Information

Conflict AM-426 - History


Conflict II

(AM-426: dp. 630; 1. 172'; b. 36'; dr. 10'; s. 16 k.; cpl.
72; a. 1 40mm.; cl. Agile)

The second Conflict (AM-426) was launched 16 December 1952 by Fulton Shipyard, Antioch, Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. E. T. Aldrich wife of Captain Aldrich; commissioned 23 March 1951, Lieutenant R. Y. Scott in command; and reported to the Pacific Fleet.

Conflict operated on the west coast between 12 April 1954 and 4 January 1956, conducting acoustic ranging experiments, noise reduction experiments, and removing practice mine fields. She was reclassified MS0 426 on 7 February 1955. She sailed from Long Beach 4 January 1956 for Pearl Harbor, where between 15 January and 20 February, she conducted underwater photography operations. She returned to Long Beach 1 March, and during April conducted shock tests off San Clemente Island. Conflict joined harbor defense exercises at San Diego and carried out other local operations until 5 August 1957, when she sailed from Long Beach for Pearl Harbor, Midway, and Yokosuka, arriving 31 August. She operated in Japanese waters, called at Hong Kong, and joined ships of the Republic of China in minesweeping exercises off Formosa, returning to Long Beach 1 March for west coast operations during the remainder of the year. She returned to duty in the Far East 14 March 1960, calling at Maniln, Hong Kong Taiwan, and Japanese ports before sailing for the west coast 24 June. Local operations were resumed through the remainder of 1960.

Subsequently transporting passengers to Kahului and Hilo, Avocet tended VP-l at the latter port from 23 to 31 August 1937 before she returned briefly to Pearl Harbor. She sailed thence for French Frigate Shoals on 1 September, and tended, in succession, VP-8, VP-10, VP-6 and VP-4, until 19 September, at which point she returned to the Fleet Air Base. She remained at Pearl Harbor until 15 October, when she sailed for American Samoa.

Arriving at Pago Pago, Samoa, on 25 October, Avocet served as station ship at that port through February of 1938. On 11 January 1938, Pan American Airways' Sikorsky S-42B "Samoan Clipper" (NC 16734) took off from Pago Pago at 0540, on the final leg of its flight to New Zealand. At 0608, the pilot, Captain Edwin C. Musick, reported an oil leak and that he was shutting down number four engine. Musick apparently elected to jettison some of the fuel the "Clipper" was carrying, and radioed his intentions to do so at 0842.

With no word from the plane since Musick's 0842 transmission, Avocet sailed from Pago Pago at 1910 for a point 12 miles north of Tapu Tapu Point. Avocet sighted an oil slick at 0606, and wreckage at 0637. Lowering her motor launch at 0700, men from the ship soon brought on board wreckage positively identified as having come from the "Samoan Clipper.' Avocet continued the search during the forenoon watch, but found no signs of any survivors of the crew of seven. A subsequent investigation speculated that sparks from the engine exhaust had ignited the fuel Musick had reported he was jettisoning, triggering a violent expolsion that blew the Sikorsky apart in flight.

Uunderway from Samoan waters on 5 February 1938 for Pearl Harbor, Avocet sailed via Fanning Island, taking on board mail for delivery to the Honolulu post office, and ultimately reached Pearl Harbor on 18 February. Avocet-reclassified from AM-19 to AVP-4 a small seaplane tender, in March 1938-returned to French Frigate gate Shoals on 23 March 1938, supporting advanced base evolutions of VP-8; during this time she took on board gasoline from the submarine Nautilus (SS-168). Departing French Frigate Shoals on 28 March, Avocet proceeded directly to the village of Makua, on the coast of Oahu, and arrived on the 30th. The following morning she attempted the salvage of a crashed flying boat of VP-4, recovering the body of a radioman; she hoisted the wreckage of the plane on board on 1 A -I

Avocet then operated locally out of Pearl Harbor through midJuly, conducting short-range battle practice and planting bombing targets off Barbers Point, and, for a brief time, on 6 July and again on 15 to 20 July, served as flagship hi for Commander, Patrol Wing (PatWing) 2, Capt. Kenneth Whiting. Before the yea, 1938 was out, Avocet conducted two periods of advanced base operations at Midway, tending VP-6 from 25 to 27 July and VP-4 between 25 to 27 October.

Avocet spent the first six months of 1939 operating out of Pearl Harbor, interspersing the routine local evolutions with advanced base maneuvers-once at Hilo, twice at Midway, and once at French Frigate Shoals-and an inspection of Lisianski Island. During this time Capt. Whiting again flew his pennant briefly in Avocet and the ship supported P-4, 6, 8 and 10 at varying times.

Sailing from Pearl Harbor on 23 June 1939 for San Diego, Avocet arrived at her destination on Independence Day having planeguarded for VP-1 en route. Now assigned to PatWing 1, the
seaplane tender remained at San Diego until late August, at which time she shifted to San Pedro. The outbreak of war in Europe on 1 September 1939 found the ship moored alongside the submarine tender Argonne (AS-10) for upkeep. For the remainder of 1939, Avocet was based at the Naval Air Station (NAS), San Diego, occasionally sup supporting advance base operations at San Pedro and Pyramid Cove off the island of San Clemente.

Avocet operated locally from San Pedro and San Diego into the spring harbor on 29
of 1940, at which time she sailed for Pearl Harbor a 1940. Performing plane-guard duties en route, Avocet arrived at Pearl Harbor on 9 April, and got underway for French Frigate Shoals four days later, to establish an advanced base for the Consolidated PBY flying boats of VP-24 as part of the "Maroon" fleet in Part VI of Fleet Problem XXI, the last of the large-scale fleet maneuvers.

"War" had been declared on 8 April between "Maroon" and "Purple," and Part VI of Fleet Problem XXI, that phase of the war games which involved all combatant and auxiliary types of the fleet, commenced on the 19th, four days after Avocet had arrived at her advanced base site. With all of VP-24 in the air to conduct search missions on the 20th, the seaplane tender found herself alone when a formation of "Purple" cruiser-based scout planes arrived overhead.

Avocet sighted 10 planes off her starboard quarter at 1325 and went to general quarters. Four of the floatplanes attacked the ship from the starboard side two minutes later, but Avocet opened fire with her 3-inch and .30-caliber machine guns, and drove them off. Subsequently, 10 planes attacked from the port bow before flying off to the north. Soon thereafter, the seaplane tender sighted six destroyers which opened fire at 1355 but abruptly ceased four minutes later, moving off to the southeast. Departing French Frigate Shoals later the same day, Avocet arrived at Pearl Harbor on the 24th, winding up her participation in Fleet Problem XXI. She returned thence to the west coast of the United States, and operated from San Diego, San Pedro, and Coronado for the balance of the year 1940.

