni states in Tafilalte (Kharijites), in Sousse (Shiites, 1056), bergvata in Shaviyi (1059) they took Theath (1069) and secured (by 1082) the religious unity of Morocco and Western Algeria based on Sunni Islam. The capital of the state of Ghana (1076) was seized in the south. The conquests were accompanied by the destruction of “infidels” and “apostates”, as well as the fight against “unrighteous rulers” and “illegal taxes”, which provided the Almoravids with the support of the people and contributed to the rapid success and growth of the movement. In 1061, Abu Bakr ibn Omar went to the Sahara to suppress the uprising, entrusting the command of the army in the north to his nephew Yusuf ibn Tashfin who then took the title of Emir al-muslimin (sovereign of the Muslims) and after the death of Abu Bekr (1087) became the religious and secular head of the Almoravids. At the request of the rulers of the small Muslim states of the Iberian Peninsula, who were threatened by the Reconquista, Yusuf ibn Tashfin landed in Spain in 1086, repelled the onslaught of Christians, defeating Salak, and by 1090 subjugated Muslim Spain. After the death of Yusuf ibn Tashfin ( 1106 ), his son Ali inherited a huge state, including Western Sahara, Morocco, Western Algeria, Muslim Spain and the Balearic Islands. The capital of the state was the city of Marrakesh, founded around 1070 by Abu Bakr ibn Umar. The extortions and excesses of the troops and rulers, especially under the successors of Yusuf ibn Tashfin, caused widespread discontent, which was intensified by the religious intolerance of the Almoravides. The Almoravid state weakened the lack of unity in the leadership of the country. The Almoravids were defeated in the fight against the Almohads, who in 1146 took Marrakesh.


            Haixi Jurchens is a name used by Han Chinese dynasties to denote this specific group of Tungusic people. In the records of other Jurchens, they are called "Hūlun gurun" which means The country or land of Hulun. The four powerful clans that dominated this tribe are called "Four Huluns" which is consisted of Ula, Hoifa, Hada, and Yehe.

            Tungusic peoples are the indigenous peoples who speak Tungusic languages. They inhabit Eastern Siberia and Manchuria.

            Hūlun was a powerful alliance of Jurchen tribes in the late 16th century, based primarily in what is today Jilin province of China.

            The Haixi Jurchens was one of the three nomadic Jurchen tribes that was living on the northern border of Ming dynasty China. The other two Jurchens are Jianzhou Jurchens and Wild Jurchens respectively. Although the contemporary use of the word "Manchu" include the Haixi and Wild Jurchens, these two tribes are not originally called Manchus since the word "Manchu" or "Manju" was the indigenous name of the Jianzhou Jurchens only.

            The Jianzhou Jurchens were one of the three major groups of Jurchens as identified by the Ming dynasty. Although the geographic location of the Jianzhou Jurchens has changed throughout history, during the 14th century they were located south of the Wild Jurchens and the Haixi Jurchens, inhabiting modern-day Liaoning province and Jilin province in China. The Jianzhou Jurchens were known to possess an abundant supply of natural resources. They also possessed industrial secrets, particularly in processing ginseng and the dying of cloth. They were powerful due to their proximity to Ming trading towns such as Fushun, Kaiyuan, and Tieling in Liaodong, and to Manpojin camp on the Korean border.

            The Wild Jurchens or Haidong Jurchens were a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty. They were the northernmost group of the Jurchen people in the fourteenth century, inhabiting the northernmost part of Manchuria from the western side of the Greater Khingan mountains to the Ussuri River and the lower Amur River bordered by the Tatar Strait and the Sea of Japan.

            State of Almohad

            In 1146-1161, the Almohades defeated the Almoravid state, conquered the territory of Morocco and Southern Spain. On the coastal plains of Morocco, the Almohades settled the Arab tribes of Banu Hilal, Banu Suleim and Banu Makil invading the Maghreb, which greatly accelerated the process of Arabization of the country. The rise of the Almohad state continued until 1212, when its troops were defeated by the Spanish Christian kingdoms at Las Navas de Tolosa. After that, the weakening of the state began, which ended in 1269 with the coming to power of the Marinid dynasty.

            Legacy [ edit | edit source ]

            In the 17th century, the Jurchen chief Nurhaci combined the three Jurchen tribes after thirty years of struggle and founded the Later Jin dynasty (1616–1636). Nurhaci's eighth son and heir, Hung Taiji, later changed the name of his people from Jurchen to Manchu in 1635. The next year, he changed the name of the Later Jin to Qing in 1636. However, the Qing Imperial family, the Aisin Gioro, are unrelated to the Jin Jurchen Imperial family, the Wanyan.