Avocet spent the first two months of 1941 in the San Diego area, first undergoing an overhaul at the Destroyer Base from 13 to 27 January before returning to NAS, San Die Diego, for local operations. During this latter period, she salvaged a crashed fighter from VF - 2 in Coronado Roads on 29 and 30 January, and a Douglas SBD-2 from Scouting Squadron (VS) 2 on 21 February, recovering the latter intact and hoisting it on board to transfer to a seaplane wrecking derrick (YSD) the following day.

After a docking in ARD-1 from 3 to 5 March, Avocet sailed down the west coast to Salina Cruz, Mexico, where she planeguarded for a flight of planes from VP-43 before getting underway to return to San Diego on 25 March.

While en route back to her home port, however, Avocet received a distress signal from the fishing vessel, Cape Horn. Changing course at 1558 she lay to at 1607 close aboard the fishing boat, and within a few moments was taking on board the first assistant engineer of the boat, who had suffered an injured hip in an accident. Avocet took the sailor to San Diego, transferring him to a Public Health Service launch upon arrival on 2 April 1941.

After operating out of San Diego until 26 May, Avocet sailed for Pearl Harbor, and arrived there on 9 June. In late June, she towed targets for Army bombing planes and on 1 July investigated Japanese fishing sampans apparently navigating in restricted waters, obtaining names and numbers in each case. For the rest of the summer, Avocet operated locally out of NAS, Pearl Harbor. She towed targets for Army planes in late July, and on 11 August salvaged a downed SBD-2 from VS-2, exercised first with the seaplane tender Thornton (AVD-11) and later with the seaplane tender Curtiss (AV-4), and then tended VP-22 at Hilo. Following a docking on the marine railway at the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard in late September, Avocet fueled, underway, from the fleet oiler Neosho (AO-23) on 2 October.

Following calibration runs in Maalea Bay, Maui, the seaplane tender proceeded out to sea from Pearl Harbor for plane guard duty from 4 to 7 November; she spent much of November at Pearl Harbor, shifting to the navy yard for a restricted availability on the 29th of that month and mooring alongside Porter (DD-356). Completing her scheduled upkeep on 5 December, the ship exercised briefly with the se lane tender McFarland (AVD-14) before returning to Pearl Harbor on the morning of 6 December 1941; at 1147 she moored port side to the NAS dock.

At about 0745 on Sunday, 7 December 1941, Avocet's security watch reported Japanese planes bombing the seaplane hangars at the south end of Ford Island, and sounded general quarters. Her crew promptly brought up ammunition to ter guns, and the ship opened fire soon thereafter. The first shot from Avocet's starboard 3-inch gun scored a direct hit on a Nakajima B5N2 carrier attack plane ("Kate") that had just scored a torpedo hit on the battleship California (BB-44), moored near by. The Nakajima, from the aircraft carrier Kaga's air group, caught fire, slanted down from the sky, and crashed on the &rounds of the naval hospital, one of five such planes lost by Kaga that
morning.

Initially firing at torpedo planes, Avocet's gunners shifted their fire to dive bombers attacking ships in the drydock area at the start of the forenoon watch. Then, sighting high altitude bombers overhead, they shifted their fire again. Soon thereafter, five bombs splashed in a nearby berth, but none exploded.

From her veritable ringside seat, Avocet then witnessed the inspiring sortie of the battleship Nevada (BB-36), the only ship of her type to get underway during the attack. Seeing the dread- after clearing her berth astern of the burning battleship Arizona (BB-39), dive-bomber pilots from Kaga singled her out for destruction, 21 planes attacking her from all points of the compass. Avocet's captain, Lt. William C. Jonson, Jr., marvelled at the Japanese precision, writing later that he had never seen "a more perfectly executed attack." Avocet's gunners added to the barrage to cover the gallant battleship's passage down the harbor.

Although the ship ceased fire at 1000, much work remained to be done in the wake of the devastating surprise attack. She had expended 144 rounds of 3-inch and 1,750 of .30 caliber in the battle against the attacking planes, and had suffered only two casualties: a box of ammunition coming up from the magazines had fallen on the foot of one man, and a piece of flying shrapnel had wounded another. Also during the course of the action, a sailor from the small seaplane tender Swan (AVP-7), unable to return to his own ship, had reported on board for duty, and was immediately assigned a station on a .30-caliber machine gun.

Oil from ruptured battleship fuel tanks had been set a ire by fires on those ships, and the wind, from the northeast, was slowly pushing it toward Avocet's berth. Accordingly, the seaplane tender got underway at 1045, and moored temporarily to the magazine island dock at 1110, awaiting further orders which were not long in coming. At 1115, she was ordered to help quell the fires still blazing on board California. Underway soon thereafter, she spent 20 minutes in company with the submarine rescue ship Widgeon (ASR-1) in fighting fires on board the battleship before Avocet was directed to proceed elsewhere.

Underway from alongside California at 1215, she reached the side of the gallant Nevada 25 minutes later, ordered to assist in beaching the battleship and fighting her fires. Mooring to Nevada's port bow at 1240, Avocet went slowly ahead, pushing her aground at channel buoy no. 19, with fire hoses led out to her forward spaces and her signal bridge. For two hours, Avocet fought Nevada's fires, and succeeded in quelling them.

The sooner had she completed that task when more work awaited her. At 1445, she got underway and steamed to the assistance of the light cruiser Raleigh (CL-7), which had been torpedoed alongside Ford Island early in the attack and was fighting doggedly to remain on an even keel. Avocet reached the stricken cruiser's side at 1547, and remained there throughout the night, providing steam and electricity.

That night, at 2105, Avocet again went to general quarters as jittery gunners throughout the area fired on aircraft overhead.

Tragically, these proved to be American, a flight of six fighters from the aircraft carrier Enterprise (CV-6). Four were shot down; three pilots died.

Avocet operated out of Pearl Harbor through the first week of May 1942, interspersing these routine operations supporting the reforming and outfitting of new units and the extensive patrols in the Hawaiian area, with two periods of advanced base evolutions, first at Port Allen, Kauai (16 to 19 January 1942) and then at Nawiliwili (4 to 8 March 1942). Departing Pearl Harbor on 11 May 1942 in convoy 4098, Avocet arrived at Alameda on 20 May, and shifted to Hunters Point on the 23d for a major refit.

Departing Hunters Point on 17 July 1942, Avocet returned to Alameda the same day, and sailed for Seattle on 18 July. Reaching her destination on the 21st, she lingered there for only three days, as she sailed for Kodiak on the 24th, eventually pushing on thence to Woman Bay, an inlet on the Gulf of Alaska, on the east coast of Kodiak Island.

Avocet operated in Alaskan waters through late October. She supported PBY flying boats of Fleet Air Wing 4 by tending and fueling planes, and transporting people, plane parts and ordnance supplies; she also performed patrol duty and participated in survey work as required. Despite the often bad flying weather, the "Catalina"-equipped squadrons tended by Avocet carried out extensive patrols, as well as bombing and photo missions over Japanese-held Attu and Kiska, in the Aleutians. In addition, the squadrons serviced by Avocet provided "dumbo" services (rescue missions named for the Walt Disney studio's cartoon pachyderm) for all American services, and flew antisubmarine patrols as well. When the Japanese submarine RO-61 torpedoed Casco (AVP-12) in Nazan Bay, off Adak, Avocet went to the stricken seaplane tender's aid. From 2 to 4 September 1942, she assisted in salvage operations, helped to tow the ship to safety, and took on board a portion of her crew.

After an overhaul at the Puget Sound Navy Yard, which commenced on 1 November 1942, Avocet returned to Alaskan waters, reaching Atka on 20 January 1943. Sailing thence to Ogluiga, and arriving on 28 January, Avocet landed a party of Navy "Seabees" (Construction Battalion men) and Army engineers there, before she proceeded on to Nazan Bay, a month later, arriving on 28 February.

For the remainder of 1943, Avocet continued to support the operations of Fleet Air Wing 4's squadrons, operating successively out of Dutch Harbor, Adak, Amchitka, and Adak a second time, Attu and Dutch Harbor through 16 July. During this time, she escorted SS Sam Jackson, along with YMS-121, from Amchitka to Adak, and then accompanied the seaplane tender Hulbert (AVD-6) in escorting a merchantman from Adak to Attu, arriving at the latter port on 21 June. The squadrons supported by Avocet during this period continued flying antisubmarine and reconnaissance patrols, as well as provided "dumbo" services as required. Avocet spent the remainder of 1943 operating out of Dutch Harbor, Adak, and Kodiak, until shifted to Seattle, arriving on 23 December 1943.

Avocet returned to Kodiak on 6 March 1944, and steamed thence to Adak, and then Attu, where she remained until the last day of March. The small seaplane tender shifted back to Adak on 1 April, but stayed there only a short time, clearing that place on 5 April for Attu, where she arrived shortly thereafter.

During the first half of May, 1944, Avocet alternated with the destroyer escort Doneff (DE-49) on guard and rescue ship station west of Attu. While returning from one such deployment, Avocet had her second brush with enemy aircraft. At 1125 on 19 May 1944, she sighted what she identified as a Mitsubishi twin-engined "Betty" bomber two miles away, in foggy weather.

When first sighted, the "Betty" seemed to be on a course parallel to the ship's, but appeared to be begin circling when he sighted Avocet, perhaps to look her over. Avocet opened fire on the "Betty" with 3-inch and 20-millimeter guns, but scored no hits. The "Betty," for her part, strafed the ship with her tail 20-millimeter gun. Neither side suffered any damage in the encounter, and Avocet resumed her voyage back to Attu.

Operating alternately out of Attu, Massacre Bay and Kuluk Bay for the remainder of May, Avocet departed Massacre Bay on 30 May for Kiska, arriving there on 1 June to embark passengers for transportation to Amchitka. The small seaplane tender operated out of the Aleutians for the remainder of the summer, frequenting the waters at Adak, Attu, Massacre Bay, Shemya Island, and Dutch Harbor before clearing Attu on 29 July 1944 for Puget Sound and an overhaul.

Avocet remained in the northern Pacific theater for the remainder of World War 11, working out of Adak, Attu and Dutch Harbor through the end of hostilities with Japan in mid-August. Highlighting this period at the end of the war, Avocet accompanied the fast transport Harry L. Corl (APD-108) to the Kamchatka Peninsula to establish a weather station, arriving on 6 September 1945, before ultimately returning to Adak.

Slated to be relieved by the small seaplane tender Unimak (AVP-31), Avocet cleared Adak on 7 October 1945 for Seattle, and arrivd on the 16th, reporting to the Commandant, 13th Naval District, for disposal. inspected on 20 November 1945, the ship was found to be "beyond economical repair." She was accordingly decommissioned on 10 December 1945, and her name was struck from the Navy list on 3 January 1946. Sold to the Construction and Power Machine Co., Brooklyn, N. Y., on 12 December 1946 for use as a hulk, she remained listed on the American Bureau of Shipping Record until 1950, after which time her name disappeared. She was scrapped subsequently.

Avocet (AVP-4) earned one World War 11 battle star for her participation in the defense of the fleet at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.


WSUN AM & FM - A History

WSUN-AM 590 St. Petersburg & WSUN-FM 97.1 Holiday &ndash In July 1927 the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce was given approval by the city commission to buy half ownership in Clearwater&rsquos WFHH which was owned by the Clearwater Chamber of Commerce. The St. Pete half would be known as WSUN (Why Stay Up North). The following month, in August 1927, WFHH changed its calls to WFLA.

The agreement provided for WSUN to operate three nights per week and on alternate Sundays and WFLA four nights a week and alternate Sundays, with each station having its own separate offices and studios. The new St. Pete station&rsquos inaugural broadcast emanated from the Shrine Club in October 1927 on 590 kHz. In November, powered by 750 watts, WSUN premiered from its new $40,000 studios on the second floor of the Municipal Pier (sometimes called the Million Dollar Pier) Casino.

In early 1928, WFLA/WSUN moved to 580 kHz and then to 900 kHz by the end of the year. In a major re-allocation of most Florida stations in November 1929, the stations switched to 620 kHz. WSUN moved from downtown Clearwater to Bayview on Tampa Bay in May 1930 with a new 5-kilowatt transmitter which included a two-element directional antenna system. It became the first directional antenna system to be used by a commercial broadcasting station in the United States.

The dual WFLA-WSUN station operation split in 1941 with WFLA moving to 940 kHz (and later to its present 970 kHz) and WSUN remaining on 620 kHz. During radio&rsquos golden age, WSUN was home to such popular Blue/ABC network radio personalities as Louella Parsons, Walter Winchell and Drew Pearson. There were also shows like &ldquoDon McNeil&rsquos Breakfast Club,&rdquo &ldquoDr. I.Q.,&rdquo &ldquoThe Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet,&rdquo &ldquoThe Green Hornet,&rdquo &ldquoTed Mack&rsquos Original Amateur Hour,&rdquo &ldquoThe Lone Ranger,&rdquo and &ldquoLum &lsquon Abner.&rdquo By the mid 1950&rsquos, radio&rsquos audience had declined considerably due to the popularity of television, and ABC began canceling its lineup of daytime dramas and soap operas, and nightly comedy, dramatic, variety, and quiz shows. To fill the void, WSUN focused its attention on St. Petersburg&rsquos senior citizen population with music shows and other local programming hosted by its own staff of announcers.

WSUN continued transmitter operations at Bayview until a move was made to a new transmitter installation near the end of the landfill leading to the Gandy Bridge. The official dedication was January 22, 1952 by ABC Radio&rsquos Don Mc Neill, who originated his &ldquoBreakfast Club&rdquo morning show from St. Petersburg on that day. For many years afterwards, the original WSUN transmitter was housed as a permanent exhibit at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, DC.

The city of St. Petersburg sold WSUN to WSUN, Inc. (Hy Levinson, president) in early 1966. The Municipal Pier&rsquos casino building, which had been the station&rsquos home since it first went on the air in 1927, was demolished the following year to make way for a new structure to be built on the same sight. At that point, offices and studios moved to new headquarters downtown at 201 2nd Avenue North.

In 1973 WSUN was added to the list of stations owned by Plough Broadcasting (H. Wayne Hudson, president). One morning the following year, listeners were startled when they awoke to hear Johnny Cash coming out of their radios instead of Lawrence Welk. What had happened was Plough had flipped the station to country (Sun Country), determined to put its 5-kilowatt AM head to head with the already-established 100-kilowatt stereo WQYK-FM (K-99).

Taft acquired WSUN next. When CBS bought the station in 1985, studios were moved to the Koger Center off 4th Street north. In 1990, it was sold to Cox Radio and transitioned from country to news/talk, first with all news in the morning and then NBC's Talknet at night. In 1992, the news/talk was dropped, stunting began with all Christmas music for a day, followed by the launch of "AM 620 WSUN Country Classics," which ran until 1995 and the debut of News/Talk 620 WSUN with Neil Rogers and others (&ldquoEntertaining Talk for the 90&rsquos&rdquo). Cox dropped that format and went with ABC&rsquos &ldquoStardust&rdquo (adult standards) satellite music service in 1998.

In late 1998, the WSUN call letters were moved from AM-620 to Plant City&rsquos AM-910 where it programmed a satellite-fed 50&rsquos music format. The former AM-620 dial spot became Concord Media Group&rsquos all news WSAA. Salem Broadcasting acquired AM 910 in 2001, changed the calls to WTWD, and began broadcasting a religious format.

It wasn&rsquot until January 1999 that WSUN-FM went on the air at 97.1 mHz from studios in St. Petersburg. The station was formerly Holiday&rsquos WLVU-FM in Pasco County. Cox Radio, which had been operating it under an LMA since the previous September, acquired its assets in exchange for the assets of WSUN-AM and $17 million.

The FM struggled with the reality of a sub par signal and the fact that it was one of two oldies stations in the market. Rumors ran rampant that the station would flip to an all-80&rsquos format, but at 5:00 PM on November 3, 2000, Tampa Bay got its first taste of 97X-The New Rock Alternative. Its first song was &ldquoHemhorrage&rdquo by Fuel. The station later made a bit of radio history on Jan. 18, 2013 when it became the first local station whose music was chosen by fans through a free smartphone app.

In mid 2019, the Apollo Global Management-led group announced it was acquiring all of Cox&rsquos radio portfolio. WSUN FM was placed in a divestiture trust due to the loss of grandfathered ownership limits in the Tampa Bay market.


Other names from WSUN-AM&rsquos pre-country years include Louis J. Link (chief engineer-1927), Edee Greene (1932-33), Maj. George D. Robinson (1935 GM-1950), Norman E. Brown (GM-1944), Vera M. New (sales manager-1944), Paul Hayes (first all-night announcer), Jeff Mosier (sports director-1953), Harry Smith (1953), Burl McCarty (1953), Ernie Lee (1954), Charles Kelly (GM-1955), Dayton Saltsman (PD-1955), John Buning (sales manager-1955), Barbara Young (promotions-1955 women&rsquos director-1956)), Bill Bowers (news director-1955), Bob Stanton (1956), Fred Shawn (GM-1957), J.L. Hitchcock (sales manager-1957), Charles D. Bishop (PD-1957), Charles Mason (PD/promotions-1957), Jack Weldon (sales manager-1958), Harry Williams (PD-1958), Jerry Baker (promotions-1958), William J. Codding (chief engineer-1958), Robert Vaughn (PD-1960), Carl Fuchs (promotions-1961), Irwin Brown (news director-1961), Earl Welde (GM), Al Corbett (overnight host of "The Midnight Sun" 1965-68), Ron Taylor (PD/sales-1966), Joe Roberts (nights-1966 mornings-late 60&rsquos music director-1972), John Meder (late 60&rsquos), George Laurie (overnights-late 60's/early 70's), Tom Drane (weekend overnights-1970), Tony Bell (PD-1970), Lloyd Osborn (chief engineer-1970), Stokes Gresham, Jr. (GM/sales manager-1971), Hugh Brown (news director-1971 GM-1972), Tony Pavone (news director-1971), Bob Wolfe (sales manager-1972), Ray Madren (PD-1972), Terry Casey (news director-1972), John Gall (news director-1973), Dave Pegram, Darrell Martin, Harold Hatfield, John Wright (news), and Maurice Hayes.

Some names from WSUN&rsquos &ldquoSun Country&rdquo years include Don Boyles (GM-1974), Tommy Charles (PD-1974), Jay Roberts (overnights-1976), Don Hibbitts (sales manager-1979), Gary Kines (PD-1979), Roger Cristy (news director-1979), Bob Shields (chief engineer-1979), Al Ford (traffic reporter-1980&rsquos), Kevin Murphy (PD/music director/afternoons-mid 80&rsquos), Les Howard (mid-days-mid 80&rsquos), Charlie Champion (mornings-mid 80&rsquos), Mark Stevens (nights-mid 80&rsquos), George Sosson (GM-1986), Steve Burgess (sales manager-1986), Ronald J. Ebben (news director-1986), and Mark Williams (chief engineer-1986).

Names from WSUN-FM history include Keith Lawless (VP & GM), Jodi Rainey (general sales manager), Charlie Mills (PD & afternoon drive 1999), Scott Robbins (1999), Michael Sharkey (PD-2001), Pat Largo, Jesse Kage, and Fisher & Boy (&ldquoMorning X&rdquo hosts).


Deep origins

The story of the Troubles is inextricably entwined with the history of Ireland as whole and, as such, can be seen as stemming from the first British incursion on the island, the Anglo-Norman invasion of the late 12th century, which left a wave of settlers whose descendants became known as the “Old English.” Thereafter, for nearly eight centuries, England and then Great Britain as a whole would dominate affairs in Ireland. Colonizing British landlords widely displaced Irish landholders. The most successful of these “plantations” began taking hold in the early 17th century in Ulster, the northernmost of Ireland’s four traditional provinces, previously a centre of rebellion, where the planters included English and Scottish tenants as well as British landlords. Because of the plantation of Ulster, as Irish history unfolded—with the struggle for the emancipation of the island’s Catholic majority under the supremacy of the Protestant ascendancy, along with the Irish nationalist pursuit of Home Rule and then independence after the island’s formal union with Great Britain in 1801—Ulster developed as a region where the Protestant settlers outnumbered the indigenous Irish. Unlike earlier English settlers, most of the 17th-century English and Scottish settlers and their descendants did not assimilate with the Irish. Instead, they held on tightly to British identity and remained steadfastly loyal to the British crown.


Current Issues in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Death of Yasser Arafat - Following the death of Yasser Arafat a new era began in Palestinian history and in Israeli-Palestinian relations. Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen) was elected President ("Rais") of the Palestinian National Authority with a comfortable majority in free and democratic elections. Abbas vowed to put put an end to terror and to negotiate peace based on Israeli withdrawal from all the lands of the West Bank and Gaza, a Palestinian capital in Jerusalem, and "return of the Palestinian refugees."

Hamas election victory - In elections held in January 2006, the Hamas movement won a majority of seats in the Palestinian Legislative Council and formed a government. This was eventually expanded into a unity government that included the Fatah, until June of 2007. The Hamas refuse to recognize the right of Israel to exist or to make peace with Israel.

Recognizing Israel - A majority of Palestinians want the radical Hamas movement which won an upset victory over the Fateh in PLC elections in January, 2006 to recognize Israel and negotiate peace. Hamas officials say they "recognize that Israel exists" but also state that they will never recognize the right of Israel to exist as a Jewish state, and will never make peace with Israel. European and American leaders pledged not to negotiate with Hamas and not to provide aid to the Palestinians until Hamas agreed to disarm and recognize Israel. Hamas spokesmen sent mixed signals, but vowed never to recognize Israel and never to give up their claim to all of Palestine, though a majority of Palestinians apparently want them to follow the path of peace.

Palestinian Unity and Quartet boycott - The Quartet countries have officially boycotted the Hamas led government until they agree to recognize Israel and end violence. The boycott has been circumvented to allow provision of funds for salaries directly to Palestinian employees. In March of 2007, Hamas and Fateh concluded a unity agreement in Mecca, allowing for formation of a unity government with a vague platform. Palestinians called on Western governments to recognize the new government and end the boycott. Quartet members will talk to non-Hamas members of the new government. Israel insisted it would maintain relations only with Mr. Abbas, who is President and not part of the government.

Collapse of the Palestinian authority - In June of 2007, following growing anarchy in Gaza, Hamas militants attacked Fatah/Palestinian authority positions in Gaza, including military posts, government buildings, and hospitals, and drove the Fatah out of the Gaza strip. Palestinian PM Mahmoud Abbas dissolved the unity government and announced he would form a different government based in the West Bank. In the West Bank, Fatah militants arrested Hamas officials and Hamas fighters. At present (June 16) there are two separate governments in the Web Bank and Gaza. This makes the future of any peace process very uncertain.

Truce and violence - Mahmoud Abbas tried to convince Palestinian militant groups to declare a truce and refrain from attacking Israel, while Israel declared that it would refrain from assassinations and hunting down wanted terrorists except in emergencies. The truce was kept imperfectly (June 2007) and flickered on and off. Israel continued to arrest wanted Palestinians and people on their way to terror attacks in the West Bank, while Palestinians continued to fire Qassam rockets (see below) from Gaza. Israeli reprisals in Gaza killed civilians as well as armed terrorists.

Security - Abbas has declared again and again that he will not use force against armed groups. At the same time, he has insisted that "the law will be enforced" and that the PNA would not permit chaos and independent actions by armed groups. The year 2005 however, was plagued by attacks of Fatah and Hamas factions against Palestinian institutions, as well as a suicide attack apparently instigated by the Syrian branch of Islamic Jihad.

Provisional State versus Final Status - The quartet roadmap calls for considering a Palestinian state within provisional borders as an option, which is favored by Israelis and the United States, while Abbas is insisting on final status status negotiations and claims he does not want a state with provisional borders.

Qassam Rockets - Beginning in 2001, Palestinian groups in the Gaza strip have been firing Qassam rockets, initially at Israeli settlements in the Gaza strip and later at civilian targets inside Israel. The firing escalated after the Hamas took power. The rockets have claimed about a dozen lives and done extensive property damage. The town of Sderot has been subject to a daily barrage of Qassam rockets in 2007.

Kidnapped Soldier - In June of 2006, groups affiliated with the Hamas, including those who later kidnapped BBC reporter Alan Johnston, crossed the border into Israel and kidnapped Corporal Gilad Shalit. He is being held for ransom against freeing of an unspecified large number of Palestinian prisoners. Israel insists that serious negotiations about final status issues cannot be restarted until Shalit is returned. Palestinian negotiators were apparently offered release of over 1,000 prisoners in return for Shalit, but turned the offer down.

Israeli Security Handover - Israel is supposed to hand over security responsibilities in West Bank cities, gradually lifting the siege and returning conditions to what they were before the start of the violence in 2000.

The "security barrier" (Apartheid Wall) - A "security barrier" being built inside the West Bank cuts off Palestinians from their lands and from other towns, and destroys olive groves and other property according to Palestinians. The route of the fence has been changed several times under international pressure. Today (October 2005) it includes about 7% of West Bank territory on the Israeli side of the barrier. An International Court of Justice (ICJ) advisory ruling declares the barrier to be in violation of international law . Since the barrier was built, Israeli casualties decreased dramatically, and the IDF claims that it is vital to preventing terror attacks. An Israeli Supreme Court ruling declared that the fence is not illegal in principle, but that the route must be changed to optimize the balance between security and humanitarian concerns. More about the Security Barrier ("Apartheid Wall")

Prisoners - Israel holds thousands of Palestinian prisoners, of whom about 500 were released in February of 2005, and an additional group of over 450 are to be released soon. Palestinians want release of all prisoners, especially women and minors. Israel is unwilling to release prisoners who have served less than two-thirds of their sentence and those who were directly involved in attacks ("blood on their hands").

Disengagement - The Israeli Government decided to unilaterally withdraw from the Gaza Strip and from 4 settlements in the West Bank, evacuating about 8,000 settlers. After the death of Yasser Arafat, it partially coordinated the move with the Palestinians. Disengagement was completed without major incidents by September of 2005, but was followed by considerable chaos within Gaza. (Click for Israel Disengagement Map) (Click for more about disengagement ).

Safe Passage and open borders - Palestinians living in Gaza have very restricted access to the outside world. A safe passage for Gazans to the West Bank was supposed to have been implemented under the Oslo accords but never came into being. Israel favors a rail link, while Palestinians want a motor road. Most border crossings between Gaza and Israel have been closed since disengagement. The Rafah border crossing with Egypt was supposed to be closed at one point, but Palestinians overwhelmed the guards and Hamas exploded a portion of the barrier, allowing Palestinians to cross freely for a brief time before the crossing was closed again. Israel wanted the crossing to remain closed for several months, and wanted to open a crossing at Kerem Shalom in Israeli territory, which unlike Rafah, would be partly under Israeli control. In the fall of 2005, however, the Rafah Crossing was opened under European Union, Egyptian and Palestinian supervision, with Israeli remote monitoring via TV cameras. Israel promised to implement safe passage but did not do so. Even so, the crossing is open only intermittently. In the West Bank, numerous checkpoints restrict the movement of Palestinians.

Israeli Outposts - Under the roadmap, Israel had undertaken to evacuate illegal "outposts" set up by settlers with government knowledge, but without formal approval, after March 2001. There are estimated to be about 28 such outposts by the government. Peace Now estimates there are 53 such outposts. In all, there are over 100 outposts, including those erected before the cutoff date. The Sasson report released March 9, 2005 catalogued extensive misuse of government funds for building settlements, though most of the information had been known beforehand. Israeli PM Ariel Sharon promised once again to evacuate the outposts. No substantial progress was made, however, as late as June 2007.


PhD Candidate - Department of Sociology – Columbia University

These findings may be unsurprising in light of shocking video footage of anti-Asian violence that has recently gone viral. Viewers of these videos witnessed perpetrators shoving elderly men and women to the ground, assaulting Asian American men and women in the face, and stabbing an Asian American man in the back with an 8-inch knife. Asian-owned businesses like New York’s Xi’an Famous Foods, already under financial stress because of the pandemic, are also struggling to keep their employees safe. The spate of unprovoked attacks elicited a rallying cry that something must be done. For Asian Americans, however, this cry is a year overdue.

Click the graphic to view a full-size version in a new tab.

Since March of last year, there have been over 3,000 self-reported incidents of anti-Asian violence from 47 states and the District of Columbia, ranging from stabbings and beatings, to verbal harassment and bullying, to being spit on and shunned. While being spit on is offensive, in the time of coronavirus, it is also potentially lethal.

Democratic lawmakers, led by Rep. Grace Meng, D-N.Y. and Sen. Mazie Hirono, D-Hawaii, said they would introduce new anti-hate crime legislation to address a rise in hate incidents directed at Asian Americans. The bill would create a new position at the Department of Justice to facilitate the review of hate crimes and provide oversight of hate crimes related to COVID-19.

The Trope of Black-Asian Conflict

These senseless acts of anti-Asian violence have finally garnered the national attention they deserve, but they have also invoked anti-Black sentiment and reignited the trope of Black-Asian conflict. Because some of the video-taped perpetrators appear to have been Black, some observers immediately reduced anti-Asian violence to Black-Asian conflict. This is not the first time that the trope has been weaponized. Black-Asian conflict—and Black-Korean conflict more specifically—became the popular frame of the LA riots in 1992.

The trope failed to capture the reality of Black-Korean relations three decades ago, and it fails to capture the reality of anti-Asian bias today. A recent study finds that in fact, Christian nationalism is the strongest predictor of xenophobic views of COVID-19, and the effect of Christian nationalism is greater among white respondents, compared to Black respondents. Moreover, Black Americans have also experienced high levels of racial discrimination since the pandemic began. Hence, not only does the frame of two minoritized groups in conflict ignore the role of white national populism, but it also absolves the history and systems of inequality that positioned them there.


Israel-Palestine conflict caused by history, faith and modern politics

The Israel-Palestine conflict has escalated once again – and there was one moment in particular that sparked the latest horrifying unrest.

Shocking footage has emerged of the destruction in Gaza City as rocket barrages and air strikes between Israel and Palestine continue.

Shocking footage has emerged of the destruction in Gaza City as rocket barrages and air strikes between Israel and Palestine continue.

There are fears the attack could spark a civil war. Picture: Fatima Shbair/Getty Images Source:Getty Images

Finding it impossible to understand what’s happening in Israel? Do you think both sides have got rocks in their head? You could be right.

But it’s also about modern politics.

Put the three together, and you get a crisis.

Deep-set tensions in the Middle East are always ready to explode. But it usually takes a series of sparks for ignition.

This time around, it was the forced eviction of Palestinian families from their homes to allow Jewish settlers into East Jerusalem. Palestinian crops were set alight. The historic Damascus Gate plaza was closed during the Islamic religious festival of Ramadan.

Then thousands of Jewish ultranationalists marched to celebrate the annexation of East Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza Strip after the 1967 Six-Day War.

Rockets launched towards Israel from the northern Gaza Strip and response from the Israeli missile defence system known as the Iron Dome leave streaks through the sky on May 13, 2021 in Gaza City, Gaza. Picture: Fatima Shbair/Getty Images Source:Getty Images

Palestinian families take shelter in a UN school in Gaza City on May 13, 2021, after fleeing from their homes in the town of Beit Lahia. Picture: Mahmud Hams/AFP Source:AFP

Amid it all, Palestinian protesters had been clashing with hard-line Israelis and police almost daily.

But one incident, in particular, detonated the seething unrest.

It happened at the very epicentre of Middle Eastern conflict.

It’s one of the holiest of holy sites.

The home of the 𠇏oundation stone of the Earth”.

On May 7, Israeli police used rubber bullets and stun grenades against rock-throwing protesters among a crowd of worshippers gathered at Jerusalem’s Al-Aqsa mosque. Hundreds were hurt.

Things then escalated. Fast.

Palestine Information Network *AQSA UPDATE*

After Taraweeh last night and into the wee hours of this morning, Masjid al-Aqsa was transformed into exactly the same theatre for Israeli attacks as yesterday morning. pic.twitter.com/yv455UeQvI

&mdash Masjid al Aqsa (@firstqiblah) May 11, 2021

What goes around comes around. And around. And around.

At least when it comes to conflict in the Middle East.

The origins of this fight are lost in the depths of time, myth, scripture and history.

Perhaps the start can be traced back to the Genesis story of the prophet Abraham leaving the Akkadian city of Ur to find a new home in what may have then been called Canaan.

His family soon splintered, with Jacob fleeing drought to resettle in Egypt. It is written that Jacob’s 12 sons became the 12 tribes of Israel. And these returned to Canaan, under the guidance of the prophet Moses, only to find it populated by the other offspring of Abraham.

A series of warlords carved out the first kingdom of Israel. Though whether the First Temple – and its builder King Solomon – was real or a compilation of myths like King Arthur and Camelot remains a matter of debate.

What is historically verifiable is the Assyrian King Sargon II captured the territory associated with Israel in 722BC and resettled much of the population in Persia. Likewise, he moved other conquered peoples to the Holy Land. Biblical texts say the Israelites later returned to seize back control.

Israeli firefighters battle a field fire after a rocket launched from Gaza Strip struck on May 13, 2021 in Ramla, Israel. Picture: Amir Levy/Getty Images Source:Getty Images

A few centuries later, it happened again.

King Nebuchadnezzar II defeated Israel and Egypt in 597BC. He levelled the First Temple and had many of the Israelites deported to Babylon. Biblical accounts say this exile lasted 70 years, after which the Jewish people returned to take back control of their holy land.

History repeated yet again in AD70.

The Romans destroyed the Second Temple and much of Jerusalem after a failed rebellion. Without the religious heart of their culture, the Jewish people embarked almost 2000 years of diaspora – or exile – across Europe.

Israel was re-established after World War II. And its people were once again faced with those who had moved in while they were gone.

Israel insists Jerusalem is once again the capital of its Jewish state.

Palestine wants to retain the ancient Eastern Quarter of the city to be the capital of its desired Islamic government.

Why is this such a source of contention?

At Jerusalem’s heart is a sacred site with 3000 years of belief, history and myth embedded within it. And both claim it as their own.

Some men sit on the rubble of a residential building in Gaza City, Gaza Strip, that was destroyed by an Israeli air strike, on May 13, 2021 in Gaza City, Gaza. Picture: Fatima Shbair/Getty Images. Source:Getty Images

Like almost all of the Holy Land, Jerusalem has a long and storeyed past.

It surrounds what Christians and Jews call the Temple Mount.

At its core is a prehistoric natural feature: The Noble Rock.

Some Jews believe it to be the spot where the world was created from. Others say it was the foundation of the Holy of Holies that held the sacred Ark of the Covenant. Beneath it is a cavern known as the Well of Souls.

The Noble Rock is also significant to Islam. It’s believed to be the place where the prophet Muhammad began his spiritual ‘Night Journey’. It’s believed to be where an angel will announce the arrival of Resurrection Day.

The Noble Rock is the heart of the 14 hectare Al-Haram al-Sharif (Noble Sanctuary) precinct. The spectacular, golden Islamic Dome of the Rock was built as a shrine to protect it in 685AD.

Muslims pray in front of the Dome of the Rock during the holy month of Ramadan in Jerusalem's Old City on April 16, 2021. Picture: Muammar Awad/Xinhua via Getty Source:Getty Images

The nearby Al-Aqsa Mosque was built in 637AD, shortly after the prophet’s death, as a place of worship. Crusaders mistakenly believed it to be King Solomon’s stables when captured in 1099AD. It was soon gifted to a group of warrior monks who became known as the Templars.

Once again in Muslim hands, Al-Aqsa, along with the Dome of the Rock, is considered to be the third most holy Islamic place on Earth.

The fate of the Noble Sanctuary hung in the balance after Israel occupied East Jerusalem after the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. But international pressure saw jurisdiction ‘granted’ to an Islamic organisation administered by neighbouring Jordan.

Israel, however, commands its surrounds.

And that means it controls access to the holy site.

Jews and Christians are not permitted to pray on the Temple Mount as it is Islamic holy ground. They are, however, permitted to visit.

Extremist ultra-Orthodox groups continue to lobby for control of the Temple Mount. They want to demolish all Islamic structures there and build another Jewish temple.

Meanwhile, they revere the only remaining portion of the Second Temple – the Western Wall.

That makes the Noble Sanctuary the political and religious flashpoint it is today.

A visit to Al-Aqsa by Israeli politician Ariel Sharon – surrounded by police – in 2000 sparked violent protests and a brutal Israeli crackdown. Palestinians considered a desecration of holy ground. It was also perceived as a threat to seize control.

This led to a general Palestinian uprising, the Second Intifada.

Opposition leader Ariel Sharon as he leaves the Temple Mount in 2000. Picture: AP Photo/Eyal Warshavsky Source:AP

Violent clashes between the factions have continued sporadically in and around the compound ever since.

In 2017, three Arab Israelis killed two Israeli police before fleeing into the Al-Aqsa mosque. Israeli forces followed, shooting them dead.

Now groups of religious-nationalist Jews – guarded by heavy detachments of police – have begun regularly visiting the Noble Sanctuary to pray in defiance of longstanding agreements.

Palestinians see this as both provocative and sacrilegious.

Israeli officials say they have no intention of changing the status quo. But heavily armed police escort the offending ultra-Orthodox worshippers. This is why Palestinians fear this is part of a scheme to seize control of the Noble Sanctuary.

Violent clashes often result.

And these can quickly reverberate across the entire region.

Palestinian militant group Hamas, the unofficial government of Gaza, is calling for a general uprising. It wants another “intifada” – or people’s war.

Following the May 7 clash, militants began a remarkably low-tech assault against Israel’s advanced high-tech defences. Simple balloons carry incendiary devices on the winds. Home-made rockets are being fired among a variety of smuggled projectiles. Amid the flames are protests and sporadic shootings.

Satellite imagery shows smoke from a burning storage tank in Ashkelon Southern Israel on May 12, 2021. Picture: Maxar Technologies/AFP Source:AFP

A man brings in a Palestinian child injured in the aftermath of an Israeli air strike to a hospital in Rafah in the southern Gaza Strip on May 13, 2021. Picture: Said Khatib/AFP Source:AFP

Israel has responded with laser-guided artillery and bombs, tanks, troops and attack helicopters.

Behind the religion-inflamed emotions is a crisis over who can live where, who owns what, and whose laws apply where.

The United Nations partitioned the Holy Land into Israeli and Palestinian regions in 1948. Some 750,000 Arabs were evicted from their homes and farms. They were given nowhere to go. Their descendants still live in refugee camps in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon.

Much of Palestine’s UN-mandated territory was lost to an Israeli invasion in 1967. A failed attempt by Egypt and Syria to seize this back in 1973 became known as the Yom Kippur War.

All that remains of Palestine are the West Bank and Gaza. And controversial Israeli settlements have been eating away at these spaces for decades.

Once again, Israel is debating the prospect of annexing more Palestinian territory.

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has pledged to unilaterally apply Israeli law to portions of the West Bank – whether the Palestinians want it or not. Facing trial on charges of corruption, fraud and bribery, Netanyahu is desperate to maintain a grip on power.

One way to do that is to please the powerful ultra-Orthodox factions. And that means land seizures. And greater control over the Noble Sanctuary.


Marx's Conflict Theory

Conflict theory originated in the work of Karl Marx, who focused on the causes and consequences of class conflict between the bourgeoisie (the owners of the means of production and the capitalists) and the proletariat (the working class and the poor). Focusing on the economic, social, and political implications of the rise of capitalism in Europe, Marx theorized that this system, premised on the existence of a powerful minority class (the bourgeoisie) and an oppressed majority class (the proletariat), created class conflict because the interests of the two were at odds, and resources were unjustly distributed among them.

Within this system an unequal social order was maintained through ideological coercion which created consensus--and acceptance of the values, expectations, and conditions as determined by the bourgeoisie. Marx theorized that the work of producing consensus was done in the "superstructure" of society, which is composed of social institutions, political structures, and culture, and what it produced consensus for was the "base," the economic relations of production.

Marx reasoned that as the socio-economic conditions worsened for the proletariat, they would develop a class consciousness that revealed their exploitation at the hands of the wealthy capitalist class of bourgeoisie, and then they would revolt, demanding changes to smooth the conflict. According to Marx, if the changes made to appease conflict maintained a capitalist system, then the cycle of conflict would repeat. However, if the changes made created a new system, like socialism, then peace and stability would be achieved.


یواس‌اس کانفلیکت (ای‌ام-۴۲۶)

یواس‌اس کانفلیکت (ای‌ام-۴۲۶) (به انگلیسی: USS Conflict (AM-426) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۱۷۲ فوت (۵۲ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۵۲ ساخته شد.

یواس‌اس کانفلیکت (ای‌ام-۴۲۶)
پیشینه
مالک
آب‌اندازی: ۱۳ اوت ۱۹۵۱
آغاز کار: ۱۶ دسامبر ۱۹۵۲
مشخصات اصلی
وزن: ۶۳۰ long ton (۶۴۰ تن)
درازا: ۱۷۲ فوت (۵۲ متر)
پهنا: ۳۶ فوت (۱۱ متر)
آبخور: ۱۰ فوت (۳٫۰ متر)
سرعت: ۱۶ گره (۳۰ کیلومتر بر ساعت؛ ۱۸ مایل بر ساعت)

این یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. می‌توانید با گسترش آن به ویکی‌پدیا کمک کنید.


Conflict AM-426 - History

1776 justice, Court of Oyer, Terminer, and Gaol
Delivery, Worcester County, 1783-1784. MILI-
TARY SERVICE: lieutenant in Capt. Joseph Mitch-
ell's Company, Worcester County Militia, 1748
captain, by 1757. STANDS ON PUBLIC/PRIVATE IS-
SUES: Accused in 1784 by Nehemiah Holland (?-
1788) of Tory sympathies during the war, al-
though Holland's credibility is open to question.
Selby's brother, Col. William Selby (?-1793) of
Accomack County, Virginia, also charged in a
deposition to the governor and the Council that
his brother was a Tory. WEALTH DURING LIFETIME.
PERSONAL PROPERTY: assessed value £1,152.14.0,
including 23 slaves and 20 oz. plate, 1783 32
slaves, 1790. LAND AT FIRST ELECTION: 3,722 acres
in Worcester County and Accomack County, Vir-
ginia (inherited 750 acres from his father and 397
acres possibly from other kin obtained 249 acres
through marriage and 2,326 acres by patent and
purchase he had previously sold 1,081 acres by

1773). SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN LAND BETWEEN

FIRST ELECTION AND DEATH: purchased and pat-
ented 1,407 acres and part of a lot in Snow Hill
and sold 904 acres, 1778-1790 gave 447 acres to
his son John in 1779, but repurchased the land
after his son's death in 1780 sold his sawmill and
gristmill in 1790, four weeks before his death.
WEALTH AT DEATH. DIED: between November 13
and December 10, 1790, when his will was pro-
bated in Worcester County. PERSONAL PROP-
ERTY: TEV, at least £1,348.12.11 (will mentioned
at least 37 slaves). LAND: approximately 4,000
acres in Worcester County.

SELBY, PARKER (?-ca. 1746/47). BORN: at
"Bantry," his father's plantation in Mattapany
Hundred, Worcester County second son. NA-
TIVE: third generation. RESIDED: at "Bantry,"
Mattapony Hundred, Worcester County. FAMILY
BACKGROUND. FATHER: Parker Selby (1675-1705/
6), eldest son of Daniel Selby, the Elder (?-1696),
and wife Mary Parker, who immigrated from Ac-
comack County, Virginia, by 1675. STEPFATHER:
by July 1708, John Purnell (?-ca. 1742). MOTHER:
Tabitha, daughter of John Bailey (?-1716/17) of
Accomack County, Virginia. HALF BROTHER:
Daniel Selby (?-1721), who married Mary (?-
1772), daughter of John Outten (?-1709) of Som-
erset County. SISTER Edith. HALF SISTERS So-
phia Purnell, who married (first name unknown)
Jenckins Sarah Purnell, who married first, (first
name unknown) Kellam, and second, (first name
unknown) Outten Joyce Purnell, who married
(first name unknown) Niebald (Newbold) Tab-

itha, who married Bowen Crappers and Eliza-
beth, who married Scarborough Major. ADDI-
TIONAL COMMENT: His father married first, Martha,
daughter of John Osbourne (?-1687) of Somerset
County and wife Atalanta. His stepfather married
second, Martha (?-1780), who married second,
by 1742/43, William Selby (1683-1762). FIRST
COUSIN: John Selby (?-1754). MARRIED by 1724
Mary (?-1776), daughter of John Watts of Ac-
comack County, Virginia, and wife Priscilla, the
daughter of John White of Accomack County.
Her sisters were Tabitha, who married Robert
Hill Sarah, who married Francis Hamling. Mary
Selby married second, by 1752, Daniel Selby (?-
1770). CHILDREN. SONS: John Selby (?-1790) Par-
ker Selby (?-1773) Col. William (?-1793) of Ac-
comack County, Virginia Zadock James and
Micajah, alias William II (?-1766), who married
Mary, daughter of Elizabeth Truitt. DAUGHTER:
Tabitha Bailey (?-1752), who never married.

PRIVATE CAREER. EDUCATION: literate. RELIGIOUS
AFFILIATION: Protestant. SOCIAL STATUS AND AC-
TIVITIES: Gent., by 1742. OCCUPATIONAL PRO-
FILE: probably planter owned a schooner. PUBLIC

CAREER. LEGISLATIVE SERVICE: Lower House,

Worcester County, 1744 (elected to the 2nd ses-
sion of the 1742-1744 Assembly), 1745. MILI-
TARY SERVICE: probably captain in Worcester
County Militia. WEALTH DURING LIFETIME. LAND
AT FIRST ELECTION: ca. 2,000 acres in Worcester
County and Accomack County, Virginia (850 acres
in Worcester County inherited from father 500
acres in Virginia inherited from his grandfather
500 acres in Worcester County acquired through
marriage 672 acres in Worcester County through
purchase had sold an additional 552 acres before
1744). ADDITIONAL COMMENT: By 1741, Selby had
purchased 462 acres on the Indian River in
Worcester County, 212 acres of which had be-
longed to Thomas Aydelott. In 1744 Selby cos-
ponsored a bill in the General Assembly to lay
out 80 lots on a 40-acre tract to be situated on
Thomas Aydelott's plantation on the Indian River
in Worcester County. The town so created was
to be named Baltimore Town, and the bill was
passed into law. SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN LAND

BETWEEN FIRST ELECTION AND DEATH: sold 82

acres in Worcester County, 1744. WEALTH AT
DEATH. DIED: in Virginia due to an illness that
required a physician's attendance his will was
made on November 8, 1746, in York County,
Virginia, and was probated in that county on March

16, 1746/47. PERSONAL PROPERTY: TEV,

£1,563.9.11 (including 16 slaves, several books on


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Looking forward in Arctic diplomacy

The articles featured in this series not only investigate the past, but also interrogate the future. As fisheries stocks move north due to warming ocean temperatures, what are the potentials for new – or renewed – resource conflict in the Arctic? How will contemporary Arctic competition – including great-power competition – manifest in the context of a strategically valuable Greenland? What paths might Arctic militarization take in the post-arms control context, after the events of 9/11 revealed American vulnerabilities to modern large-scale threats? And how can growing military tensions in the Arctic be mitigated using past strategies for diplomacy and de-escalation? The forthcoming series ultimately provides useful analysis of current and potential future risks for military conflict in the Arctic regions, as well as lessons learned for the mitigation or resolution of such conflicts.


Watch the video: Conflict Management Styles (December 2021).